Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies

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ISSN / EISSN : 2079-5459 / 2413-4295
Total articles ≅ 536
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Ivan Olkhovskiy, Anatoliy Fursov
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.05

Abstract:
The results of research related to the development of an effective high-Q open oscillatory system of quasi-optical solid-state generators of millimeter and submillimeter wavelength ranges are presented. It is shown that for the stable operation of solid-state generators based on Gunn diodes and avalanche-transit diodes (ATDs) located inside an open resonator (OR), a significant rarefaction of the resonance frequency spectrum is required, which excludes jumps of the generation frequency. Taking this requirement into account, a spheroechelett open resonator (SE OR) is proposed as an open oscillatory system of solid-state generators, one of the mirrors of which is a reflective lattice of the “echelette” type. The paper presents the results of “cold” measurements of the spectrum of resonance frequencies of the SE OP, which indicate that the SE OP indeed has a significantly rarefied spectrum both in transverse and, which is very important, in longitudinal modes of oscillations. The conditions necessary for the excitation of high-quality stable oscillations with high energy efficiency in a solid-state generator based on an SE OR are discussed and implemented. The results of an experimental study of a quasi-optical generator based on an 8-mm ATD wavelength range are presented. The analysis of the obtained characteristics and their qualitative explanation on the basis of the proposed model of the processes occurring in the investigated generator are presented. It is shown that the SE OR can be used as a resonant system in the entire EHF range of not only solid-state, but also electronic-vacuum devices. Finally, a way is outlined in the direction of further rarefaction of the spectrum of the SE OR in order to create a really single-frequency open oscillatory system.
Hanna Karakurkchi, Mykola Sakhnenko, Irina Yermolenko, Serhii Indykov, Natalia Horokhivska, Vasyl Sarai
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 101-112; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.15

Abstract:
Technological approaches to the application of functional electrochemical coatings in civil and military technologies are analyzed. It is shown that the existing technical solutions are aimed at solving the problems of strengthening and protection of surfaces and detoxification of environments from pollutants of natural and man-made origin. Electrochemical coatings based on the iron triad, doped with refractory metals, increase corrosion resistance, microhardness and wear resistance of surfaces. Doped with transition metals heteroxide coatings, which are synthesized by the method of plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminum and titanium alloys have catalytic properties to neutralize toxic substances in the gas and liquid phases. Peculiarities of electrochemical formation of functional coatings on construction materials of different types are investigated. It is shown that cathodic deposition by direct and pulsed current on low-carbon steel and gray cast iron forms uniform ternary coatings of Fe-Mo-W and composite systems of Fe-Co-Mo (Fe-Co-W), which have increased corrosion resistance and mechanical properties compared to base metal material. The obtained thin-layer coatings are recommended for the restoration and strengthening of worn surfaces, in particular in the technology of repair of weapons and military equipment. It was found that plasma-electrolyte treatment of piston silumin in alkaline solutions based on diphosphates synthesized heteroxide systems that are active in reducing the number of toxic emissions of internal star engines and reducing hourly fuel consumption. It is shown that nanocomposite coatings on titanium show photocatalytic activity on the destruction of model pollutants. The obtained materials have a set of enhanced functional properties and are promising for use in industrial and repair production, including the security and defense sector.
Nataliia Samoilenko, Vadym Katenin, Antonina Baranova
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 121-126; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.17

