Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition)

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ISSN / EISSN : 1858-4942 / 2338-3119
Published by: Diponegoro University (10.14710)
Total articles ≅ 158
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, Ari Tri Astuti
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 128-135; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.128-135

Background: Hemodialysis patients often experience hypoalbuminemia complications, which occur mainly due to decreased synthesis due to inflammation, lack of protein intake, the fluid status of patients, and losses from the dialysate. Another problem in hemodialysis is malnutrition, with a prevalence between 23–73% globally. Gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite also often occur in hemodialysis. Therefore, hemodialysis patients need to get nutritional support, which can be given in the form of catfish abon, one of the local Indonesian food.Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the use of catfish as a source of animal protein to improve the albumin levels of hemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-post test design. This study involved 34 hemodialysis patients as subjects, with inclusion criteria, were routinely two times a week, aged >18 years, willing to be the subject and follow the research procedures, have albumin levels ≥3.0 g/dL, and no catfish allergies. Patients with anasarca edema, experiencing complications of diabetes mellitus and malignancy were excluded. The dependent variable was albumin content, while the independent variable was catfish as an animal protein source. Data were analyzed univariate and bivariate by Fisher's Exact test.Results: Fisher's Exact test results on the effectiveness of using catfish as an animal protein source to improve albumin levels of hemodialysis patients showed p-value=0.048.Conclusion: The use of catfish as an effective animal protein source significantly affected on improving albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.
Diah Retno Wahyuningrum, Retnaningsih Retnaningsih, Martha Irene Kartasurya
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 184-197; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.184-197

Background: The occurrence of ischemia causes a loss of energy to switch to anaerobic processes resulting in acidosis due to reduced Adenosina Triphosphate (ATP). This condition makes neuron cells apoptotic. Apoptotic of several biochemical substrates in the brain, such as Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) exit into the circulatory system which is associated with dysbiosis through immunological pathways.Objectives: To determine the effect of giving enteral formula containing protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin on GFAP levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke Dr. Kariadi Hospital.Materials and Methods: This study was done in a single-blind RCT. Eighteen ischemic stroke patients were randomly divided into intervention (9 subjects) and control groups (9 subjects). The intervention group received 69 g of the powdered enteral formula three times a day for seven days. The formula contained protein (15 g), phosphatidylcholine (128 mg), phosphatidylserine (32 mg), and inulin (3 g). The subject who had diabetes mellitus received for 14 days at a dose of 34.5 g per day (7.5 g protein with additions 64mg phosphatidylcholine, 16mg phosphatidylserine, 1.5 g inulin). The control group received the standard enteral formula from the hospital, which contains (11.8 g protein without additions protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin). GFAP levels by ELISA method (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay) at pre and post-intervention.Results: There was a trend of decreasing GFAP levels before and after in the intervention group towards a better direction from 8.37±4.25 to 8.30±4.9 compared with the control group which experienced an increasing trend from 5.4±1.8 to 7.5±4. There was no significant difference in GFAP levels after intervention between groups (p = 0.7).Conclusions: The addition of protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin had no significant effect on GFAP levels.
Farida Farida, Hesti Permata Sari, Afina Rachma Sulistyaning
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 73-79; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.73-79

