Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2621-4709 / 2621-2528
Published by: Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Payakumbuh (10.32530)
Total articles ≅ 78
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Rini Yanti, Widiastuti Setyaningsih, Priyanto Triwitono, Richa Yuniansyah, Ermi Saraswati Maha Admi
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 6, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v6i1.23

Abstract:
Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), Indonesian local bean, has a high content of protein and great potential either for substituting or overcoming the shortage of imported soybean in tofu production. However, an appropriate coagulant in a proper amount is needed to make tofu with acceptable characteristics. This study set out to investigate the appropriate type and concentration of coagulant. The experiment was carried out by using GDL (glucono delta lactone) and nigari as coagulants with concentration levels of 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1%. Some quality parameters such as yield, color, texture (hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, springiness), and microscopic structure of tofu were observed. Consumer preference tests on aroma, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability were directed to determine tofu with the best characteristics. The result showed nigari at concentration level 0.75% delivered the most preferred tofu for consumers.
Setyo Pambudi, Agus Triono, Mochamad Asrofi, Iid Mufaidah, Yeni Variyana, R. A. Ilyas
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 95-105; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i2.27

Abstract:
Nano particles of metal oxide developed as soluble nano additive in liquid fuels to improve fuel quality. One application of nano metal oxide particles is an additive to biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Pure biodiesel has a relatively lower calorific value compared to fossil fuels. Low calorific value results in increased brake specific fuel consumption. Moreover, biodiesel has a higher density and viscosity compared to fossil fuel. The content of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) in exhaust gases with biodiesel is higher than fossil fuels. Metal oxide nanoparticles are added to biodiesel between 6 to 80 nm with concentrations about 50 to 500 ppm. Addition of metal oxide nanoparticles to biodiesel can improve brake thermal efficiency, reduce brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and improve carbon dioxide (CO2) emission due to the catalytic effect of metal oxide nanoparticles. Metal oxide acts as an oxidation catalyst thereby reduce the carbon combustion activation temperature and thus enhances hydrocarbon oxidation, promoting complete combustion. Nanoparticles that are often used in various studies are nickel (II) oxide (NiO), cerium (IV) oxide (CeO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and silicon dioxide (SiO2). This review paper describes the progress and development of nano metal oxide applications as additives for biodiesel, and the discussion in this paper is divided into 3 main topics, including the effects of nanoparticles on the properties of biodiesel, engine performance, and emission characteristics.
Erick Firmansyah, Arif Umami
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 106-116; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i2.22

Abstract:
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has become the main plantation commodity in Indonesia. Climate change phenomena and competitiveness fluctuation of palm oil commodities have led to increased need for optimized land productivity while maintaining sustainability. This research aimed to study the potential of oil palm intercropping with liberica coffee (Coffea liberica L.) in several smallholder oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Sumatera Island, Indonesia. Measurements in the middle of the non-harvesting path of oil palm showed the age of oil palm is directly proportional to the difference between air and soil temperature and relative humidity under canopy. Oil palm roots were dominantly distributed vertically in solum 0 - 30 cm and always dominant compared to coffee at all horizontal distances observed. While the dominant root coffee distribution was in solum 31 - 60 cm. Analysis results show the tap roots extend no further than 30-45 cm below the soil surface. It was known that oil palm roots are dominantly distributed at a distance of 2-3 m from the trunk while the coffee roots are dominantly distributed at a distance of 1-2 m from the trunk. Analysis of oil palm yields in the intercropping system showed no significant decrease compared to monocropping systems with relatively the same age and production input. Coffee production per tree has decreased by 25-30% compared to the average production in monocropping systems.
Hesti Pujiwati, Nanik Setyowati, Desi Dwi Wahyuni, Zainal Muktamar
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 74-83; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i2.28

Abstract:
The application of a wed-based liquid organic fertilizer can increase the production of black soybeans (Glycine Max L. Merril). The study aimed to identify the best source and dose of liquid organic fertilizer (LOF) for black soybean growth and yield. The researchers used a three-times-repeated Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using a factorial layout. The first factor was the source of LOF, which included Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata, L.), Goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.), and yellow creeping daisy (Wedelia trilobata L.). The second factor was the concentration of weed-based LOF, consisted of water (control treatment); 12 ml/L; 16 ml/L; 20 ml/L. The results of the study show, weed-based LOF, namely LOF Yellow creeping daisy, Goat weed, and Siam weed, resulted in no significant difference in the growth and yield of the black soybean. Except for the variables of root fresh weight and number of pods per plant, the variation in concentration of weed-based liquid organic fertilizer had no significant effect on plant growth and yield.
Pou Anda
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 84-94; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i2.26

