BMC Genomics

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ISSN / EISSN : 1471-2164 / 1471-2164
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186)
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Junxiao Ren, Weihua Tian, Keren Jiang, Zhang Wang, Dandan Wang, Zhuanjian Li, Fengbin Yan, Yanbin Wang, Yadong Tian, Kepeng Ou, et al.
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07679-y

Abstract:
Background Estrogen plays an essential role in female development and reproductive function. In chickens, estrogen is critical for lipid metabolism in the liver. The regulatory molecular network of estrogen in chicken liver is poorly understood. To identify estrogen-responsive genes and estrogen functional sites on a genome-wide scale, we determined expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs in estrogen-treated ((17β-estradiol)) and control chicken livers using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) and studied the estrogen receptor α binding sites by ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq). Results We identified a total of 990 estrogen-responsive genes, including 962 protein-coding genes, 11 miRNAs, and 17 lncRNAs. Functional enrichment analyses showed that the estrogen-responsive genes were highly enriched in lipid metabolism and biological processes. Integrated analysis of the data of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq, identified 191 genes directly targeted by estrogen, including 185 protein-coding genes, 4 miRNAs, and 2 lncRNAs. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that estrogen decreased the mRNA expression of PPARGC1B, which had been reported to be linked with lipid metabolism, by directly increasing the expression of miR-144-3p. Conclusions These results increase our understanding of the functional network of estrogen in chicken liver and also reveal aspects of the molecular mechanism of estrogen-related lipid metabolism.
Xin Huang, Di Sun, Tianzhen Wu, Xing Liu, Shixia Xu,
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07732-w

Abstract:
Background The range of body sizes in Carnivora is unparalleled in any other mammalian order—the heaviest species is 130,000 times heavier than the lightest and the longest species is 50 times longer than the shortest. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these huge differences in body size have not been explored. Results Herein, we performed a comparative genomics analysis of 20 carnivores to explore the evolutionary basis of the order’s great variations in body size. Phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) revealed that 337 genes were significantly related to both head body length and body mass; these genes were defined as body size associated genes (BSAGs). Fourteen positively-related BSAGs were found to be associated with obesity, and three of these were under rapid evolution in the extremely large carnivores, suggesting that these obesity-related BSAGs might have driven the body size expansion in carnivores. Interestingly, 100 BSAGs were statistically significantly enriched in cancer control in carnivores, and 15 of which were found to be under rapid evolution in extremely large carnivores. These results suggested that large carnivores might have evolved an effective mechanism to resist cancer, which could be regarded as molecular evidence to support Peto’s paradox. For small carnivores, we identified 15 rapidly evolving genes and found six genes with fixed amino acid changes that were reported to reduce body size. Conclusions This study brings new insights into the molecular mechanisms that drove the diversifying evolution of body size in carnivores, and provides new target genes for exploring the mysteries of body size evolution in mammals.
, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Samuel Bekele Mengistu, John W. M. Bastiaansen, Han A. Mulder, John A. H. Benzie, Martien A. M. Groenen, Hans Komen
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07486-5

Abstract:
Background Tilapia is one of the most abundant species in aquaculture. Hypoxia is known to depress growth rate, but the genetic mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. In this study, two groups consisting of 3140 fish that were raised in either aerated (normoxia) or non-aerated pond (nocturnal hypoxia). During grow out, fish were sampled five times to determine individual body weight (BW) gains. We applied a genome-wide association study to identify SNPs and genes associated with the hypoxic and normoxic environments in the 16th generation of a Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia population. Results In the hypoxic environment, 36 SNPs associated with at least one of the five body weight measurements (BW1 till BW5), of which six, located between 19.48 Mb and 21.04 Mb on Linkage group (LG) 8, were significant for body weight in the early growth stage (BW1 to BW2). Further significant associations were found for BW in the later growth stage (BW3 to BW5), located on LG1 and LG8. Analysis of genes within the candidate genomic region suggested that MAPK and VEGF signalling were significantly involved in the later growth stage under the hypoxic environment. Well-known hypoxia-regulated genes such as igf1rb, rora, efna3 and aurk were also associated with growth in the later stage in the hypoxic environment. Conversely, 13 linkage groups containing 29 unique significant and suggestive SNPs were found across the whole growth period under the normoxic environment. A meta-analysis showed that 33 SNPs were significantly associated with BW across the two environments, indicating a shared effect independent of hypoxic or normoxic environment. Functional pathways were involved in nervous system development and organ growth in the early stage, and oocyte maturation in the later stage. Conclusions There are clear genotype-growth associations in both normoxic and hypoxic environments, although genome architecture involved changed over the growing period, indicating a transition in metabolism along the way. The involvement of pathways important in hypoxia especially at the later growth stage indicates a genotype-by-environment interaction, in which MAPK and VEGF signalling are important components.
Yao Hu, Stephanie A. Bien, Katherine K. Nishimura, Jeffrey Haessler, Chani J. Hodonsky, Antoine R. Baldassari, Heather M. Highland, Zhe Wang, Michael Preuss, Colleen M. Sitlani, et al.
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07745-5

