COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering

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ISSN / EISSN : 0332-1649 / 0332-1649
Published by: Emerald Group Publishing Limited (10.1108)
Total articles ≅ 3,194
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Kathiresh Mayilsamy, Maideen Abdhulkader Jeylani A, Mahaboob Subahani Akbarali, Haripranesh Sathiyanarayanan
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-01-2021-0005

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a hybrid algorithm, which is a blend of auto-regressive integral moving average (ARIMA) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) for addressing the non-linearity of the load time series. Design/methodology/approach Short-term load forecasting is a complex process as the nature of the load-time series data is highly nonlinear. So, only ARIMA-based load forecasting will not provide accurate results. Hence, ARIMA is combined with MLP, a deep learning approach that models the resultant data from ARIMA and processes them further for Modelling the non-linearity. Findings The proposed hybrid approach detects the residuals of the ARIMA, a linear statistical technique and models these residuals with MLP neural network. As the non-linearity of the load time series is approximated in this error modeling process, the proposed approach produces accurate forecasting results of the hourly loads. Originality/value The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested in the laboratory with the real load data of a metropolitan city from South India. The performance of the proposed hybrid approach is compared with the conventional methods based on the metrics such as mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error. The comparative results show that the proposed prediction strategy outperforms the other hybrid methods in terms of accuracy.
Taochen Gu, Fayu Wan, Jamel Nebhen, Nour Mohammad Murad, Jérôme Rossignol, Sebastien Lallechere, Blaise Ravelo
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-01-2021-0019

Abstract:
Purpose The aim of this paper is to provide the theoretical conceptualization of a bandpass (BP) negative group delay (NGD) microstrip circuit. The main objective is to provide a theorization of the particular geometry of the microstrip circuit with experimental validation of the NGD effect. Design/methodology/approach The methodology followed in this work is organized in three steps. A theoretical model is established of equivalent S-parameters model using Y-matrix analysis. The GD analysis is also presented by showing that the circuit presents a possibility to generate NGD function around certain frequencies. To validate the theoretical model, as proof-of-concept (POC), a microstrip prototype is designed, fabricated and tested. Findings This work clearly highlighted the modelled (analytical design model), simulated (ADS simulation tool) and measured results are in good correlation. Relying on the proposed theoretical, numerical and experimental models, the BP NGD behaviour is validated successfully with GD responses specified by the NGD centre frequency: it is observed around 2.35 GHz, with an NGD value of about −2 ns. Research limitations/implications It is to be noticed the proposed GD analysis requires limitations of the theoretical NGD model. It is depicted and validated through a POC demonstrating that the circuit presents a possibility to generate NGD function around certain frequencies (assuming constraints around usable frequency and bandwidth). Practical implications The NGD O-shape topology developed in this work could be exploited in the future in the microwave and radiofrequency context. Thus, it is expected to develop GD equalization technique for radiofrequency and microwave filters, GD compensation of oscillators, filters and communication systems, design of broadband switch-less bi-directional amplifiers, efficient enhancement of feedforward amplifiers, design method of frequency independent phase shifters with negligible delay, synthesis method of arbitrary-angle beamforming antennas. The BP NGD behavior may also be successfully used for the reduction of resonance effect for the electronic compatibility (EMC) of electronic devices. Social implications The non-conventional NGD O-circuit theoretical development and validation through experimental POC could be exploited by academic and industrial developers in the area of wireless communications including, but not restricted to, 5-generation communication systems. The use of the remarkable NGD effect is also useful for the mitigation of electromagnetic interferences between electronic devices and more and more complex electromagnetic environment (current development of Internet of Things[ IoT]). Originality/value The originality of this work relies on the new NGD design proposed in this work including the extraction of S-matrix parameters of the microstrip novel structure designed. The validation process based upon an experimental POC showed very interesting levels of NGD O-circuit (nanosecond-GD duration).
Minchen Zhu, Lijian Wu, Dong Wang, Youtong Fang, Ping Tan
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-01-2020-0063

