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ISSN / EISSN : 0193-4511 / 1095-9203
Total articles ≅ 295,986
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, , Zeli Zhang, Carolyn Rydyznski Moderbacher, Marshall Lammers, Benjamin Goodwin, , ,
Abstract:
Vaccine-specific CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, binding antibody, and neutralizing antibody responses to the 25-μg Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine were examined over 7 months post-immunization, including multiple age groups, with a particular interest in assessing whether pre-existing cross-reactive T cell memory impacts vaccine-generated immunity. Vaccine-generated spike-specific memory CD4+ T cells 6 months post-boost were comparable in quantity and quality to COVID-19 cases, including the presence of T follicular helper cells and IFNγ-expressing cells. Spike-specific CD8+ T cells were generated in 88% of subjects, with equivalent memory at 6 months post-boost compared to COVID-19 cases. Lastly, subjects with pre-existing cross-reactive CD4+ T cell memory had increased CD4+ T cell and antibody responses to the vaccine, demonstrating the biological relevance of SARS-CoV-2–cross-reactive CD4+ T cells.
Kathryn M. Hastie, Haoyang Li, , , , Kan Li, Vamseedhar Rayaprolu, Xiaoying Yu, Colin Mann, Michelle Zandonatti, et al.
Science, Volume 374, pp 472-478; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abh2315

Abstract:
Antibody-based therapeutics and vaccines are essential to combat COVID-19 morbidity and mortality following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Multiple mutations in SARS-CoV-2 that could impair antibody defenses propagated in human-to-human transmission and spillover/spillback events between humans and animals. To develop prevention and therapeutic strategies, we formed an international consortium to map the epitope landscape on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike, defining and structurally illustrating seven receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibody communities with distinct footprints and competition profiles. Pseudovirion-based neutralization assays reveal Spike mutations, individually and clustered together in variants, that impact antibody function among the communities. Key classes of RBD-targeted antibodies maintain neutralization activity against these emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. These results provide a framework for selecting antibody treatment cocktails and understanding how viral variants might affect antibody therapeutic efficacy.
, Boaz Styr, Tobias A. Schmid, ,
Abstract:
Social interactions occur in group settings and are mediated by communication signals that are exchanged between individuals, often using vocalizations. The neural representation of group social communication remains largely unexplored. We conducted simultaneous wireless electrophysiological recordings from the frontal cortices of groups of Egyptian fruit bats engaged in both spontaneous and task-induced vocal interactions. We found that the activity of single neurons distinguished between vocalizations produced by self and by others, as well as among specific individuals. Coordinated neural activity among group members exhibited stable bidirectional interbrain correlation patterns specific to spontaneous communicative interactions. Tracking social and spatial arrangements within a group revealed a relationship between social preferences and intra- and interbrain activity patterns. Combined, these findings reveal a dedicated neural repertoire for group social communication within and across the brains of freely communicating groups of bats.
Sean Meaden, Peter C. Fineran
Science, Volume 374, pp 399-400; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abm2444

Abstract:
In 1927, Felix d’Herelle attempted to treat cholera epidemics in India using viruses. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and d’Herelle was trying to use them as a natural weapon against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae—a strategy called phage therapy. Although d’Herelle had some success in treating cholera patients, he noted that the bacteria he studied could acquire resistance to the phages (1). Now, researchers are unraveling the complexity of the relationship between bacteria and phages using similar systems. Two studies, by Hussain et al. (2) on page 488 of this issue and by LeGault et al. (3), combine large ecological datasets, genomic analyses, and molecular genetics to clarify how phages and phage defenses coexist in the environment. Understanding these dynamics is important when considering the therapeutic use of phages and their major role in global biogeochemical cycles.
Nikita Hanikel, Xiaokun Pei, Saumil Chheda, Hao Lyu, Wooseok Jeong, Joachim Sauer, ,
Science, Volume 374, pp 454-459; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abj0890

Abstract:
Although the positions of water guests in porous crystals can be identified, determination of their filling sequence remains challenging. We deciphered the water-filling mechanism for the state-of-the-art water-harvesting metal-organic framework MOF-303 by performing an extensive series of single-crystal x-ray diffraction measurements and density functional theory calculations. The first water molecules strongly bind to the polar organic linkers; they are followed by additional water molecules forming isolated clusters, then chains of clusters, and finally a water network. This evolution of water structures led us to modify the pores by the multivariate approach, thereby precisely modulating the binding strength of the first water molecules and deliberately shaping the water uptake behavior. This resulted in higher water productivity, as well as tunability of regeneration temperature and enthalpy, without compromising capacity and stability.
, Brian J. Arnold, Dominique Gonçalves, Petter Granli, Joyce Poole, ,
Science, Volume 374, pp 483-487; https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe7389

Abstract:
Understanding the evolutionary consequences of wildlife exploitation is increasingly important as harvesting becomes more efficient. We examined the impacts of ivory poaching during the Mozambican Civil War (1977 to 1992) on the evolution of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Gorongosa National Park. Poaching resulted in strong selection that favored tusklessness amid a rapid population decline. Survey data revealed tusk-inheritance patterns consistent with an X chromosome–linked dominant, male-lethal trait. Whole-genome scans implicated two candidate genes with known roles in mammalian tooth development (AMELX and MEP1a), including the formation of enamel, dentin, cementum, and the periodontium. One of these loci (AMELX) is associated with an X-linked dominant, male-lethal syndrome in humans that diminishes the growth of maxillary lateral incisors (homologous to elephant tusks). This study provides evidence for rapid, poaching-mediated selection for the loss of a prominent anatomical trait in a keystone species.
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