Abstract:
Background Circulating white blood cell and platelet traits are clinically linked to various disease outcomes and differ across individuals and ancestry groups. Genetic factors play an important role in determining these traits and many loci have been identified. However, most of these findings were identified in populations of European ancestry (EA), with African Americans (AA), Hispanics/Latinos (HL), and other races/ethnicities being severely underrepresented. Results We performed ancestry-combined and ancestry-specific genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for white blood cell and platelet traits in the ancestrally diverse Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, including 16,201 AA, 21,347 HL, and 27,236 EA participants. We identified six novel findings at suggestive significance (P < 5E-8), which need confirmation, and independent signals at six previously established regions at genome-wide significance (P < 2E-9). We confirmed multiple previously reported genome-wide significant variants in the single variant association analysis and multiple genes using PrediXcan. Evaluation of loci reported from a Euro-centric GWAS indicated attenuation of effect estimates in AA and HL compared to EA populations. Conclusions Our results highlighted the potential to identify ancestry-specific and ancestry-agnostic variants in participants with diverse backgrounds and advocate for continued efforts in improving inclusion of racially/ethnically diverse populations in genetic association studies for complex traits.
Lingtong Ren, Anfang Liu, Qigui Wang, Honggan Wang, Deqiang Dong, Lingbin Liu
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07740-w

Abstract:
Background Muscle is the predominant portion of any meat product, and growth performance and product quality are the core of modern breeding. The embryonic period is highly critical for muscle development, the number, shape and structure of muscle fibers are determined at the embryonic stage. Herein, we performed transcriptome analysis to reveal the law of muscle development in the embryonic stage of Chengkou Mountain Chicken at embryonic days (E) 12, 16, 19, 21. Results Diameter and area of muscle fibers exhibited significant difference at different embryonic times(P < 0.01). A total of 16,330 mRNAs transcripts were detected, including 109 novel mRNAs transcripts. By comparing different embryonic muscle development time points, 2,262 in E12vsE16, 5,058 in E12vsE19, 6139 in E12vsE21, 1,282 in E16vsE19, 2,920 in E16vsE21, and 646 in E19vsE21differentially expressed mRNAs were identified. It is worth noting that 7,572 mRNAs were differentially expressed. The time-series expression profile of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that the rising and falling expression trends were significantly enriched. The significant enrichment trends included 3,150 DEGs. GO enrichment analysis provided three significantly enriched categories of significantly enriched differential genes, including 65 cellular components, 88 molecular functions, and 453 biological processes. Through KEGG analysis, we explored the biological metabolic pathways involved in differentially expressed genes. A total of 177 KEGG pathways were enriched, including 19 significant pathways, such as extracellular matrix-receptor interactions. Similarly, numerous pathways related to muscle development were found, including the Wnt signaling pathway (P < 0.05), MAPK signalingpathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and mTOR signaling pathway. Among the differentially expressed genes, we selected those involved in developing 4-time points; notably, up-regulated genes included MYH1F, SLC25A12, and HADHB, whereas the down-regulated genes included STMN1, VASH2, and TUBAL3. Conclusions Our study explored the embryonic muscle development of the Chengkou Mountain Chicken. A large number of DEGs related to muscle development have been identified ,and validation of key genes for embryonic development and preliminary explanation of their role in muscle development. Overall, this study broadened our current understanding of the phenotypic mechanism for myofiber formation and provides valuable information for improving chicken quality.
Geneviève Bart, Daniel Fischer, Anatoliy Samoylenko, Artem Zhyvolozhnyi, Pavlo Stehantsev, Ilkka Miinalainen, Mika Kaakinen, Tuomas Nurmi, Prateek Singh, Susanna Kosamo, et al.
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-29; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07733-9