Background: Yellow watermelon contains citrulline, which can suppress lactic acid production, while plantains contain potassium which is important for muscle performance. The yellow watermelon and plantain combination juice potential to be a natural sports drink that delays muscle fatigue by suppressing lactic acid production after exercise.Objectives: To determine the effect of yellow watermelon-plantain juice on lactic acid in rats after swimming test.Materials and Methods: This true experimental study used a post-test-only with controlled group design. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats, eight-week-old, male, were divided into five groups, namely positive control (C+), negative control (C-), dose 1 (P1), dose 2 (P2), and dose 3 (P3). The C (+) group received no juice and was not tested swimming, the C (-) group received no juice but was tested swimming, P1 received combined juice up to 1.8 g and tested swimming, P2 received combined juice up to 3, 6 g and tested swimming, P3 received combined juice up to 1.8 g with the addition of 0.27 g granulated sugar and tested swimming. The juice is given 30 minutes before the test. The swim test was performed for three minutes; after that, the blood was taken to test the lactic acid levels. The data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and the advanced post-hoc with the least significant difference test.Results: The lactic acid levels in C (+), in C (-), P1, P2, and P3 groups after swimming test were 1.38 mMol / L; 7.14 mMol / L; 3.74 mMol / L; 1.66 mMol; and 2.91 mMol/L. There were differences in levels of lactic acid (p <0.05) in each group after the combination juice intervention was given.Conclusion: Combination juice of yellow watermelon-plantain has an effect on lactic acid levels after swimming test. Dose 2 (3.6 g) was the best because it produces the lowest lactic acid after the swimming test.
Natalia Desy Putriningtyas, Mardiana Mardiana
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 159-165; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.159-165

Background: Fruit peel is a part of red dragon fruit that weighed 30-35% of the fruit weight and has not been used optimally. Red dragon fruit peel contains fiber, vitamin, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloids and has the potential as an antibacterial. Red dragon fruit peel can be processed into yogurt.Objectives: This research examined the antibacterial potential of red dragon fruit peel yogurt against Bacillus subtilis in hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Materials tested in this study were negative control, positive control, and caecum of hypercholesterolemic Wistar. This study used chloramphenicol as the positive control (K+) and DMSO 10% as the negative control (K-). The K1; K2; K3 were orally administered with 1.8 mL; 2.7 mL; 3.6 mL of red dragon fruit peel yogurt, respectively. Red dragon fruit peel yogurt was administered daily for 28 days. Caecum was collected and tested for antibacterial activity using disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer). The Bacillus subtilis was obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of Center for Food and Nutrition Studies Universitas Gadjah Mada.Results: The average inhibition zone in K-; K+; K1; K2; K3 were 0.00±0.00 mm; 11.5±1.41 mm; 11.5±0.96 mm; 10.13±0.66 mm; 10.38±1.12 mm, respectively. The experimental animal groups, which received 2.7 mL and 1.8 mL of red dragon fruit peel yogurts, showed a significant difference compared to the positive control group (p= 0.026 and p=0.021, respectively). When the dose was increased to 3.6 mL, it showed no statistical difference in results (p=1.000).Conclusions: Red dragon fruit peel yogurt has an antibacterial potential against Bacillus subtilis.
Fillah Fithra Dieny, A Fahmy Arif Tsani, Umu Faradilla, Ayu Rahadiyanti
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 97-104; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.97-104

Background: Santriwati (Islamic female student), women of reproductive age, were susceptible to experienced Chronic Energi Deficiency (CED). CED reflects the low energy availability of someone who can risk reducing bone density. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the differences in body mass index, body fat percentage, hemoglobin levels, energy availability, and bone mineral density of female students who experienced CED risk and not experienced CED risk.Materials and Methods: The research design was a cross-sectional study, with 101 female students as subjects who were selected by random sampling. The research was conducted from February to March 2019 at the Kyai Galang Sewu Islamic Boarding School, Semarang. CED risk data was taken using the upper arm circumference measurement. Percent body fat and BMI data were taken using BIA. Energy availability data is obtained from the difference between energy intake (energy intake) and energy output (energy expenditure through physical activity) divided by Fat-Free Mass (FFM). Energy intake data was taken using the SQ-FFQ questionnaire, and energy expenditure was calculated using the 24-hour activity record form. Anemia data were collected using strip hemoglobin measurements. Bone density data were taken using the Osteosys Sonost 3000 densitometer. Bivariate analysis used the Independent T-Test.Results: A total of 57.2% of subjects experienced anemia. Subjects who had underweight nutritional status were 20.8%. Santriwati experienced osteopenia as much as 13.9%. There was no difference in bone density and hemoglobin levels between female students who were at risk of CED and not CED risk (p> 0.05), but there were differences in energy availability, body fat percentage, BMI between those at risk of CED and not CED risk (p <0.05)Conclusion: subjects at risk of CED (Lila <23.5 cm) had lower energy availability, body fat, and BMI than subjects who were not at risk of CED.
Aghnia Ilma Izzati, Mohammad Jaelani, Yuwono Setiadi, Enny Rahmawati, Yulianto Yulianto
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 80-85; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.80-85

