Scientific Reports

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ISSN / EISSN : 20452322 / 20452322
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 109,208
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Latest articles in this journal

Ana-María Gómez-Carvajal, Hernando Santamaría-García, Adolfo M. García, Mario Valderrama, Jhony Mejia, Jose Santamaría-García, Mateo Bernal, Jaime Silva, Agustín Ibáñez, Sandra Baez
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62622-7

Abstract:
Pregnancy and puerperium are typified by marked biobehavioral changes. These changes, which are traceable in both mothers and fathers, play an important role in parenthood and may modulate social cognition abilities. However, the latter effects remain notably unexplored in parents of newborns (PNs). To bridge this gap, we assessed empathy and social emotions (envy and Schadenfreude) in 55 PNs and 60 controls (childless healthy participants without a romantic relationship or sexual intercourse in the previous 48 hours). We used facial electromyography to detect physiological signatures of social emotion processing. Results revealed higher levels of affective empathy and Schadenfreude in PNs, the latter pattern being accompanied by increased activity of the corrugator suppercilii region. These effects were not explained by potential confounding variables (educational level, executive functioning, depression, stress levels, hours of sleep). Our novel findings suggest that PNs might show social cognition changes crucial for parental bonding and newborn care.
Wanwan Wang, Zhuoxian Yu, Jinpeng Meng, Pengyong Zhou, Ting Luo, Jin Zhang, Jun Wu, Yonggen Lou
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62752-y

Abstract:
In response to infestation by herbivores, rice plants rapidly biosynthesize defense compounds by activating a series of defense-related pathways. However, which defensive compounds in rice are effective against herbivores remains largely unknown. We found that the infestation of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera gravid females significantly increased levels of jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and H2O2, and reduced the level of ethylene in rice; levels of 11 of the tested 12 phenolamides (PAs) were subsequently enhanced. In contrast, WBPH nymph infestation had no effect on levels of JA, JA-Ile, ethylene and H2O2 in rice, and enhanced levels of only 2 of 12 PAs. Moreover, infestation by brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens gravid females also affected the production of these PAs differently. Bioassays revealed that 4 PAs – N-feruloylputrescine, N-feruloyltyramine, feruloylagmatine and N1,N10-diferuloylspermidine – were toxic to newly emerged WBPH female adults. Our results suggest that WBPH- or BPH-induced biosynthesis of PAs in rice seems to be shaped primarily by the specific profile of defense-related signals elicited by the herbivore and that PAs play a role in conferring the resistance to WBPH on rice.
Jeong Su Ha, Jin Yong Kang, Jeong Eun Kang, Seon Kyeong Park, Jong Min Kim, Chul-Woo Kim, Sung-Il Oh, Uk Lee, Dae-Ok Kim, Ho Jin Heo
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62810-5

Abstract:
This study was performed to investigate the effect of the chloroform fraction from Actinidia arguta (CFAA) on cognitive dysfunction in a C57BL/6 mouse model fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The CFAA has the protective effect on high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in MC-IXC cell (neuroblastoma cell line). In a C57BL/6 mouse model fed a HFD for 12 weeks, the improved glucose tolerance and cognitive dysfunction were observed in a group ingesting CFAA. In the brain tissue analysis, the impaired cholinergic, antioxidant system and mitochondria functions were improved in the CFAA group. In addition, in a molecular biology study, it was observed that CFAA improves HFD-induced abnormal insulin signaling such as increase of IRS phosphorylation at serine residues and reduction of Akt phosphorylation caused by the increase of JNK phosphorylation and then inhibited apoptosis. In the UPLC Q-TOF/MS analysis, pentacyclic triterpenoids such as asiatic acid (AA), madecassic acid (MA) were identified in CFAA as main compounds. Therefore, these results propose that Actinidia arguta rich in pentacyclic triterpenoids may be effective as preventive matter a therapeutic strategy to improve neurodegenerative disease caused by HFD.
Qi Jiang, Yingjie Xing
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62769-3

