Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0367-7524 / 2548-0731
Published by: AVES Publishing Co. (10.5152)
Total articles ≅ 18
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Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 4-4; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0014

Abstract:
Today, mothers visit the pharmacies with several complaints for themselves and their children. Although these complaints may seem simple at first glance, they are of importance due to their frequency among people. In this area herbal medications as well as chemical agents are used in the treatment. The problem mentioned most frequently by mothers is hypogalactia according to surveys taken for this study. Therefore, there are several of herbal medicines or medicinal teas are used for their galactagogue effect in pharmacies. The problems encountered in children include lack of appetite, colds, colic, insomnia and weakness of the immune system. Therefore, herbal remedies and medicinal teas are recommended in pharmacies as dietary supplement, immune system strengtheners, anti-colds and gas. The preparations for external use are herbally included in the composition of anti-rash creams or lotions, foam shampoos, hair and body shampoos, baby oil and lotions, and bath oils.
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 2-2; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0017

Abstract:
Propolis is a natural bioactive mix and a traditional medicine utilized in treating several complaints. Bioactive properties of propolis are changed by botanic origin. In this survey, pollen analysis, antioxidant activities, total phenol and total flavonoid content the propolis sample from Refahiye (Erzincan-Turkey) region were studied. Mellisopalynological analysis was made according to the relevant literature and pollen profile of sample is mainly found as Fabaceae (38.4%), Asteraceae (20.2%) and Fagaceae (11.2%) families. The antioxidant capacity of propolis extract was assessed through the hyrdogen peroxide scavenging activity (HPSA)(in terms of SC50), ferric reducing antioxidant power capacity (FRAP), DPPH radical scavenging activity (in terms of SC50), metal-chelating activity (%), total phenol content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). The values were found as 25.86 µg/mL, 72.25%, 52.15 µg/mL, 41.51%, 3163.85 mg GAE/100g and 197.87 mg QE/100g, respectively. For comparison of these results, Buthylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA), Buthylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) and α-Tocopherol (TOC) were used as standard antioxidant compounds. The high biological activity of propolis from Refahiye could be related with their wealthy pollen composition. The obtained results indicate that it is an important source in terms of antioxidant activities.
, , Şeyma Hande Tekarslan Şahin, ,
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 3-3; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0018

Abstract:
Nanotechnology has the potential to alter dramatically treatment of diseases such as cancer by targeted drug delivery via nanoparticles. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are made up by the capsid proteins lacking the viral genome and are non-infectious. With identical or highly related structures to their corresponding native viruses, VLPs are self-assembly competent protein structures. VLPs with precise 3D nanostructures show a notable diversity of shapes and structures, and by using biological amplification and growth, can be produced in large quantities. They can display external protein inserts through genetics methods or chemical modifications. Functionalized VLPs can target with specificity as delivery systems and can attract macrophages for the destruction of cancer cells. The capability to target tumours for delivery of therapeutic agents is an important goal for VLPs design approaches. Against the current problems in cancer therapies, delivery systems with VLPs are arising and promising field with the potential to exhibit solutions. Cancer therapies need specific targeting of diagnostic element or drug to tumour cells without binding to or affecting healthy cells and tissues. Specialization of the VLPs gives an opportunity for use of VLPs as site-specific drug delivery system in cancer therapy while reducing the overall damage to healthy cells and systemic toxicity. With fewer side effects, immunotherapy is also a promising alternative for cancer treatment by primarily activating the host’s immune system. Cancer vaccines try to induce immune response in the host and generate defensive mechanism for tumour cells. Due to their naturally-optimized particle size and their repetitive structural order, VLPs can be used as a vaccine without any adjuvant requirement. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide basic information on VLPs, describe previous researches of VLPs as carrier in drug delivery and vaccines, and applications for different cancer types.
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 6-6; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0015

Abstract:
Involved in the lipid transport and catabolism, nerve regeneration, immune system regulation and cell proliferation ApoE is a important secretory glycoprotein that is a ligand for LDL receptors and ApoE receptors. Both causative and protective effects of ApoE polymorphic variants and alleles have been correlated with several diseases including cancer types such as gastric cancer which is the one responsible of cancer-related deaths. The aim of the current study was to evaluate association between genotypes of the ApoE and gastric cancer risk in hospital-based Turkish population and also to demonstrate allele frequencies and genotype distributions of ApoE gene in gastric cancer in Turkish population. To the best of our knowledge there is no data related to gastric cancer and ApoE polymorphism association in the Turkish population. Our results showed that there is no statistically significant association between genotypes and alleles of ApoE and gastric cancer risk (p>0.05 for all frequencies and genotypes). May be this is because of the small population size in our study, thus further studies such as expression studies and meta-analysis with large population size and detailed demographic data are necessary in order to confirm the causative alleles of ApoE in gastric cancer. In the light of these, new therapeutic agents and clinical biomarkers might be investigated in the future.
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0013