Background: Based on the results of Riskesdas 2018 that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Indonesia showed an increase from 6.9% to 8.5%. Overweight is closely related to impaired blood glucose, insulin resistance, and decreased insulin secretion. Preventive efforts that have been made using non-pharmacological treatments, such as increasing the intake of fiber and lycopene from fruits.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of tomato juice and guava juice on blood glucose levels in overweight women.Materials and Methods: The study design is a true experiment conducted in 11subjects in treatment group and 11 subjects in control group. The subject of this study were overweight adult women 45-55 years. Blood sampling was taken in the morning, then glucose levels were measured using the GOD-PAP method (Glucose Para Amino Phenazone). We gave 600 ml of tomato juice and red guava every day for 21 days. To find the effect of juice on fasting blood glucose levels controlled by nutrient intake and physical exercise using the Repeated Measure ANOVA test.Results: In the treatment group, there was a decrease of 3.24 mg/dl in blood glucose levels; while, in the control group, the decrease in blood glucose levels was only 0.26 mg/dl. However, we found no statistically significant differences in both groups.Conclusions: Consumption of tomato juice and red guava reduced fasting blood glucose.
Amilia Yuni Damayanti, Joyeti Darni, Hafidzatunnisa Hafidzatunnisa
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 144-150; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.144-150

ABSTRAK Background: As much as 73.4% of children aged ≥ 5 years in Indonesia have breakfast with the low nutritional quality of food consumption, as evidenced by the prevalence of 95.5% of children's less consumption of vegetables and fruits. Breakfast habits affect fiber and micronutrient levels. Communication and nutritional information can increase accuracy in breakfast behavior from childhood. Effective and efficient media are needed. So far, the media for children has prioritized illustrations without paying attention to the cultivation of moral values.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of Islamic comic media on improving healthy breakfast attitudes among students.Materials and Methods: The research design was a quasi-experimental type. Subjects were taken by a simple random sampling method. Ninety-six students were divided into three groups. Group A was given nutrition education using Islamic comic media about health breakfast (n = 32). Group B was given nutrition education using Islamic comic strip media about health (n = 32). Group C was a control group (n = 32). The study used two types of nutrition promotion media: comics and comic strips, which are stories about healthy eating in Islam. The time for nutrition education intervention through comics and comic strips is 2x ± 35 minutes. The pretest was ± 25 minutes with ± 10 minutes explaining the instructions for filling out the questionnaire. The posttest was ± 25 minutes with a discussion for ± 10 minutes—nutritional attitudes related to health breakfast by answering a validated questionnaire. We used the Lickert scale to categorized nutritional attitudes. Statistical test was done by Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney test.Results: The distribution of nutrition attitudes of respondents increased after the provision of Islamic comics, both comics and comic strips about breakfast. The nutritional attitudes increased significantly in the Islamic comic media group (p = 0.000) and the Islamic comic strip media group (p = 0.000), from 78.75 to 92.96 and 78.61 to 92.88, respectively.Conclusions: There was a relationship between counseling and Islamic comic media regarding healthy breakfast towards the nutritional attitude of elementary school-age students.
Nur Wulandari, Ani Margawati, Zen Rahfiludin
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 86-96; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.86-96