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analytically predict the on-load field distribution and electromagnetic performance (induced voltage, electromagnetic torque, winding inductances and unbalanced magnetic force) of dual-stator consequent-pole permanent magnet (DSCPPM) machines using subdomain model accounting for tooth-tip effect. The finite element (FE) results are presented to validate the accuracy of this subdomain model. Design/methodology/approach During the preliminary design and optimization of DSCPPM machines, FE method requires numerous computational resources and can be especially time-consuming. Thus, a subdomain model considering the tooth-tip effect is presented in this paper. The whole field domain is divided into four different types of sub-regions, where the analytical solutions of vector potential in each sub-region can be rapidly calculated. The proposed subdomain model can accurately predict the on-load flux density distributions and electromagnetic performance of DSCPPM machines, which is verified by FE method. Findings The radial and tangential components of flux densities in each sub-region of DSCPPM machine can be obtained according to the vector potential distribution, which is calculated based on the boundary and interface conditions using variable separation approach. The tooth-tip effect is investigated as well. Moreover, the phase-induced voltage, winding inductances, electromagnetic torque and X-axis/Y-axis components of unbalanced magnetic forces are calculated and compared by FE analysis, where excellent agreements are consistently exhibited. Originality/value The on-load field distributions and electromagnetic performance of DSCPPM machines are analytically investigated using subdomain method, which can be beneficial in the process of initial design and optimization for such DSCPPM machines.
Abdulsamed Tabak
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-02-2021-0044

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to improve transient response and dynamic performance of automatic voltage regulator (AVR). Design/methodology/approach This paper proposes a novel fractional order proportional–integral–derivative plus derivative (PIλDµDµ 2) controller called FOPIDD for AVR system. The FOPIDD controller has seven optimization parameters and the equilibrium optimizer algorithm is used for tuning of controller parameters. The utilized objective function is widely preferred in AVR systems and consists of transient response characteristics. Findings In this study, results of AVR system controlled by FOPIDD is compared with results of proportional–integral–derivative (PID), proportional–integral–derivative acceleration, PID plus second order derivative and fractional order PID controllers. FOPIDD outperforms compared controllers in terms of transient response criteria such as settling time, rise time and overshoot. Then, the frequency domain analysis is performed for the AVR system with FOPIDD controller, and the results are found satisfactory. In addition, robustness test is realized for evaluating performance of FOPIDD controller in perturbed system parameters. In robustness test, FOPIDD controller shows superior control performance. Originality/value The FOPIDD controller is introduced for the first time to improve the control performance of the AVR system. The proposed FOPIDD controller has shown superior performance on AVR systems because of having seven optimization parameters and being fractional order based.
Tadeusz Sobczyk, Michał Radzik, Jarosław Tulicki
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-10-2020-0324

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to omit the difficulties of directly finding the periodic steady-state solutions for electromagnetic devices described by circuit models. Design/methodology/approach Determine the discrete integral operator of periodic functions and develop an iterative algorithm determining steady-state solutions by a multiplication of matrices only. Findings An alternative method to creating finite-difference relations directly determining steady-state solutions in the time domain. Research limitations/implications Reduction of software and hardware requirements for determining steady-states of electromagnetic. Practical implications A unified approach for directly finding steady-state solutions for ordinary nonlinear differential equations presented in the normal form. Originality/value Eliminate the necessity of solving high-order finite-difference equations for steady-state analysis of electromagnetic devices described by circuit models.
Brahim Ladghem Chikouche, Kamel Boughrara, Dubas Frédéric, Rachid Ibtiouen
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-02-2021-0039

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to propose an improved two-dimensional hybrid analytical method (HAM) in Cartesian coordinates, based on the exact subdomain technique and the magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC). Design/methodology/approach The magnetic field solution is obtained by coupling an exact analytical model (AM), calculated in all regions having relative permeability equal to unity, with a MEC, using a nodal-mesh formulation (i.e. Kirchhoff’s current law) in ferromagnetic regions. The AM and MEC are connected in both axes (x, y) of the (non-)periodicity direction (i.e. in the interface between the tooth regions and all its adjacent regions as slots and/or air-gap). To provide accuracy solutions, the current density distribution in slot regions is modeled by using Maxwell’s equations instead of the MEC characterized by an equivalent magnetomotive force (MMF) located in slots, teeth and yokes. Findings It is found that whatever the iron core relative permeability, the developed HAM gives accurate results for no- and on-load conditions. The finite-element analysis demonstrates excellent results of the developed technique. Originality/value The main objective of this paper is to make a direct coupling between the AM and MEC in both directions (i.e. x- and y-edges). The current density distribution is modeled by using Maxwell’s equations instead of the MEC and characterized by an MMF.
Brahim Ladghem Chikouche, Kamel Boughrara, Dubas Frédéric, Rachid Ibtiouen
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-01-2021-0008

