#### Scientific Reports

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ISSN / EISSN : 2045-2322 / 2045-2322
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#### Latest articles in this journal

Shohei Okamoto, Kazuki Kamimura, Kenichi Shiraishi, Kazuto Sumita, Kohei Komamura, Akiko Tsukao, Shoko Chijiki, Shinya Kuno
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94553-2

Abstract:
Physical inactivity is a pandemic that requires intensive, usually costly efforts for risk reduction of related chronic diseases. Nevertheless, it is challenging to determine the effectiveness of physical activity in healthcare cost reduction based on existing literature. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of physical activity (daily steps) on healthcare costs utilising the data retrieved from a health promotion project (the e-wellness Project, held in three municipalities in Japan). Evaluating the effects of daily steps, measured by pedometers, on healthcare costs by a quasi-experimental approach among participants aged 40–75 years (about 4000 person-years of observation, between 2009 and 2013), we found that a one-step-increase in the annual average daily step reduced outpatient healthcare costs by 16.26 JPY (≒ 0.11 GBD) in the short run. Based on the assumption of a dynamic relationship between the health statuses in multiple years, the long-run effects of daily steps on healthcare costs were estimated at 28.24 JPY (≒ 0.20 GBD). We determined the health benefits of walking in a sample of middle-aged and older Japanese adults by our findings that an increase in step counts reduced healthcare costs.
Ryo Matsuura, Tetsushi Yamashita, Naoki Hayase, Yoshifumi Hamasaki, Eisei Noiri, Genri Numata, Eiki Takimoto, Masaomi Nangaku, Kent Doi
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94617-3

Abstract:
Although chronic heart failure is clinically associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), the precise mechanism that connects kidney and heart remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the effect of pre-existing heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) on kidney via sympathetic activity, using the combining models of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion (IR). The evaluation of acute (24 h) and chronic (2 weeks) phases of renal injury following IR 8 weeks after TAC in C57BL/6 mice revealed that the development of renal fibrosis in chronic phase was significantly attenuated in TAC mice, but not in non-TAC mice, whereas no impact of pre-existing heart failure was observed in acute phase of renal IR. Expression of transforming growth factor-β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage infiltration were significantly reduced in TAC mice. Lastly, to investigate the effect of sympathetic nerve activity, we performed renal sympathetic denervation two days prior to renal IR, which abrogated attenuation of renal fibrosis in TAC mice. Collectively, we demonstrate the protective effect of pre-existing HFrEF on long-term renal ischemic injury. Renal sympathetic nerve may contribute to this protection; however, further studies are needed to fully clarify the comprehensive mechanisms associated with attenuated renal fibrosis and pre-existing HFrEF.
Farzaneh Shayeganfar, Rouzbeh Shahsavari
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94085-9

Abstract:
Interfacial encoded properties of polymer adlayers adsorbed on the graphene (GE) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) have been constituted a scaffold for the creation of new materials. The holistic understanding of nanoscale intermolecular interaction of 1D/2D polymer assemblies on substrate is the key to bottom-up design of molecular devices. We develop an integrated multidisciplinary approach based on electronic structure computation [density functional theory (DFT)] and big data mining [machine learning (ML)] in parallel with neural network (NN) and statistical analysis (SA) to design hybrid polymers from assembly on substrate. Here we demonstrate that interfacial pressure and structural deformation of polymer network adsorbed on GE and SiO2 offer unique directions for the fabrication of 1D/2D polymers using only a small number of simple molecular building blocks. Our findings serve as the platform for designing a wide range of typical inorganic heterostructures, involving noncovalent intermolecular interaction observed in many nanoscale electronic devices.
Sohaib Khan, Farhad Ali, Waqar A. Khan, Anees Imtiaz, İlyas Khan, Thabet Abdeljawad
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-13; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94312-3

Abstract:
In the present article, we investigate the dual slip effect namely the velocity slip and thermal slip conditions on MHD flow past a thin needle. The entropy generation for the incompressible fluids that’s water and acetone that flowing above the thin needle is discussed. The energy dissipating term and the magnetic effect is included in the axial direction. The leading partial differential equations are transformed to ODE by an appropriate similarity transformation and solved using a numerical technique that is the Quasilinearization method. The terms for the rate of entropy generation, the Bejan number, and the irreversibility distribution ratio are discussed. Each dimensionless number is shown with velocity slip and also with the magnetic parameter is presented in graphical form. In the result, we conclude that the entropy generation rate is increasing with the increase in thermal slip parameter also some increasing effect is found as the size of the needle increases
M. Maschietto, M. Dal Maschio, S. Girardi, S. Vassanelli
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94620-8