Abstract:
The SWC and the SBD play an important role in determining soil’s suitability for agricultural uses because they affect various physical, chemical, and biology of soil properties. This field experiment aimed to investigate the reciprocal effect of the SWC and the SBD on the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). The experiment was layout in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. This experiment consisted of one factor, namely, water (A) with four levels, namely, (A0=0 liter, A1=4 liters, A2=8 liters, and A3=16 liters), and one variety endemic of local Tomia (V). The treatment consisted of A0V, A1V, A2V, and A3V. Parameters observed including plant height, leaf width, fresh bulb and dry bulb weight. The results showed that the different water levels treatment had a highly significant (p<0.01) affected the SWC and SBD. Also, simultaneously the SWC and the SBD had a high significance (p<0.01) reciprocally influenced the plant height, leaf width, fresh and dry weight of onion. When the SWC increase, the growth and the yield of onion increase, and when (SBD) decreases, the growing and the yield parameters increases. The best result occurred at the pair of SWC and SBD values of (28.52 %, 1.2 g.m3) with 33.07 cm plant height, 1.3 cm leaf width, 51.67 g fresh weight, and 44.33 g dry weight, followed by other pair of values of SWC and SBD. Through graphs, the analysis showed that SWC has a positive effect and SBD has a negative influence on the growth and yield of onion except at an appropriate value.
P.K. Dewi Hayati, Mairati Mandwi Yld, Sutoyo Sutoyo, M Zaitialia
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 64-73; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i2.30

Abstract:
Okra (Abelmoschus esculenthus) is a vegetable plant consumed in immature and tender texture fruits. Crosses of local okra with introduced varieties are carried out to improve the character of the local cultivars. This study aimed to assess the variability of agronomic characters, both quantitative and qualitative characters of various families of the F2 populations and select superior families that can be used to produce new cultivars. The F2 population was derived from inbreeding and selection of the crosses between local okra cultivars with B291 and Ve022 as introduced cultivars. The study used an experimental method with an individual observation. Qualitative characters were described based on the descriptor by IBPGR, while quantitative characters were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results showed variation in each F2 family in plant height, the number of flowers per plant and the number of fruits per plant, except for SOMB291-16. FOHVE022-8, FOHB291-15, FOHVE022-17, SOMB291-23 and SOMB291-24 families could be selected due to the extended picking time were in line with the increase of fruit quality. A broad variability of quantitative characters was found for all characters, indicating a high opportunity to obtain valuable traits and desirable segregants in F2 populations. Variations in qualitative characters were found in stem color, leaf shape, fruit color and fruit shape. The selection of plants with specific characters could be maintained with inbreeding or self-pollinated desirable segregants.
Nurmansyah Nurmansyah, Herwita Idris, Nasril Nasir
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 28-37; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i1.8

Abstract:
This study aims to see the effectiveness of essential oils of leaves, rhizomes and fraction of wild ginger Ellettariopsis slahmong CK Lim against the pathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii which causes rot disease of the stem base of peanut plants an in vitro.The study consisted of two sub activities: (a) inhibited of colony diameter using Patato Dextrosa Agar (PDA) medium and (b) inhibited of colony biomass using Potato dextrose Broth (PDB) medium, the treatments tested were leaf essential oil and rhizome of wild ginger and fractions A1, B2, C3 and D4, with concentration levels (0, 100, 250 and 500 ppm). Experiments (a) and (b) were arranged in the form of a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in factorial each with 4 replications. The results showed that the leaf essential oil and rhizome of wild ginger and its fractions had the potential to be used as a vegetable fungicide. The A1 fraction has the best antifungal effectiveness compared to the B2 fraction, leaf oil, rhizomes and other fractions, with the highest inhibition of diameter and biomass of S rolfsii colony the 49.47% and 51.46%. Essential oils of leaves and rhizome oil are not statistically significantly different, but in numerically leaf oil are better than rhizome oil. The C3 fraction showed the lowest colony diameter inhibition and biomass of 34.70% and 36.95%. The best concentration level in inhibition the growth of S rolfsii mushroom is 500 ppm, with inhibition of the diameter and biomass of the colony by 81.74% and 84.25%.
Shams Islam, Al Mamun Or Roshid, Shafiqul Islam Sikdar, Sohrab Hossain
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i1.6