Abstract:
The steady tendency of increasing the installed capacity of solar power plants, which is accompanied by the gradual accumulation of solar panel waste, is analyzed. The main factors of negative impact on the environment and directly on human health from the production of solar photovoltaic panels and waste of these panels are identified. The scenarios of solar photovoltaic panels waste accumulation are analyzed, the specifics of waste generation and accumulation in the present and in the future are characterized. Taking into account the average service life of solar photovoltaic panels in 25 years, it is determined that the amount of waste will increase significantly in the period of 2030…2035, reaching a peak between 2040 and 2050. The type and composition of photovoltaic panels, which determine the essence of waste processing technology, are characterized. It is defined that today most research on waste recycling of solar photovoltaic panels focuses on the first generation of modules, which is associated with the scale of operation of these panels and sales markets. It was found that at present, the production of solar photovoltaic panels, which consumes primary natural materials, is characterized by nature intensity, and direct waste processing cannot meet the needs of the photovoltaic modules production. The objective necessity of carrying out large-scale extraction of minerals and use of precious metals before the period of highly efficient processing of waste solar photovoltaic panels, which would meet the demands of production, is substantiated. Modern tendencies in technological researches and developments of secondary processing of photovoltaic modules are considered. It is determined that as the volume of solar photovoltaic panels production and waste generation increases, the requirements for ensuring the environmental efficiency of waste processing and disposal technologies should be more stringent. This involves increasing the recycling degree of the waste’s main components, starting from 80…90 % and to the highest possible level. It is determined that at the same time with this tendency, it is expedient to develop technologies for recycling of non-recyclable parts of waste at present.
Vyktoryia Burdeina, Hanna Hrinchenko, Svitlana Artiukh, Andrii Trishch
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 9-14; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.02

Abstract:
The dimensional analysis of the initial parameters of the coordinated dimensions of the holes is presented. Issues related to the assessment of the accuracy of the location of the surfaces of deep holes are considered. The influence of various technological factors on the magnitude of scattering of coordinated dimensions is studied. Experimental studies using experimental design methodology, which was used for sample preparations 45 steel, cast iron SCH15, aluminum alloys. Factors such as the cutting angle, the hardness of the workpiece, the cutting force and their effect on the diameter of the impression and its depth were studied. As a result of the experiments, a slight effect of the drilling force on the diameter and depth of the impression was found. However, it was found that the angle of the core leads to a directly proportional increase in the diameter of the imprint and inversely affects its depth. The hardness of the material has a more significant effect on the diameter of the imprint than on its depth. The total influence of controlled factors significantly affects the diameter of the imprint. Minimum core drilling angles are proposed for some materials. A mathematical model of the accuracy of machining coordinated holes is proposed on the basis of estimating the coefficients of the regression equation and finding the required mathematical models of the scattering fields of dimensions and deviations. As factors that vary during the drilling of coordinated holes, were taken: the length of the conductor sleeve, the departure of the tool, the hardness of the workpiece, the diameter of the tool. It is found that with increasing tool diameter and guide sleeve length decreases the amount of dimensional scattering from the base and positional deviations, and increasing tool departure and improving the physical and mechanical properties of the workpiece increase the size of the size scattering field from the base and positional deviation. An additional factor was introduced: the gap in the combination between the cutting tool and the conductor sleeve and obtained mathematical dependences of the influence of factors on dimensional accuracy when machining deep holes with the direction of the cutting tool. It is shown that the introduction of an additional factor - the gap, did not change the essence of the process of errors on small aggregate machines, and the change in diameters does not lead to a significant increase in scattering fields.
Vasyl Kryshtal, Vitaliy Snytyuk, Dmytro Fedorenko
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 70-76; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.10

Abstract:
The problem of rescue equipment compilation was analyzed, which showed such features as the existing limited financial resources, a significant increase in the capacity of the element base, decision making processes based solely on the experience and intuition of those responsible person was carried out. It is shown that the previously proposed solutions were based on the cost of equipment, its reliability, functionality and capacity, while the aspect of its applicability or relevance was ignored. Taken into account the significant number of potential elements of equipment that may be included in the kit, limitations that will reduce the number of possible variants based on the method of sequential analysis of variants are proposed. It is proposed to determine the priority of equipment elements of a certain class using the method of analytic hierarchy process on the prioritization of criteria and procedures for determining the competence of experts. Since the task of compilation is multi-criteria, it is proposed to include the criterion of relevance in the criteria for determining the optimal kit. Models of equipment relevance indicators are constructed, as well as the relevance rate of the equipment element is determined and a model to determine the relevance rate of the set of emergency rescue equipment for a certain emergency situation is developed. It is proposed to calculate the total relevance rate of the equipment set for all emergencies as the average value of the relevance rate of the kit for each emergency, provided they are equivalent, or as a weighted value otherwise. Numerical modeling based on the developed algorithm allowed to draw conclusions about the relevance and, as a consequence, the priority of equipment elements, as well as to assess the degree of provision of rescue unit with rescue equipment in various emergencies
Liudmyla Bragina, Serhiy Yaitsky, Dmytro Petrov, Olena Starolat
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 90-95; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.13