Abstract:
Electroporation is a widely used non-viral technique for the delivery of molecules, including nucleic acids, into cells. Recently, electronic microsystems that miniaturize the electroporation machinery have been developed as a new tool for genetic manipulation of cells in vitro, by integrating metal microelectrodes in the culture substrate and enabling electroporation in-situ. We report that non-faradic SiO2 thin film-insulated microelectrodes can be used for reliable and spatially selective in-situ electroporation of mammalian cells. CHO-K1 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and primary neuronal cultures were electroporated by application of short and low amplitude voltage transients leading to cell electroporation by capacitive currents. We demonstrate reliable delivery of DNA plasmids and exogenous gene expression, accompanied by high spatial selectivity and cell viability, even with differentiated neurons. Finally, we show that SiO2 thin film-insulated microelectrodes support a double and serial transfection of the targeted cells.
Hyun-A Woo, Seong Sub Ku, Eun Yee Jie, Hyeran Kim, Hyun-Soon Kim, Hye Sun Cho, Won-Joong Jeong, Sang Un Park, Sung Ran Min, Suk Weon Kim
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94597-4

Abstract:
To establish an efficient plant regeneration system from cell suspension cultures of Euonymus alatus, embryogenic callus formation from immature embryos was investigated. The highest frequency of embryogenic callus formation reached 50% when the immature zygotic embryos were incubated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). At higher concentrations of 2,4-D (over 2 mg/L), the frequency of embryogenic callus formation declined significantly. The total number of somatic embryos development was highest with the 3% (w/v) sucrose treatment, which was found to be the optimal concentration for somatic embryo formation. Activated charcoal (AC) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) significantly increased the frequency of plantlet conversion from somatic embryos, but gibberellic acid (GA3) had a negative effect on plantlet conversion and subsequent development from somatic embryos. Even though the cell suspension cultures were maintained for more than 1 year, cell aggregates from embryogenic cell suspension cultures were successfully converted into normal somatic embryos with two cotyledons. To our knowledge, this is the first successful report of a plant regeneration system of E. alatus via somatic embryogenesis. Thus, the embryogenic cell line and plant regeneration system established in this study can be applied to mass proliferation and production of pharmaceutical metabolite in E. alatus.
Qingping Gou, Qingke Zhu
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-10; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94758-5

Abstract:
Deep soil moisture is a highly important source of water for vegetation in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China, vegetation restoration reduced the deep soil moisture, but how to better quantify the impact of vegetation restoration on deep soil moisture is lack of certain understanding. To explore the impact exerted by different types of vegetation on deep layers of the soil moisture, the 0–10 m soil moisture content profile was measured before and after the rainy season in Armeniaca sibirica, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus simonii, Pinus tabuliformis, Hippophae rhamnoides and in natural grassland in Wuqi County in Shannxi Province. These results showed that the highest soil moisture in the shallow layers (0–200 cm) was exhibited in the P. simonii forest, which was followed by that in the natural grassland. Both of these results were significantly higher than that those of the A. sibirica, P. tabuliformis, H. rhamnoides and R. pseudoacacia forests. The soil moisture in the deep layer (200–1000 cm) of the natural grassland was significantly higher than that of the other vegetation types. The annual precipitation that recharges the depth of soil moisture was the highest in natural grassland and the lowest in P. simonii. The inter-annual soil moisture replenishment is primarily affected by rainfall and vegetation types. Compared with the natural grassland, the CSWSD (the comparison of the soil moisture storage deficit) of different vegetation types varies. In the shallow soil layer, P. simonii is the lowest, and R. pseudoacacia is the highest. In the deep soil layer, R. pseudoacacia and P. simonii are the highest; H. rhamnoides is the second highest, and A. sibirica and P. tabuliformis are the lowest. These results indicate that vegetation restoration can significantly reduce the amount of water in the deep layers of the soil. In the future vegetation restoration, we suggest emphasizing natural development more strongly, since it can better maintain the local vegetation stability and soil moisture balance.
Alexandre Heeren, Séverine Lannoy, Charlotte Coussement, Yorgo Hoebeke, Alice Verschuren, M. Annelise Blanchard, Nadia Chakroun-Baggioni, Pierre Philippot, Fabien Gierski
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94151-2