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid analytical model (HAM) in polar coordinates, combining a 2-D exact subdomain (SD) technique and magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC), for the magnetic field calculation in electrical machines at no-load and on-load conditions. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the proposed technique is applied to dual-rotor permanent magnet (PM) synchronous machines. The magnetic field is computed by coupling an exact analytical model (AM), based on the formal resolution of Maxwell’s equations applied in subdomains, in regions at unitary relative permeability with a MEC, using a nodal-mesh formulation (i.e. Kirchhoff's current law), in ferromagnetic regions. The AM and MEC are connected in both directions (i.e. r- and theta-edges) of the (non-)periodicity direction (i.e. in the interface between teeth regions and all its adjacent regions as slots and/or air-gap). To provide accurate solutions, the current density distribution in slot regions is modeled by using Maxwell’s equations instead to MEC and characterized by an equivalent magnetomotive force (MMF) located in the slots, teeth and yoke. Findings It is found that whatever the iron core relative permeability, the developed HAM gives accurate results for both no-load and on-load conditions. Finite element analysis demonstrates the excellent results of the developed technique. Originality/value The main objective of this paper is to achieve a direct coupling between the AM and MEC in both directions (i.e. r- and theta-edges). The current density distribution is modeled by using Maxwell’s equations instead to MEC and characterized by an MMF.
N. Kanagaraj, Vishwa Nath Jha
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-08-2020-0267

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to design a modified fractional order proportional integral derivative (PID) (FO[PI]λDµ) controller based on the principle of fractional calculus and investigate its performance for a class of a second-order plant model under different operating conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is compared with the classical controllers. Design/methodology/approach The fractional factor related to the integral term of the standard FO[PI]λDµ controller is applied as a common fractional factor term for the proportional plus integral coefficients in the proposed controller structure. The controller design is developed using the regular closed-loop system design specifications such as gain crossover frequency, phase margin, robustness to gain change and two more specifications, namely, noise reduction and disturbance elimination functions. Findings The study results of the designed controller using matrix laboratory software are analyzed and compared with an integer order PID and a classical FOPIλDµ controller, the proposed FO[PI]λDµ controller exhibit a high degree of performance in terms of settling time, fast response and no overshoot. Originality/value This paper proposes a methodology for the FO[PI]λDµ controller design for a second-order plant model using the closed-loop system design specifications. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated under different operating conditions such as external load disturbances and input parameter change.
Kamel Sabahi, , Mehdi Tavan
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-09-2020-0314

Abstract:
Purpose In this paper, a novel Lyapunov–Krasovskii stable fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) (FPID) controller is introduced for load frequency control of a time-delayed micro-grid (MG) system that benefits from a fuel cell unit, wind turbine generator and plug-in electric vehicles. Design/methodology/approach Using the Lyapunov–Krasovskii theorem, the adaptation laws for the consequent parameters and output scaling factors of the FPID controller are developed in such a way that an upper limit (the maximum permissible value) for time delay is introduced for the stability of the closed-loop MG system. In this way, there is a stable FPID controller, the adaptive parameters of which are bounded. In the obtained adaptation laws and the way of stability analyses, there is no need to approximate the nonlinear model of the controlled system, which makes the implementation process of the proposed adaptive FPID controller much simpler. Findings It has been shown that for a different amount of time delay and intermittent resources/loads, the proposed adaptive FPID controller is able to enforce the frequency deviations to zero with better performance and a less amount of energy. In the proposed FPID controller, the increase in the amount of time delay leads to a small increase in the amount of overshoot/undershoot and settling time values, which indicate that the proposed controller is robust to the time delay changes. Originality/value Although the designed FPID controllers in the literature are very efficient in being applied to the uncertain and nonlinear systems, they suffer from stability problems. In this paper, the stability of the FPID controller has been examined in applying to the frequency control of a nonlinear input-delayed MG system. Based on the Lyapunov–Krasovskii theorem and using rigorous mathematical analyses, the stability conditions and the adaptation laws for the parameters of the FPID controller have been obtained in the presence of input delay and nonlinearities of the MG system.
Kazuaki Takahara, Katsuhiro Hirata, Noboru Niguchi, Hironori Suzuki, Hajime Ukaji
COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering; doi:10.1108/compel-01-2020-0040

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to propose a new magnetic-geared motor (MGM) which can easily increase the gear ratio up to approximately several hundred. The operational principle is described, and the relationship between the maximum transmission torques of each layer of the differential harmonic magnetic gear is investigated using a mathematical model and finite element method (FEM). Design/methodology/approach The operational principle and maximum transmission torque are described using a mathematical model. The FEM is used to investigate the operational principle and torque characteristics. Findings As the proposed model can realize a larger gear ratio than the conventional model, the torque constant can be approximately 100 times as large as that of the conventional model. Research limitations/implications The proposed and conventional models have the same shape stator, and it is not optimized. Originality/value The relationship between the maximum transmission torques of each layer is described, and this helps the design of a differential type MGM.
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