Abstract:
The current state of technologies for the production of glass products used in the architectural and construction industry, types of the energy-saving float-glasses and their role in the lighting quality of the buildings was analyzed. The relevance of the use of Low-E glass, in particular in the glass units, is shown. Innovative trends in the production of sheet architectural and construction float glass with the use of modern technologies and equipment, in particular, at PJSC "Lysychansk glass factory "Proletary ", considered. It is established that a significant disadvantage of more energy-efficient I-glasses, which have a wide range of color characteristics, is the insufficient mechanical strength of soft coatings applied by magnetron vacuum spraying. It is shown that the technology of manufacturing low-emission I-glasses with such coatings does not allow them to be hardened while maintaining all the necessary operating parameters. Physicochemical properties and operational characteristics of large-sized glasses with silver, sunscreen soft coating, laminated, flat and radial tempered glasses, as well as their areas of application are presented. The principles of strengthening soft magnetron coatings for low-emission Double Low-E glasses and composition, layer combinations and technological parameters of multilayer nanocoatings with a total thickness of up to 140 nm, which allows to harden I-glass with these coatings, investigated. The technological parameters of obtaining low-emission I-glasses with variable coatings, which regulate the spectral and operational indicators of these glassware according to the interstate standards GOST EN 673-2016 and GOST EN 410-2014, are analyzed. Technological methods of the sheet glass with low-emission coatings hardening by creating of the special compositions and optimizing magnetron sputtering processes optimizing, as well as the basic regularities of the arrangement of the film layers of the Si3N4 / NiCr / Si3N4 film for the heat treatment withstanding of the glasses in the R2O – RO – SiO2 system are considered. The principles of adjusting their spectral and mechanical characteristics depending on the concentration and ratio of the components of the thin-film nanolayer, which will contribute to the creation of a variation series of float glasses with the required level of reflection in the infrared spectrum, are proposed.
Bohdan Styslo, , Kseniia Minakova, Mykhailo Kirichenko, Олександр Єресько
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.06

Abstract:
The paper reviews the existing circuit solutions of devices for balancing electric batteries. The balancing principle on the basis of capacitive and inductive buffer elements has been described. It was shown the features of their work and the basic calculations for each device type. For circuits with transformer topology, the calculated values for determining the balancing current are indicated. Based on the circuit solutions analysis, the efficiency of using solutions based on inductive buffer elements is numerically determined and proved. Powerful batteries for power supply systems are used in the form of stacks, consisting of a series-parallel connection of single cells. During their operation, there is a problem of uneven discharge or charge, to compensate which it is necessary to make voltage levels balancing in the stack batteries. For safely using electrochemical batteries the using of specialized balancing devices is required. The most efficient, from an energy point of view, are active balancing systems. The analysis of the mathematical model of two types (capacitive and inductive) buffer elements operation allowed to give a qualitative assessment of their efficiency. The first, in comparison with inductive - not only have worse energy characteristics, but also do not allow to perform "scaling" of the device without significant complication of the control system. The current amplitude value in circuits with a capacitive buffer element is limited only by the internal parasitic resistances of the circuit elements, therefore, with a relatively large value of imbalance, in circuit elements (including batteries) takes place a significant energy loss in the form of heat which negatively effects on rechargeable battery parameters. The current amplitude value in the circuit based on inductive buffer elements is limited by the inductance value. It can be calculated at the device design stage. In addition, providing the control system with intermittent converter operation allows to reduce switching losses in the circuit power switches and increases the overall operation efficiency. With a large number of batteries (more than three) should be preferred transformer balancing systems, as a special case of inductive topology.
Mukafat Geibat Ogly Askerov
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 3-8; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.01

