ISSN : 2070-1586
Published by: Volgograd State Medical University (10.19163)
Total articles ≅ 16
Latest articles in this journal
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-27-31
For a significant number of researchers, the theoretical and methodological prerequisite for the analysis of biocapitalism is the "local knowledge" model. It is characterized by the fact that the research position is ethically loaded: the only possible way to talk about various forms of capital is associated with the need to give the floor to representatives of social groups subjected to discrimination and exploitation. This requirement leads to the elimination of biocapital as a research problem, its transformation into a non-object. Such disregard for biocapital leads to the impossibility of an adequate assessment of the risks associated with the development of biotechnologies. An important step towards the creation of a theory of biocapitalism is the appeal to the concept of "theoretical anti-humanism" proposed by Louis Althusser. Based on this methodological principle, biocapitalism should be considered as a set of non-objective processes based on the movement of value, whose continuity is rooted in the special modes of functioning of biotechnologies. One aspect of biotechnologies is their ability to create, modify, and control "local times" i.e., the flow rates of various processes. These opportunities become a source of profit for bio-capital. Explication of the conditions of such capital work shows that any biotechnological innovation becomes what is called in the language of actor-network theory a "point of mandatory passage" – a point of connection of the interests of a set of heterogeneous actors. Each of the actors connects their own social expectations with the existence of the technology. Thus, the desire to use oocytes frozen in the biobank suggests the need to maintain the existing technoinfrastructure. Thus, the desynchronization that occurs when using biotechnologies is a way to preserve the available method of capital production, which leads to the idea that there is no alternative to biocapitalism.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-52-55
The models used for the application of distance learning technologies assume different degrees of direct control of the educational process by the teacher, as well as the degrees of interaction and the presence of direct contact between the teacher and the student. Not all models, unlike the traditional training system, allow teachers and educational institutions to retain the functions of full management of the educational process. The factor of personal communication is disappearing which means we can’t talk about the education of a moral attitude to a healthy lifestyle. The search for new educational teaching methods in a mixed format is carried out, the role of the teacher's personality in such a model is discussed.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-55-58
The development of ethical standards for future doctors is one of the main goals of higher medical education. It is especially important for students from different countries studying together. But if in ordinary times the determinants of moral relationships are obvious and successfully implemented, in the "Covid era", when many international students were isolated from each other and from the university due to the closed borders, self-isolation, quarantine and switched to distance learning, it became extremely difficult to solve the problem of ethical meaning of communication . In order to identify the main directions of work in this area, we applied the focus group method, inviting as experts not those students who are studying at the university now, but our international graduates from different years and those who worked with them, so that they could compare the former and the current, not yet fully formed, models of higher medical education.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-36-38
The article examines the history of the emergence and use of surgical masks. Despite such a significant variety of masks types,the meaning and main function of them are the same in any case: to cover the face, not to let you see emotions, experience, feelings that are always reflected on the face. Hiding the face from others, translated from the language of symbols, means the symbolic "death of the person". The person who puts on the mask "dies", ceases to exist in the familiar form for others and is "reborn" in a new form. Such self-transformation affects not only a different perception for others, but also self-awareness. The surgical mask, updated during the coronavirus pandemic, is becoming a part of people's lives instead of a medical attribute. Today there is a whole world behind these masks: human health, environmental crisis, identity crisis, protest symbol, and surgical masks exacerbate alienation and create an external standardization and template. We would like this symbolic meaning of confusion and fear, loneliness and isolation, uncertainty about the future to turn into a sign of care and a gesture of community of people.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-21-26
The article considers the formation of the ethics of healing in ancient Egypt and Ancient India, as mandatory rules of behavior of a doctor. Based on historical sources, the article highlights the most characteristic ethical norms of ancient medicine. The formation of the foundations of medical ethics in these countries (III–II millennium BC), had very similar features, and the specifics were related to the historical and cultural characteristics of a particular society, it occurred spontaneously, at the level of subjective perception and evaluation of the appropriate actions of the doctor. The formation of the doctor's ethics is considered as a process of his socialization, i.e. as a kind of mastering of the ethical norms accepted in this society. It is shown that the formation of medical ethics changes the emphasis of public morality, shifting them towards interpersonal relations in the field of healing, thereby supplementing ethics with new values and understanding of human life.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-5-12
This paper presents the multivariate analysis of the bioethical criterion for the understanding the social value of genetic research in medicine and biology. From the point of view of moral assessment, a historical retrospective and dialectics of genetic technologies’ development and their application in medical practice are given. The presented data indicate the social and moral conflict of the unbalanced genetic technologies’ using and the way for ethical and normative solution. The leading approaches to the search for optimization of genetic technologies based on improving the ethics of science, education, public confidence, and ensuring the ethical component of legislative regulation are considered. The construction of the work and the discussion of the results confirms by real and promising examples of genetic technologies: perinatal and pre-implantation diagnostics; genetic banks; editing the human genome. The specificity of the work lies in the direct long-term author's participation in the creation of an ethical concept of genetic research in medicine and biology on the national, regional and international levels