Abstract:
Background The human sweat is a mixture of secretions from three types of glands: eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous. Eccrine glands open directly on the skin surface and produce high amounts of water-based fluid in response to heat, emotion, and physical activity, whereas the other glands produce oily fluids and waxy sebum. While most body fluids have been shown to contain nucleic acids, both as ribonucleoprotein complexes and associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs), these have not been investigated in sweat. In this study we aimed to explore and characterize the nucleic acids associated with sweat particles. Results We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize DNA and RNA in pooled and individual samples of EV-enriched sweat collected from volunteers performing rigorous exercise. In all sequenced samples, we identified DNA originating from all human chromosomes, but only the mitochondrial chromosome was highly represented with 100% coverage. Most of the DNA mapped to unannotated regions of the human genome with some regions highly represented in all samples. Approximately 5 % of the reads were found to map to other genomes: including bacteria (83%), archaea (3%), and virus (13%), identified bacteria species were consistent with those commonly colonizing the human upper body and arm skin. Small RNA-seq from EV-enriched pooled sweat RNA resulted in 74% of the trimmed reads mapped to the human genome, with 29% corresponding to unannotated regions. Over 70% of the RNA reads mapping to an annotated region were tRNA, while misc. RNA (18,5%), protein coding RNA (5%) and miRNA (1,85%) were much less represented. RNA-seq from individually processed EV-enriched sweat collection generally resulted in fewer percentage of reads mapping to the human genome (7–45%), with 50–60% of those reads mapping to unannotated region of the genome and 30–55% being tRNAs, and lower percentage of reads being rRNA, LincRNA, misc. RNA, and protein coding RNA. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that sweat, as all other body fluids, contains a wealth of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA of human and microbial origin, opening a possibility to investigate sweat as a source for biomarkers for specific health parameters.
Jing-Hong Hao, He-Nan Su, Li-Li Zhang, Chao-Jie Liu, Ying-Yan Han, Xiao-Xiao Qin, Shuang-Xi Fan
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07664-5

Abstract:
Background Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most economically important leaf vegetables, exhibits early bolting under high-temperature conditions. Early bolting leads to loss of commodity value and edibility, leading to considerable loss and waste of resources. However, the initiation and molecular mechanism underlying early bolting induced by high temperature remain largely elusive. Results In order to better understand this phenomenon, we defined the lettuce bolting starting period, and the high temperature (33 °C) and controlled temperature (20 °C) induced bolting starting phase of proteomics is analyzed, based on the iTRAQ-based proteomics, phenotypic measurement, and biological validation by RT-qPCR. Morphological and microscopic observation showed that the initiation of bolting occurred 8 days after high-temperature treatment. Fructose accumulated rapidly after high-temperature treatment. During initiation of bolting, of the 3305 identified proteins, a total of 93 proteins exhibited differential abundances, 38 of which were upregulated and 55 downregulated. Approximately 38% of the proteins were involved in metabolic pathways and were clustered mainly in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, some proteins involved in sugar synthesis were differentially expressed and were also associated with energy production. Conclusions This report is the first to report on the metabolic changes involved in the initiation of bolting in lettuce. Our study suggested that energy metabolism and ribosomal proteins are pivotal components during initiation of bolting. This study could provide a potential regulatory mechanism for the initiation of early bolting by high temperature, which could have applications in the manipulation of lettuce for breeding.
Jinyu Zhang, Huanqing Xu, Yuming Yang, Xiangqian Zhang, Zhongwen Huang,
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-15; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07750-8