Abstract:
The analysis of results of practical application of cast replaceable details of hinged tillage agricultural machinery at operation in a number of the agricultural enterprises of the Poltava region at processing of more than 60 thousand hectares within several years is presented. Comparative data of the resource of parts made of high-strength bainitic cast iron and steel serial analogues of domestic and foreign production are given. The advantages of the method of manufacturing by casting methods in comparison with the traditional method of manufacturing by stamping. This technology allows you to easily make adjustments to the design of the cultivator legs, thus providing a new quality of tillage and pruning of the root system of weeds, which eliminates the need for herbicides. The basis of this technology is the use of composite complex modifiers made by rolling powder mixtures of plastic and brittle components with the necessary observance of the proportions of their ratio. The use of powder rolled modifiers provides the necessary properties and structure of the cast metal required for further heat treatment. It is substantiated to obtain high wear resistance of cast products due to the appearance of TRIP-effect and constant updating of wear-resistant surface layer during operation.
Yevhen Honcharov, Nataliia Kriukova, Sofia Vietvytska, Vladyslav Markov, Ihor Poliakov
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.03

Abstract:
The article reviews the methods for improving the technology of monitoring and inspection of the state of power grids. The state of development in the design and methods of using unmanned aerial vehicles, which are intended for servicing power lines, is analyzed. A number of issues related to the concept of unmanned aerial vehicles with high lifting capacity are considered, which allows them to be used for various means of maintenance of power lines, which in turn reduces capital costs. Unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being used by utilities, which reduces the risks and costs of maintenance compared to other transmission line monitoring systems. It was determined that in the field of electric power industry the most promising of the methods for monitoring power lines is the application of unmanned aerial vehicles together with the use of modern measuring equipment and digital technologies. It is concluded that a significant advantage of the use of unmanned aerial vehicles is their possibility, which reduces costs and increases the efficiency of their use as a means of determining promising locations for wind farms. It is noted that with the transition of the global electricity industry to the use of unmanned aerial vehicles will save resources and reduce costs. Moreover, it is determined that the use of unmanned aerial vehicles with high lifting capacity allows minimizing the cost of using additional lifting equipment and technical personnel. In particular, high-lift unmanned aerial vehicles using flamethrowers can effectively remove obstacles such as clogging on power lines. It is noted that the use of unmanned aerial vehicles will increase the safety of employees in the maintenance of power facilities and power lines. The obtained results from the analysis of the technical condition of the use of unmanned aerial vehicles indicate the prospects for the introduction of remote control systems and monitoring of the operational condition of power lines.
Alexandr Kriachok, Mykola Reutskyi, Dmytro Sushko
Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI» Series: New solutions in modern technologies pp 77-82; https://doi.org/10.20998/2413-4295.2021.02.11

Abstract:
The creation of modern computer-aided design systems for devices and electrical machines of new generation, built on the basis of permanent magnets, necessitates the development of new mathematical models and effective computational algorithms. Based on mathematical models and using IT technologies, it is possible to develop both separate functional CAD blocks and an integrated system for calculating device parameters and modeling its characteristics. The paper considers a typical design of an electromechanical device with permanent magnets, which create a field with specified characteristics in the working area. At the first stage of the study, the heterogeneity of the environment was not taken into account. To calculate the strength of the magnetic field created by rectangular magnets, two mathematical models were obtained. This approach made it possible, first, to check the results of calculations and, secondly, to use mathematical models for comparative analysis when performing numerical modeling of the magnetic field characteristics for a system built, for example, using cylindrical magnets. On the foundation of developed mathematical model, an algorithm for analyzing the initial characteristics of a special device with permanent magnets is proposed. Devices of this type can be used to register small displacements. At the same time, the very scheme of the magnetic system and mathematical models describing the properties of the magnetic field can be used in the development of other types of electrical devices built using permanent magnets. A number of experiments on numerical simulation of the magnetic field pattern in the working area of the device were performed in the work. The results of the sensor signal simulation during the movement of the test body are also presented.
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