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-46-51
The article discusses the experience of creating the work programs for the disciplines "Bioethics with the basics of deontology" and "Basics of pharmaceutical ethics and deontology" at the Department of organization, economics and history of pharmacy. The relevance of addressing this topic is that in the educational process of training a pharmacist there are no disciplines that give a first-year student an idea of what he will do in his future professional life, what tasks await him, what bioethical problems he will solve in his professional life. When developing of approaches to the creation of educational and methodological complexes, the main tasks of the discipline were formulated: consideration of the main stages of the formation and development of pharmaceutical ethics as an independent discipline; analysis of the main directions of pharmaceutical ethics with the studying of practical issues of the main problematics; developing ideas about the meaning of the activities of a pharmaceutical specialist in the modern pharmaceutical market within the framework of the ethical components of the profession. Approaches are described to the development of modules of the work program, of the choice of topics for classes and of the filling of the block "Students' independent work". A list of students' practical skills is offered: annotation and abstracting, compilation of grouping tables; application of methods of analysis in the study of ethical and deontological problems; conducting discussions and polemics; solving of situational problems in professional pharmaceutical activity from the standpoint of pharmaceutical ethics and deontology. It is concluded that it is possible to use the experience of the Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy in the development of work programs for the discipline "Basics of Pharmaceutical Ethics and Deontology" by other universities.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-17-21
The phenomenon of the disastrous progress is analyzed in the article. This one is conditioned by the development of technoscience having biocapitalism behind it. The essence of the disastrous progress is that so-called digitalization leads to the rise of digital civilization, which is giving opportunities for the total control, new, technological form of slavery and even optimization of the size of "useless" people. As the alternative of the disastrous progress the bioethical discourse in the form of conservative bioethics is proposed. This one is considered as new philosophy. Using deconstructive approach one is demonstrating that conservative bioethics is the study about human as spiritual creature, who is connected with life as net structure just in this dimension. Thus, conservative bioethics is interpreted as radical ethics of the preservation of life, which is able to block the destructive tendency of the modern progress.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-13-17
At the level of the whole organism, an idea of the complexity of living things is formed as a combination of levels of organization (layers) of biological and virtual reality, which develops as a space for visualization (digitization) of living objects. New digital formats of living objects, coupled with the naturalistic ethics of obtaining them, create a trend towards a complete transition of biology to a quantitatively new level of obtaining biological information – information about the state of living biological objects. The development of digital biology contributes to an increasingly large-scale transition to the creation and analysis of virtual images of living biological objects, and at the same time "removes" the biologist from the actual object of research: a biologist can work with a virtual image and not destroy his research object. Digital naturalism appears, and, consequently, a digital "experiment" must also be expected, which will undoubtedly continue the eternal confrontation between naturalists and naturalists or vitalists with mechanists in the new techno environment.
Bioethics, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.19163/2070-1586-2021-1(27)-32-35
Summing up the interim results in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic determines a multidisciplinary approach to studying the problem of security for all spheres of society. The analysis of the priority of scientific publications carried out on the platform of the information resource CyberLeninka showed that the main interest of researchers is medical and information security. Takin g into account the tendency for legal norms to lag behind ethical ones, and the specifics of the legal support of these spheres of social life, a working hypothesis was developed based on the assumption that the explication of ethical challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic will determine the strategy of social policy in these priority areas. Quantitative and qualitative sociological methods (content analysis, case study, survey) were used in the work. Fragments of sociological research carried out in collaboration based on the Volgograd and Gomel State Medical Universities are used. The results obtained demonstrate ethical deformations in the medical and, in g eneral, in the social sphere. In the context of the pandemic, the problem of the vulnerability of socially unprotected groups has become more acute. The basic moral tenets of the ethics of care are violated in relation to patients with severe concomitant diseases and patients with limited mobility. The extreme conditions which the national health care system found itself began to be perceived in the professional group of medical specialists as "extenuating circumstances" allowing, in conditions of survival, to neglect not only medical ethics, but also the law. These tendencies are reflected in the minds of future doctors, which requires strengthening the positions of the humanitarian block of disciplines in the curricula of professional education. The tendencies noted have an international nature, which determines the possible implementation of the approaches developed in the process of international collaboration into the practice of humanitarian national professional education.