Background: Health status can affect the Human Development Index (HDI) of a country. To improve the quality of human resources, the Indonesian Government has applied various policies, such as the nutrition improvement program, since there are still lots of toddlers suffering from underweight, wasting dan stunting. Even one out of three toddlers in Indonesia were detected stunting.Objectives: This study described the implementation of a nutrition improvement program for toddlers in the Central Buton District Health Office.Materials and Method: This was a qualitative study that involved ten informants. Three of those informants are nutritionists in the District Health Office, Head of Public Health Department, Head of NutritionDepartement. Also, two nutrition workers in primary healthcare centers and two mothers of malnourished toddlers.Results: These findings showed that in terms of input, trained human resources on nutrition were lacking, and the budget for the nutrition improvement program was inadequate. While, in the process, all implementors had done very well, although they still had no collaboration across sectors. In the output aspect, the health status of underweight, wasting, and stunting toddlers improved. Also, monitoring and evaluation were conducted on toddlers registered at the integrated service posts in 2018.Conclusions: There were still constraints on the input, process, and output aspects, even though there was an increase in the nutritional status of children under five, but nutrition problems for children under five in Central Buton Regency were still high.
Stephani Nesya Renamastika, Endang Mahati, Martha Kartasurya, Dodik Pramukarso, Dwi Pudjonarko, Retnaningsih Retnaningsih
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 172-183; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.172-183

Background: The brain releases biochemical substrates, such as S100β protein, into circulation in response to ischemic conditions as a sign of damage in nerve cells and disruption of the blood-brain barrier’s integrity. Thrombolytic therapy has led to the development of many neuroprotective therapies such as protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin, which can be added to food products. Protein, phospholipids, and inulin, have a neuroprotective impact on nerve cells in the brain and blood-brain barrier.Objective: To prove the effect of protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin on S100β levels and clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Materials and Methods: This study was done in a single-blind RCT. Eighteen ischemic stroke patients were randomly divided into nine subjects for the intervention group and nine subjects for the control group. The Control group received 250 ml conventional formula milk (11.8 g protein) 3 times/day. The intervention group received 250 mL commercial milk 3 rimes/day which contained 15 g protein with 128 mg phosphatidylcholine, 32 mg phosphatidylserine, and 3 g inulin. All of the groups were given hospital-standard therapy for ischemic stroke. S100β levels were measured at pre and post-intervention.Results: Pre and post S100β levels in intervention and the control group did not show any statistically difference (p = 0.777 and p = 0.096), but there was a trend of decreasing levels of S100β in the intervention group (-24.6 + 252.0 pg/mL) versus control group (135.8 + 216.2 pg/mL).Conclusions: The addition of protein, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and inulin did not have a significant effect on S100β levels.
Diyan Yunanto Setyaji, Fransisca Shinta Maharini
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), Volume 9, pp 105-110; https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.9.2.105-110

Background: Lack of insulin or the inability of cells to respond to insulin causes high blood glucose levels or hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes. Consumption of foods with a low glycemic index and high fiber has been shown to provide the same benefits as pharmacological therapy in the control of postprandial hyperglycemia and can prevent the incidence of hypoglycemia in people with diabetes. Ganyong (Canna edulis) is a food source of carbohydrates and fiber. Kelor (Moringa oliefera) contains protein and some phytochemical compounds which have a hypoglycemic effect.Objectives: The objective of the study was to analyze the glycemic index of ganyong-kelor snack bars as a diet for diabetics.Materials and Methods: Ten respondents fasted for 10 hours and checked their fasting blood glucose levels, then consumed 105 grams of bread as the reference food. Every 30 minutes after eating, the blood glucose levels were checked. In the following week, after fasted, all respondents consumed 157 grams of a ganyong-kelor snack bar and checked their blood glucose levels every 30 minutes.Results: Every 100 grams of ganyong-kelor snack bar contains 230.13 kcal, 31.97 grams of carbohydrates, 9.25 grams of fat, and 4.75 grams of protein. In this study, bread was used as a reference food. If bread was corrected with glucose as a reference food, the glycemic index of the ganyong-kelor snack bar was 38.08. The calculation of the glycemic load used the converted-glycemic index and the total carbohydrates contained in 100 grams of the food. Ganyong-kelor snack bar had a glycemic load value of 12.10.Conclusions: Ganyong-kelor snack bar had good nutritional content and was categorized as food with a low glycemic index. The hypoglycemic effect of the ganyong-kelor snack bar came from its high fiber content. Ganyong-kelor snack bar can be consumed as a healthy snack for diabetic people.
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