Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae

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ISSN / EISSN : 1733-1218 / 2719-826X
Total articles ≅ 724
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Zuzanna Jakubowska, Karolina Koza, , Aleksandra Owczarczyk, Zuzanna Skorupka, Tomasz Wróblewski
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.03

Abstract:
Demographic changes are one of the indicators of sustainable development, expressed by the value of the natural increase in the human population, resulting directly from the fertility level, which is the subject of this article. Human fertility is a complex potential conditioned by the environmental, social, and economic factors. The multi-dimensional relations of fertility that may affect its level, constitute an unlimited field of research, study, and analysis. The inter-disciplinary scope of fertility research conducted by the authors has shown that fertility is an issue that, in its historical, social, political, and medical aspects, has the potential of contributing to societal development and raising the standard of living. The aim of this article is to answer the question: whether and how the fertility of an individual has an impact on the idea of sustainable development. To achieve this, the available literature was analysed and synthesised, as well as supplemented with information provided by experts in the field. The article incorporates presentations of selected fertility determining factors, methods of measuring fertility potential, and diverse contexts, such as the impact of fertility on history and its relationship with the freedom of the human individual. Moreover, the authors present the relationship between the fertility of an individual, and the assumptions and postulates of the idea of sustainable development.
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 45-59; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.05

Abstract:
In the consumptive world, mysterious things function as magic or superstition, sometimes via tradition, or a relic of a by-gone era. However, we are still afraid to see a black cat, and somebody remembers the celandine (in Polish “jaskółcze ziele”), though nobody knows its connotation with the swallow. The image of birds in folk tales connects the observation of nature, throughout the year and religious holidays, with their consequences for Man. Since the beginning, Man has admired nature, being afraid of its wildness and primeval power. When one joined it with divinity, it aroused fear even more, but also evoked greater fascination. In this article, I present the essence of myths in folk stories, and its function on the example of birds which have lived in proverbs and sayings. I will also show the variety of references to the cult of Christian saints, the love of the land, and the nature that surrounds us. I would like to show how our attitude towards nature has changed, and what is the function of birds as an element of the environment. I would also like to answer the question; does a modern man need myths to discover his sense of life and realise its meaning?
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 61-71; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.06

Abstract:
Social media and advertising offers opportunities for receiving pre- and post-purchase information. Advertising plays a significant role in business marketing, as every company wants its product to be successful, and familiar to its target audience, and thus, it is essential to promote it. Promotion plays an important role within the marketing mix, as its aim is to draw the attention of potential buyers. The main purpose of this study is to find out how social media, especially advertising, changed its content during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was distributed among respondents by means of social media. This way we included representatives of each age category trying to resemble, as closely as possible, the Slovak market. From among the randomly selected participants (social media users), 135 respondents completed the questionnaire. As for the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, in terms of advertising, we found out that there had been a certain change. According to the answers of our respondents, the changes related to the content of advertisements, the motives used, their narratives, offered products or services, or the combination of all the above. Consumers noticed an increased amount of COVID-19 related products such as face masks, disinfectants, etc.
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 5-15; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.01

Abstract:
The need to reflect upon the environment and the creation of a concept of environmental philosophy resonated in the philosophical thinking of the 1980s and 1990s. It seems that the advent of national and international institutions, which were “given” the responsibility for environmental issues, the importance of creating environmental principles, and pursuing environmental goals, has seemingly dwindled. The relationship with the environment has turned into the relationship of a citizen to his or her country, and with the principles and standards taking the form of legal regulations, the issue quickly became a matter of abiding by the law. Whilst discussion on how the normative criteria are set continued, its focus shifted to the questions of how and why they should be gradually made stricter, factoring in the economic interests of enterprises, and the time needed for setting up the processes, and developing new technologies. Environmental philosophy gradually integrated into bioethics in a broader context. This paper discusses the question of whether the integration of the environmental philosophy of bioethics helped to better promote the idea of environmental responsibility and environmental ethics, or otherwise. The study aims to initiate a discussion on whether this was a step in the right direction, and to assess how effective it was in relation to the pursuit and formation of environmental criteria.
Etim O. Eteng, , Christopher Abetianbe
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.08

Abstract:
The study carried out an analysis of solid waste disposal and its implication for water quality in the Ugep Community, located in Yakurr’s Local Government Council of Cross River State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that there is a significant and adverse relationship between solid waste disposal methods and the quality of drinking water, along with domestic uses in the study area. Data was collected through the administration of 500 questionnaires, with family heads as points of primary contact. It was clear that the poor state of infrastructural development and the challenge of availability and access to requisite amenities, coupled with inefficient management of the few available resources, has further exposed inhabitants to health and welfare issues. Results indicate a significant relationship between the solid waste disposal (sanitation) method and water quality in the study area. Awareness creation on sanitary practices by health and related government agencies, as well as community members themselves, should be encouraged to participate, as it will ensure a sustainable and health-oriented waste disposal system, bearing in mind likely concerns for water quality. Contamination of water is more prevalent in stored water, especially at the point of usage, as compared to where water flows freely, and is used without being stored. If water quantity is massive, the challenge of low quality is easily resolved, as less sanitation problems would occur. Government and private organisations should implement and encourage economic empowerment initiatives, in order to improve the livelihoods of the residents of the community.
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.04