Abstract:
Despite the large-scale dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions, debates persist about the very nature of mindfulness. To date, one of the dominant views is the five-facet approach, which suggests that mindfulness includes five facets (i.e., Observing, Describing, Nonjudging, Nonreactivity, and Acting with Awareness). However, uncertainty remains regarding the potential interplay between these facets. In this study, we investigated the five-facet model via network analysis in an unselected sample (n = 1704). We used two distinct computational network approaches: a Gaussian graphical model (i.e., undirected) and a directed acyclic graph, with each model determining the relations between the facets and their relative importance in the network. Both computational approaches pointed to the facet denoting Acting with Awareness as playing an especially potent role in the network system. Altogether, our findings offer novel data-driven clues for the field's larger quest to ascertain the very foundations of mindfulness.
Tetsuo Mashima, Takeru Wakatsuki, Naomi Kawata, Myung-Kyu Jang, Akiko Nagamori, Haruka Yoshida, Kenichi Nakamura, Toshiro Migita, Hiroyuki Seimiya, Kensei Yamaguchi
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94584-9

Abstract:
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) axis is an essential regulator of angiogenesis and important therapeutic target in cancer. Ramucirumab is an anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of several cancers. Increased circulating VEGF-A levels after ramucirumab administration are associated with a worse prognosis, suggesting that excess VEGF-A induced by ramucirumab negatively affects treatment efficacy and that neutralizing VEGF-A may improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated the effect of combination treatment with an anti-VEGFR2 antibody and anti-VEGF-A antibody on gastric tumor progression and normal tissues using a preclinical BALB/c-nu/nu mouse xenograft model. After anti-VEGFR2 antibody treatment in mice, a significant increase in plasma VEGF-A levels was observed, mirroring the clinical response. The elevated VEGF-A was host-derived. Anti-VEGF-A antibody co-administration enhanced the anti-tumor effect of the anti-VEGFR2-antibody without exacerbating the toxicity. Mechanistically, the combination treatment induced intra-tumor molecular changes closely related to angiogenesis inhibition and abolished the gene expression changes specifically induced by anti-VEGFR2 antibody treatment alone. We particularly identified the dual treatment-selective downregulation of ZEB1 expression, which was critical for gastric cancer cell proliferation. These data indicate that the dual blockade of VEGF-A and VEGFR2 is a rational strategy to ensure the anti-tumor effect of angiogenesis-targeting therapy.
Jun-Wen Xu, Yizhang Chen, Nicolás M. Vargas, Pavel Salev, Pavel N. Lapa, Juan Trastoy, Julie Grollier, Ivan K. Schuller, Andrew D. Kent
Published: 23 July 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-6; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-93404-4

Abstract:
In a spintronic resonator a radio-frequency signal excites spin dynamics that can be detected by the spin-diode effect. Such resonators are generally based on ferromagnetic metals and their responses to spin torques. New and richer functionalities can potentially be achieved with quantum materials, specifically with transition metal oxides that have phase transitions that can endow a spintronic resonator with hysteresis and memory. Here we present the spin torque ferromagnetic resonance characteristics of a hybrid metal-insulator-transition oxide/ ferromagnetic metal nanoconstriction. Our samples incorporate $${\mathrm {V}}_2{\mathrm {O}}_3$$ V 2 O 3 , with Ni, Permalloy ( $${\hbox {Ni}}_{80}{\hbox {Fe}}_{20}$$ Ni 80 Fe 20 ) and Pt layers patterned into a nanoconstriction geometry. The first order phase transition in $${\mathrm {V}}_2{\mathrm {O}}_3$$ V 2 O 3 is shown to lead to systematic changes in the resonance response and hysteretic current control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. Further, the output signal can be systematically varied by locally changing the state of the $${\mathrm {V}}_2{\mathrm {O}}_3$$ V 2 O 3 with a dc current. These results demonstrate new spintronic resonator functionalities of interest for neuromorphic computing.