Abstract:
Background Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and development, and low-phosphorus (LP) stress is a major factor limiting the growth and yield of soybean. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been reported to be key regulators in the responses of plants to stress conditions, but the mechanism through which LP stress mediates the biogenesis of lncRNAs in soybean remains unclear. Results In this study, to explore the response mechanisms of lncRNAs to LP stress, we used the roots of two representative soybean genotypes that present opposite responses to P deficiency, namely, a P-sensitive genotype (Bogao) and a P-tolerant genotype (NN94156), for the construction of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) libraries. In total, 4,166 novel lncRNAs, including 525 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs, were identified from the two genotypes at different P levels. GO and KEGG analyses indicated that numerous DE lncRNAs might be involved in diverse biological processes related to phosphate, such as lipid metabolic processes, catalytic activity, cell membrane formation, signal transduction, and nitrogen fixation. Moreover, lncRNA-mRNA-miRNA and lncRNA-mRNA networks were constructed, and the results identified several promising lncRNAs that might be highly valuable for further analysis of the mechanism underlying the response of soybean to LP stress. Conclusions These results revealed that LP stress can significantly alter the genome-wide profiles of lncRNAs, particularly those of the P-sensitive genotype Bogao. Our findings increase the understanding of and provide new insights into the function of lncRNAs in the responses of soybean to P stress.
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07736-6

Abstract:
Background Measuring DNA replication dynamics with high throughput and single-molecule resolution is critical for understanding both the basic biology behind how cells replicate their DNA and how DNA replication can be used as a therapeutic target for diseases like cancer. In recent years, the detection of base analogues in Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing reads has become a promising new method to supersede existing single-molecule methods such as DNA fibre analysis: ONT sequencing yields long reads with high throughput, and sequenced molecules can be mapped to the genome using standard sequence alignment software. Results This paper introduces DNAscent v2, software that uses a residual neural network to achieve fast, accurate detection of the thymidine analogue BrdU with single-nucleotide resolution. DNAscent v2 also comes equipped with an autoencoder that interprets the pattern of BrdU incorporation on each ONT-sequenced molecule into replication fork direction to call the location of replication origins termination sites. DNAscent v2 surpasses previous versions of DNAscent in BrdU calling accuracy, origin calling accuracy, speed, and versatility across different experimental protocols. Unlike NanoMod, DNAscent v2 positively identifies BrdU without the need for sequencing unmodified DNA. Unlike RepNano, DNAscent v2 calls BrdU with single-nucleotide resolution and detects more origins than RepNano from the same sequencing data. DNAscent v2 is open-source and available at https://github.com/MBoemo/DNAscent. Conclusions This paper shows that DNAscent v2 is the new state-of-the-art in the high-throughput, single-molecule detection of replication fork dynamics. These improvements in DNAscent v2 mark an important step towards measuring DNA replication dynamics in large genomes with single-molecule resolution. Looking forward, the increase in accuracy in single-nucleotide resolution BrdU calls will also allow DNAscent v2 to branch out into other areas of genome stability research, particularly the detection of DNA repair.
, Chao Xu, Yanlei Liu, Jipu Shi, Wenying Li, Zhili Suo
BMC Genomics, Volume 22, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12864-021-07769-x

Abstract:
Background Crape myrtles, belonging to the genus Lagerstroemia L., have beautiful paniculate inflorescences and are cultivated as important ornamental tree species for landscaping and gardening. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Lagerstroemia have remained unresolved likely caused by limited sampling and the insufficient number of informative sites used in previous studies. Results In this study, we sequenced 20 Lagerstroemia chloroplast genomes and combined with 15 existing chloroplast genomes from the genus to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times within Lagerstroemia. The phylogenetic results indicated that this genus is a monophyletic group containing four clades. Our dating analysis suggested that Lagerstroemia originated in the late Paleocene (~ 60 Ma) and started to diversify in the middle Miocene. The diversification of most species occurred during the Pleistocene. Four variable loci, trnD-trnY-trnE, rrn16-trnI, ndhF-rpl32-trnL and ycf1, were discovered in the Lagerstroemia chloroplast genomes. Conclusions The chloroplast genome information was successfully utilized for molecular characterization of diverse crape myrtle samples. Our results are valuable for the global genetic diversity assessment, conservation and utilization of Lagerstroemia.
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