European Journal of Human Genetics

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ISSN / EISSN : 1018-4813 / 1476-5438
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 5,839
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Yanbing Wang, Han Chen, , Anita L. DeStefano,
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00980-0

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Julia Klau, , Maximilian Radtke, Henry Oppermann, , Skadi Beblo,
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00981-z

Abstract:
This single-center study aims to determine the time, diagnostic procedure, and cost saving potential of early exome sequencing in a cohort of 111 individuals with genetically confirmed neurodevelopmental disorders. We retrospectively collected data regarding diagnostic time points and procedures from the individuals’ medical histories and developed criteria for classifying diagnostic procedures in terms of requirement, followed by a cost allocation. All genetic variants were re-evaluated according to ACMG recommendations and considering the individuals’ phenotype. Individuals who developed first symptoms of their underlying genetic disorder when Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) diagnostics were already available received a diagnosis significantly faster than individuals with first symptoms before this cutoff. The largest amount of potentially dispensable diagnostics was found in genetic, metabolic, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Out of 407 performed genetic examinations, 296 (72.7%) were classified as potentially dispensable. The same applied to 36 (27.9%) of 129 cranial magnetic resonance imaging and 111 (31.8%) of 349 metabolic examinations. Dispensable genetic examinations accounted 302,947.07€ (90.2%) of the total 335,837.49€ in potentially savable costs in this cohort. The remaining 32,890.42€ (9.8%) are related to non-required metabolic and cranial magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics. On average, the total potentially savable costs in our study amount to €3,025.56 per individual. Cost savings by first tier exome sequencing lie primarily in genetic, metabolic, and cMRI testing in this German cohort, underscoring the utility of performing exome sequencing at the beginning of the diagnostic pathway and the potential for saving diagnostic costs and time.
, Peter Border, Judith Hayward, Andrew Papanikitas
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00976-w

Abstract:
In the UK, genomic health data is being generated in three major contexts: the healthcare system (based on clinical indication), in large scale research programmes, and for purchasers of direct-to-consumer genetic tests. The recently delivered hybrid clinical/research programme, 100,000 Genomes Project set the scene for a new Genomic Medicine Service, through which the National Health Service aims to deliver consistent and equitable care informed by genomics, while providing data to inform academic and industry research and development. In parallel, a large scale research study, Our Future Health, has UK Government and Industry investment and aims to recruit 5 million volunteers to support research intended to improve early detection, risk stratification, and early intervention for chronic diseases. To explore how current models of genomic health data generation intersect, and to understand clinical, ethical, legal, policy and social issues arising from this intersection, we conducted a series of five multidisciplinary panel discussions attended by 28 invited stakeholders. Meetings were recorded and transcribed. We present a summary of issues identified: genomic test attributes; reasons for generating genomic health data; individuals’ motivation to seek genomic data; health service impacts; role of genetic counseling; equity; data uses and security; consent; governance and regulation. We conclude with some suggestions for policy consideration.
Oliver Murch, Vani Jain, Andreas Benneche, Kay Metcalfe, Emma Hobson, Katrina Prescott, Kate Chandler, , Jenny Carmichael, Nicola C. Foulds, et al.
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00961-3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Gudrun Schreiber, Janine Altmüller, Holger Thiele, Peter Nürnberg, Yun Li, Silke Kaulfuß, Rudolf Funke, Bernd Wilken, , et al.
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00967-x

Abstract:
Variants in transcription factor p63 have been linked to several autosomal dominantly inherited malformation syndromes. These disorders show overlapping phenotypic characteristics with various combinations of the following features: ectodermal dysplasia, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, hypospadias and cleft lip/palate. We describe a family with six individuals presenting with a striking novel phenotype characterized by a furrowed or cleft tongue, a narrow face, reddish hair, freckles and various foot deformities. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified a novel heterozygous variant, c.3G>T, in TP63 affecting the translation initiation codon (p.1Met?). Sanger sequencing confirmed dominant inheritance of this unique variant in all six affected family members. In summary, our findings indicate that heterozygous variants in TP63 affecting the first translation initiation codon result in a novel phenotype dominated by a cleft tongue, expanding the complex genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of TP63-associated disorders.
Yannick Schreiner, Thomas Schaible,
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00972-0

Abstract:
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening malformation characterised by failure of diaphragmatic development with lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). The incidence is 1:2000 corresponding to 8% of all major congenital malformations. Morbidity and mortality in affected newborns are very high and at present, there is no precise prenatal or early postnatal prognostication parameter to predict clinical outcome in CDH patients. Most cases occur sporadically, however, genetic causes have long been discussed to explain a proportion of cases. These range from aneuploidy to complex chromosomal aberrations and specific mutations often causing a complex phenotype exhibiting multiple malformations along with CDH. This review summarises the genetic variations which have been observed in syndromic and isolated cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Maia Farrugia Wismayer, Andrew Farrugia Wismayer, Adrian Pace, Neville Vassallo,
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00975-x

Abstract:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is frequently caused by mutations in the SOD1 gene. Here, we report the first SOD1 variant in Malta, an archipelago of three inhabited islands in southern Europe. We describe a patient with a sporadic form of ALS living on the island of Gozo in which the heterozygous SOD1 c.272A>C; p.(Asp91Ala) variant was detected. The patient had a late onset (79 years), sensory impairments and rapid disease progression culminating in respiratory failure. ALS has not yet developed in any of the three additional family members in which the D91A variant was identified. None of the healthy controls from the Maltese population were found to carry this variant. This report underscores the high prevalence of the D91A variant in Europe, despite the presence of a North-South gradient in its frequency, and confirms that this variant can be associated with dominant cases in Mediterranean countries.
, , Angela Pearce, Alison McEwen, Mandy L. Ballinger,
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00973-z

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Adeline Perrot,
European Journal of Human Genetics pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00970-2

Abstract:
Since 2019, England, France and Germany have started offering NIPT as a publicly funded second-tier test for common chromosomal aneuploidies (trisomy 21, 18 and/or 13). Despite these benefits, the introduction of NIPT into routine prenatal care also raises a number of ethical concerns. In this paper, we analyse how these issues are discussed differently across countries, echoing the different socio-political particularities and value-systems that shape the use and regulation of NIPT in a specific country. The international comparison between England, France and Germany shows how each country defines the principle of reproductive autonomy and weighs it against other principles and values, such as, human dignity, disability rights and the duty of care of health professionals. In terms of methodology, our literature review focuses on arguments and regulations of prenatal testing and reproductive choices (specifically on NIPT), through the investigation of regulatory, parliamentary, scientific, medical, association, institutional and media sources. The comparative review helps to better understand ethical questions discussed with regard to NIPT, and, more broadly, to prenatal genomic testing, and the limits associated with reproductive autonomy in the three countries studied. Whereas reproductive autonomy is valued in each country, it is understood and implemented differently depending on the socio-cultural context, and on what other principles are evoked and how they are defined.
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