Abstract:
What major scientific breakthroughs will occur in the rest of the 21st century? We can hardly imagine what discoveries await us in the fields of physics, biology, human health, or artificial intelligence. Every time people think that everything has already been discovered, there occurs another breakthrough. However, it is impossible to predict specifically when and what it will be. Among the most promising challenges on the border between science and our imaginations, is an exploration of our universe, and potential contact with an extra-terrestrial civilisation, better understanding of space, time, matter, and energy (including “dark matter” and “dark energy”) and, of course, the “unthinkable” potential of the human brain. It seems that what may never be discovered is scientific evidence of life after death. This is not found on the border between science and our fantasy (imagination), but on the border between science and faith.
, Julitta Gajewska, , Leszek Babiński, , Monika Sitarek-Andrzejczyk
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.07

Abstract:
The paper presents results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the composition of saprophytic and pathogenic microflora colonising contemporary wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and oak (Quercus sp.), deposited for eight years in peat soil, under anoxia conditions at two measuring stations located at the fortified settlement of the Lusatian culture in Biskupin. Qualitative determinations of bacteria were performed based on the analyses of their cultural, morphological, physiological, and bio-chemical characteristics. Petrifilms™ and conventional bacteriological media were used for quantitative analyses. Bacteria in the examined wood and surrounding soil were identified as belonging to species, including those of the genera Pseudomonas, Clostridium (Cl. butyricum/beierinckii, Cl. perfringens), Bacillus, Corynebacterium, bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae, as well as aerobic and anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. An important correlation between the standard pour plate method and PetrifilmTM was observed. Petrifilms are an effective alternative, in comparison with traditional methods, for the determination of total bacterial counts for wood samples.
, Martin Farbák
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 17-24; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.3.02

Abstract:
The search for happiness is something that constitutes human existence from its beginning, and even though people have achieved unimaginable progress in science and technologies, they still have not found the secret of being happy. Transhumanist authors, headed by Mark Walker, believe we can reach happiness biochemically using specific drugs and without considerable side effects. They consider it to be our moral duty because it would increase the prosocial behaviour of people enhanced in that way, following research showing that the happier people are, the more useful it is for society. In this paper, we critically respond to the vision of biochemical enhanced happiness (bio-happiness). We follow the classic and modern authors in our analysis of what happiness is, and based on this analysis, we want to demonstrate why the biochemical enhancement of happiness is not a moral imperative these days. On the contrary, we offer the reasoning why such a vision of bio-happiness is not morally right, and why it bears the risk of losing the connection between happiness and finding the meaningfulness of life. We critically evaluate the absence of spirituality in the transhumanist understanding of man and the devaluation of her/his intrinsic values.
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 41-53; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.2.04

Abstract:
Przedmiotem artykułu jest prezentacja badania znajomości najnowszych wydarzeń i trendów dotyczących środowiska naturalnego i jego ochrony, przeprowadzonego wśród studentów pedagogiki jako przyszłych nauczycieli mających podejmować te zagadnienia w działalności edukacyjnej. Badanie wykonano w maju i czerwcu 2020 r., drogą mailową na grupie 140 studentów pedagogiki Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej w Warszawie. Celem badania było sprawdzenie zarówno orientacji studentów w powyższych kwestiach, jak i tego, co stanowi dla nich źródło wiedzy. Wyniki badania wskazują na zróżnicowany poziom wiedzy studentów. Na niektóre pytania zamieszczone w kwestionariuszu prawidłowo odpowiedziało 70‒80% uczestników, na inne poniżej 40%, a relatywnie duży odsetek zadeklarował, że nie zna odpowiedzi. Wyniki są jednak niepokojące, jeśli chodzi o szkołę i uczelnię jako źródło wiedzy na temat środowiska i jego ochrony oraz aktualnych wydarzeń i decyzji dotyczących środowiska. Głównym źródłem wiedzy studentów okazały się media społecznościowe, wyprzedziwszy portale informacyjne i telewizję. Tylko w niewielkim odsetku studenci zadeklarowali, że czerpią wiedzę ze szkoły lub uczelni. Wyniki badania wskazują na potrzebę refleksji nad miejscem edukacji ekologicznej w ramach formalnej edukacji w Polsce.
Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, Volume 19, pp 5-15; https://doi.org/10.21697/seb.2021.19.2.01

Abstract:
Etyka cnót środowiskowych jest stosunkowo młodym obszarem badań, który podejmuje zagadnienie moralnych dyspozycji wspierających działania na rzecz ochrony środowiska. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiam i porządkuję tezy narracyjnej koncepcji etyki cnót środowiskowych. Celem moich analiz jest ukazanie podwójnej roli narracji w tej koncepcji etyki, to jest zarówno jako narzędzia transformacji indywidualnej, jak i społecznej. Takie ujęcie odpowiada rodzajom dyspozycji moralnych, w koncepcji Briana Treanora, twórcy narracyjnej etyki cnót. Przeprowadzone analizy pomogły pokazać narrację, jako narzędzie do poznawania siebie samego, a dokładniej odpowiadania na pytanie: kim jestem? By móc zdefiniować i dążyć do tego, kim chcę się stać. W ten sposób autonarracja staje się narzędziem osobistej przemiany (metanoi). Narracja nie tylko służy rozwojowi osobistemu, lecz także poprzez język mitów, metafor i obrazów wspiera promowanie pożądanych kodów kulturowych. W ten sposób narracja jest bardzo skutecznym narzędziem przemiany społecznej. Kluczowe w narracji są dwa narzędzia. Po pierwsze, na poziomie indywidualnym, istotne jest phronesis, które pomaga wybierać dobrą narrację i odpowiednio ją interpretować. Drugim narzędziem, ważnym na poziomie społecznym, jest edukacja moralna, która pozwala kształtować postawy moralne służące rozwojowi społeczeństwa w pożądanym kierunku.
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