Abstract:
This Research was conducted to investigate the effect of fertilizer management on growth and yield performance of aromatic fine rice varieties. The experiment consisted of two factors were aromatic fine rice and fertilizer management. There were four varieties namely Kalizira, Kataribhog, Tulshimala and BRRI Dhan34 with four fertilizer treatments recommended dose of fertilizers (T1), cowdung @ 10 tha-1 (T2), 50% of recommended dose of fertilizers + 50% cowdung(T3), 75% of recommended dose of fertilizers + 50% cowdung (T4). The result showed that BRRI Dhan 34 significantly superior for effective tillers number/ hill (18.46), panicles length (26.67cm), grains number/ panicle (146.30), harvest index (40.73 %), grain protein content (6.23%), grain yield (2.79 tha-1), straw yield (4.06 tha-1), and biological yield (6.85 tha-1). Among fertilizer management, the highest effective tillers number/hill (16.20), grains number/ panicle (142.45, panicles length (26.66 cm),1000 grain weight (13.75), grain protein content (10.2%), biological yield (6.30), were obtained from T3 treatment. Based on interaction effect showed that the highest effective tillers number/hill (18.36), grains number/ panicle (155.33), panicles length (26.73 cm), grain protein content (10.80%), biological yield (7.85) was found with BRRI Dhan 34 combined with T3 treatment. However, grain yield increased with the increase in nitrogen levels. Together tillers number/hill, grains number/panicle, grain protein content, harvest index, grain yield was the main responsible yield contributing characters to improve the yield quality of aromatic fine rice.
Irawati Chaniago, Noverina Chaniago, Irfan Suliansyah, Nalwida Rozen
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 13-27; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i1.4

Abstract:
Regency of Deli Serdang in the Province of Sumatera Utara has high diversity of landrace rice that has adapted to various climatic and edaphic condition including drought. Studies on various local rice genotypes tolerant to drought is of important to be carried out. This will help plant breeders with germplasms for future breeding program. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a water-soluble compound with high osmotic pressure and unlikely to have specific interaction with biological chemicals. With these properties, PEG is often be used in studies of plant response to drought stress. The experiment reported here was aimed at determining rice genotypes, local to Regency of Deli Serdang, tolerant to drought. The experiment was carried out at Laboratory of Physiology and Glass House of Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Medan from February to April 2020. A two-way factorial experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates. The first factor was 23 local rice genotypes plus 4 genotypes tolerant to drought and the second factor was the concentration of PEG 6000 i. e 0 and 20% (w/v). Observations included percent of germination, plant height, length and number of roots protruding from paraffin-wax layer, leaf chlorophyll content, seedling fresh and dry weight, index of tolerance, probability of resistance, and proline content. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and mean separation of DNMRT at 5%. Results demonstrated that 6 local rice genotypes, Gemuruh, Ramos Merah, Arias, Sialus, Silayur, and Sirabut were resistant to drought stress under the experimental condition.
Dian Pramana Putra, Novelina Novelina, Alfi Asben
Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 38-49; https://doi.org/10.32530/jaast.v5i1.9

Abstract:
Sago hampas is waste from processing sago starch. Sago hampas is generally thrown away without any further treatment. Sago hampas contain nutrients that can be used as a substrate for fermentation of angkak. The study aims to determine the stability and toxicity of angkak pigment powder from sago hampas-rice flour substrate. The study used exploratory research design through experiments in the laboratory. This study used the UV-vis spectrophotometer method in observing the stability of the Angkak powder pigment and the brine shrimps method of angkak pigment powder toxicity test. The results showed that the level of solubility of angkak pigment powder will increase at higher temperatures. Stability of angkak pigment powder tends to decrease with longer heating, the higher of heating temperature and the longer of irradiation. Angkak pigment powder are more stable at neutral and alkaline pH compared with acidic pH. And it is not toxic to experimental animals with LC50 value of angkak pigment powder of 2,897.05 ppm. The conclusion of this study is that temperature affects the intensity of the angkak pigment. Angkak is unstable along with heating time, heating temperature and longer of irradiation.
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