Abstract:
Aloe vera (L.)Burm. f. is well known for its beneficial effects on skin. On the other hand, antioxidant, immunostimulant and anticancereffects of the plant leaves extracts are reported in scientific resarch. This study was undertaken in order to demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of several extracts prepared from the leaves as well as aloe emodin on a type of skin cancer. A. vera aqueous and methanolic extracts of fresh leaves, methanolic extract of dried leaves and leaf gel extract (AVG) were prepared separately. Cytotoxicity was assayed with MTT test. Apoptosis and necrosis were detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/ PI. All the extracts have shown selective cytotoxic effect on the cells. The mechanism of AVG cytotoxicity on B16F10 murine melanoma cells was found to be apoptosis while that of AE was necrosis. The fact that treatment with AVG delayed apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells, while it shows apoptotic activity on B16F10 cells, gives a kind of scientific proof for the folkloric and alternative uses of A. vera gel as protective and skin healer. A. vera gel and aloe emodin are thus potential targets for anticancer drug research.
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 5-5; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0016

Abstract:
The genus Ferulago W.Koch. (Apiaceae) is represented by 34 species of which 18 are endemic in Turkey. Since Dioscoride’s times, Ferulago species have been used in folk medicine as sedative, tonic, digestive, carminative, aphrodisiac as well as in the treatment of intestinal worms and hemorrhoids. This study was conducted to evaluate polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from aerial parts and rhizomes of Ferulago trojana E. Akalın &Pimenov measuring their ability of inhibiting lipid peroxidation induced by Fe3+-ascorbate, DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activities, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP value). Also the methanol extracts were examined for their antimicrobial activity by the microbroth dilutions technique . It was concluded that methanol extract from the aerial parts of the plant, containing the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids, has the antioxidative potential for chain-breaking inhibition of lipid peroxidation and shows the strongest hydrogen and a single electron donor activities, thus could serves as free radical scavenger, acts as reductant and provide protection against oxidative stress. Although the methanol extract from rhizomes did not show any inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation, it may also be expected to protect against oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals and acting as reductant. In this study, both methanol extracts from aerial parts and rhizomes of Ferulago trojana showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Meticillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis while no activity was observed against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for any of the extracts. Methanol extract from rhizomes of F. trojana showed antibacterial activity against Proteus mirabilis and antifungal activity against the yeast Candida albicans.
, Ali Korkmaz, Ertan Tuzlaci
Published: 18 October 2017
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 57-62; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.009

Abstract:
This paper reports folk medicinal and food plants of Nizip (Gaziantep) located in the south part of Turkey. The purpose of the study is to gather, determine, and record the plants that are used as source of food and medicine by local people. The information was obtained from participants in face to face interviews; furthermore, the specimens of the plants were collected. Voucher specimens were deposited at the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University. Totally, twenty-seven plants are recorded as used as traditional folk medicine for the region, and thirteen of these are also used as a source of food. Among them, 20 taxa were wild and 7 taxa were cultivated plants. According to the majority of the plants which have similar usage, the plants are mostly used for gastrointestinal, respiratory system diseases and diabetes.
, Ahmet Ogul Araman
Published: 18 October 2017
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 68-71; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0011

Abstract:
Pharmacists are supposed to know current issues in social sciences and techniques to understand diseases and illnesses, to empathize with patients and other health professionals, to resolve possible conflicts of interest, to establish an ideal communication, to ensure the rational use of drugs, to reduce the wastage of drugs, and to improve compliance with drug therapy. The purpose of this article was to explain the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model and Functional Health Literacy, which are recently outstanding topics on healthcare. Further, Pharmacotherapy Literacy is going to be defined as a remarkable subject in the literature. This is a descriptive study illustrating the concepts with the literature.
, , Ahmet Ogul Araman
Published: 18 October 2017
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.007

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to develop a chewing gum formulation for benzydamine hydrochloride (BN) and evaluate the effect of different co-compression agents on physicochemical parameters and in vitro drug release profile. BN has been used utilized in symptomatic treatment for pain and irritations of the mouth and throat. Chewing gum formulations of BN were produced using direct compression method. In fabricated chewing gums, except pharmacopeia analysis, physical and structural analysis like thickness, weight variation, elasticity and compressibility were evaluated. The release of BN from the gum was studied using the chewing apparatus which have been designed for procuring the release of BN from the chewing gum.The quantity of BN present in the chewing gum and the release medium were quantified by spectrophotometric method. Gum formulations showed promising in vitro release profiles, in which 80–90% BN was released in a sustained manner over 20 min of chewing time. In addition, it was observed that the drug release was fitted into matrix diffusion kinetic and revealed a non-Fickian drug release mechanism. This study suggests that BN in a gum formulation is suitable dosage form for the delivery in the oral cavity, thereby and serving as an instant analgesic.
Published: 18 October 2017
Istanbul Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 47, pp 72-76; https://doi.org/10.5152/istanbuljpharm.2017.0012

Abstract:
Recently, because of the rising in multidrug resistance from infectious agents, there is a prompted interest for the development of new antimicrobial agents and new therapeutic strategies to combat the infections caused by the resistant bacteria. Among them, the natural bactericidal compounds, such as antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs) seems very promising agents. AMPs are the important component of the innate immune response to the surrounding microorganisms. This substances which can be isolated from most of the living organisms, have various activity like broad spectrum antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal. However there are some resistance mechanisms that affects the AMPs, because of the rapid action and existing more than one mechanism of action, development of resistance to AMPs is quite rare. Due to their many advantages and characteristics, AMPs looks like a good candidate for being a new generation, active antimicrobial agent for antimicrobial chemotherapy against especially multi drug resistant bacteria and biofilms, either alone or in combination.
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