Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
ISSN / EISSN : 0028-1298 / 1432-1912
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 21,899
Latest articles in this journal
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02158-3
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02162-7
Antagonising serotonin (5-HT) type 2A receptors (5-HT2AR) is an effective strategy to alleviate both dyskinesia and psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We have recently shown that activation of metabotropic glutamate 2 receptors (mGluR2), via either orthosteric stimulation or positive allosteric modulation, enhances the anti-dyskinetic and anti-psychotic effects of 5-HT2AR antagonism. Here, we investigated if greater therapeutic efficacy would be achieved by combining 5-HT2AR antagonism with concurrent mGluR2 orthosteric stimulation and mGluR2 positive allosteric modulation.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02150-x
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02138-7
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02154-7
The link between diabetes and cognitive dysfunction has been reported in many recent articles. There is currently no disease-modifying treatment available for cognitive impairment. Boswellia serrata (B. serrata) is used traditionally to treat chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), insulin resistance (IR), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review aims to highlight current research on the potential use of boswellic acids (BAs)/B. serrata extract in T2D and AD. We reviewed the published information through June 2021. Studies have been collected through a search on online electronic databases (Academic libraries as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Egyptian Knowledge Bank). Accumulating evidence in preclinical and small human clinical studies has indicated that BAs/B. serrata extract has potential therapeutic effect in T2D and AD. According to most of the authors, the potential therapeutic effects of BAs/B. serrata extract in T2D and AD can be attributed to immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity, and elimination of the senescent cells. BAs/B. serrata extract may act by inhibiting the IκB kinase/nuclear transcription factor-κB (IKK/NF-κB) signaling pathway and increasing the formation of selective anti-inflammatory LOX-isoform modulators. In conclusion, BAs/B. serrata extract may have positive therapeutic effects in prevention and therapy of T2D and AD. However, more randomized controlled trials with effective, large populations are needed to show a definitive conclusion about therapeutic efficacy of BAs/B. serrata extract in T2D and AD.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02144-9
The term “antibiotics” is a broadly used misnomer to designate antibacterial drugs. In a recent article, we have proposed to replace, e.g., the term “antibiotics” by “antibacterial drugs”, “antibiosis” by “antibacterial therapy”, “antibiogram” by “antibacteriogram”, and “antibiotic stewardship” by “antibacterial stewardship” (Seifert and Schirmer Trends Microbiol, 2021). In the present article, we show that many traditional terms related to antibiotics are used much more widely in the biomedical literature than the respective scientifically precise terms. This practice should be stopped. Moreover, we provide arguments to end the use of other broadly used terms in the biomedical literature such as “narrow-spectrum antibiotics” and “reserve antibiotics”, “chemotherapeutics”, and “tuberculostatics”. Finally, we provide several examples showing that antibacterial drugs are used for non-antibacterial indications and that some non-antibacterial drugs are used for antibacterial indications now. Thus, the increasing importance of drug repurposing renders it important to drop short designations of drug classes such as “antibiotics”. Rather, the term “drug” should be explicitly used, facilitating the inclusion of newly emerging indications such as antipsychotic and anti-inflammatory. This article is part of an effort to implement a new rational nomenclature of drug classes across the entire field of pharmacology.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02151-w
Although doctor-patient communication is essential for drug prescription, the literature reveals deficits in this area. An educational approach at the Cologne medical faculty aims at identifying and addressing those deficits in medical students. Fifth-year medical students first conducted a simulated prescription talk spontaneously. Subsequently, the conversation was discussed with peer students. A pharmacist moderated the discussion based upon a previously developed conversation guide. Afterwards, the same student had the conversation again, but as if for the first time. Conversations were video-recorded, transcribed and subjected to quantitative content analysis. Four days after the simulation, the students who conducted the talk, those who observed and discussed it, and students who did neither, completed a written test that focused on the content of an effective prescription talk. Content analysis revealed clear deficits in spontaneously led prescription talks. Even essential information as on adverse drug reactions were often lacking. Prescription talks became clearly more informative and comprehensive after the short, guided peer discussion. With regard to a comprehensive, informative prescription talk, the written test showed that both the students who conducted the talk and those who only observed it performed clearly better than the students who did not participate in the educational approach. Deficits regarding prescription talks are present in 5th year medical students. We provide an approach to both identify and address these deficits. It thus may be an example for training medical students in simulated and clinical environments like the EACPT recommended to improve pharmacology education.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02152-9
Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is the main limitation of cancer therapy. The combination use of chemotherapeutic agents and galangin (a naturally active flavonoid) amplifies the effectiveness of cancer treatment. This study aimed to prepare arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) containing nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC-RGD) to improve the bioavailability of galangin and explore its ability in improving the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX). Galangin-loaded NLC-RGD was prepared by hot homogenization method and characterized by diverse techniques. Then, cytotoxicity, uptake, and apoptosis induction potential of prepared nanoparticles beside the DOX were evaluated on A549 lung cancer cells. Finally, the expression level of some ABC transporter genes was evaluated in galangin-loaded NLC-RGD-treated cells. Nanoparticles with appropriate characteristics of the delivery system (size: 120 nm, polydispersity index: 0.23, spherical morphology, and loading capacity: 59.3 mg/g) were prepared. Uptake experiments revealed that NLC-RGD promotes the accumulation of galangin into cancerous cells by integrin-mediated endocytosis. Results also showed higher cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of DOX + galangin-loaded NLC-RGD in comparison to DOX + galangin. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that galangin-loaded NLC-RGD downregulates ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCC2 more efficiently than galangin. These findings indicated that delivery of galangin by NLC-RGD makes it an effective adjuvant to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02153-8
The main objective of this research is to prepare sildenafil citrate (SC)–loaded arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD)–containing nanostructured lipid carrier (SC-loaded NLC-RGD) and evaluate their effects on the receptivity potential of endometrial cells. Hot homogenization method was used to prepare SC-loaded NLC-RGD. Then, size, drug encapsulation, and morphology of prepared nanoparticles were studied by photon correlation spectroscopy technic, ultrafiltration method, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequently, the influence of SC-loaded NLC-RGD on endometrial receptivity was evaluated by in vitro implantation assay. Finally, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and integrin beta 3 (as endometrial receptivity markers) was assessed in SC-loaded NLC-RGD-treated endometrial cells by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Particles with a nano-size diameter (92.7 nm), appropriate polydispersity index (0.21), spherical morphology, and acceptable loading efficiency were prepared. In vitro implantation assay showed that SC, SC-loaded NLC, and SC-loaded NLC-RGD improve the rate of endometrial attachment potential by 1.6 ± 0.4, 1.7 ± 0.3, and 2.3 ± 0.3 times, respectively. Analysis of RT-PCR results showed the enhancing mRNA of LIF and VEGF in SC-treated endometrial cells. Results also confirmed the higher influence of SC-loaded NLC-RGD on gene expression patterns in comparison to SC. Using NLC-RGD as a carrier to deliver SC to endometrial cells is an effective approach to improve endometrial receptivity. Upregulation of LIF and VEGF is the probable mechanism by which SC enhances the endometrial receptivity potential.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02134-x
TGF-β contributes to drug resistance and the invasiveness of tumor cells and weakens the anti-tumor immune responses. The present study aimed at examining the efficacy of the combination of SB431542, as a specific inhibitor of TGF-βR, and doxorubicin in controlling the melanoma tumor in mice. The impact of the combination of the doxorubicin and SB431542 on the cell growth, apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness of B16-F10 cells was examined. Besides, the B16-F10 tumor was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and the effects of the mentioned treatment on the tumor volume, survival, and the exhaustion state of T cells were evaluated. Although the combination of doxorubicin and SB431542 did not exhibit synergism in the inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis induction, it efficiently prohibited the migration and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of B16-F10 cells, and the combination of doxorubicin and SB431542 caused an increase in mRNA levels of E-cadherin and, on the other hand, led to a decline in the expression of Vimentin. Tumor volume and the survival of tumor-bearing mice were efficiently controlled by the combination therapy. This treatment also eventuated in a decrease in the percentage of PD-L1+, TCD4+, and TCD8+ cells as indicators of exhausted T cells within the spleens of tumor-bearing mice. Blockade of TGF-βR also propelled the RAW 264.7 cells towards an anti-tumor M1 macrophage phenotype. The inhibition of TGF-βR demonstrated a potential to increase the efficacy of doxorubicin chemotherapy by the means of affecting cellular motility and restoring the anti-tumor immune responses.