Abstract:
Improving the photovoltaic performance directly by innovative device architectures contributes much progress in the field of organic solar cells. Photovoltaic device using different kinds of heterojunction with the given set of organic semiconductors paves the way to a better understanding of the working mechanism of organic heterojunction. Here, we report on the fabrication of a new device structure without employing extra material. A thin film of the donor material (chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc)) is inserted between ClAlPc:C60 bulk heterojunction (BHJ) and C60 layer by glancing angle deposition. A ClAlPc/C60 planar heterojunction co-exists with ClAlPc:C60 BHJ simultaneously in this device. Higher efficiency is obtained with this novel device structure. The effects of this additional ClAlPc layer on open-circuit voltage and fill factor in photovoltaic cells are studied. This work provides a new route to improve the device performance of organic solar cells.
Koh Meng Aw Yong, Peter J. Ulintz, Sara Caceres, Xu Cheng, Liwei Bao, Zhifen Wu, Evelyn M. Jiagge, Sofia D. Merajver
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62516-8

Abstract:
Identifying better predictive and prognostic biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is complicated by tumor heterogeneity ranging from responses to therapy, mutational burden, and clonal evolution. To overcome the gap in our understanding of tumor heterogeneity, we hypothesized that isolating and studying the gene expression profile of invasive tumor cell subpopulations would be a crucial step towards achieving this goal. In this report, we utilized a fluidic device previously reported to be capable of supporting long-term three-dimensional growth and invasion dynamics of cancer cells. Live invading and matched non-invading SUM149 inflammatory breast cancer cells were enriched using this device and these two functionally distinct subpopulations were tested for differences in gene expression using a gene expression microarray. 305 target genes were identified to have altered expression in the invading cells compared to the non-invading tumoroid cells. Gene ontology analysis of the gene panel identified multiple biological roles ranging from extracellular matrix reorganization to modulation of the immune response and Rho signaling. Interestingly, the genes associated with the invasion front differ between different samples, consistent with inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. This work suggests the impact of heterogeneity in biomarker discovery should be considered as cancer therapy increasingly heads towards a personalized approach.
Takuya Hiratsuka, Yoshiki Arakawa, Yuka Yajima, Yu Kakimoto, Keisuke Shima, Yuzo Yamazaki, Masahiro Ikegami, Takushi Yamamoto, Hideshi Fujiwake, Koichi Fujimoto, et al.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62176-8

Abstract:
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been rarely used to examine specimens of human brain tumours. In the current study, high quality brain tumour samples were selected by tissue observation. Further, IMS analysis was combined with a new hierarchical cluster analysis (IMS-HCA) and region of interest analysis (IMS-ROI). IMS-HCA was successful in creating groups consisting of similar signal distribution images of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and related multiple proteins in primary brain tumours. This clustering data suggested the relation of GFAP and these identified proteins in the brain tumorigenesis. Also, high levels of histone proteins, haemoglobin subunit α, tubulins, and GFAP were identified in a metastatic brain tumour using IMS-ROI. Our results show that IMS-HCA and IMS-ROI are promising techniques for identifying biomarkers using brain tumour samples.
Chih-Ning Cheng, Chih-Yuan Wang, Hung-Wei Lin, Ting-Yu Chang, Hsu-Ju Lin, Chiahung Chou, Fang-Ju Lin
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62646-z

Abstract:
While basal insulin remains the most effective antidiabetic agent and substantially reduces the risk of hypoglycemia, few studies have examined the comparative effect of basal insulin in the real-world setting. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of adding basal insulin compared with thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) as a third antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A retrospective cohort study involving T2DM was conducted with health administrative data in Taiwan. Patients starting a third antidiabetic agent after receiving a metformin-containing dual combination were identified. The study endpoints included composite major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), all-cause mortality, and hypoglycemia. Propensity score matching and Cox modeling were used for analysis. After matching, the basal insulin and TZD groups contained 6,101 and 11,823 patients, respectively, and the basal insulin and DPP-4i groups contained 6,051 and 11,900 patients, respectively. TZDs and DPP-4is were both associated with similar risks of MACEs and hypoglycemia but a lower risk of all-cause mortality than basal insulin (TZDs: HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.81; DPP-4is: HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.39–0.82). Further studies are needed to elucidate the findings of increased all-cause mortality risk in patients receiving basal insulin, especially those with advanced diabetes.
Jie Li, Bo Zhang, Yang Bai, Yonghong Liu, Buyong Zhang, Jian Jin
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-7; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62731-3

Abstract:
Although differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has a good prognosis and survival rate, long-term medication and recurrence monitoring might be needed. The factors that affect postoperative health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with DTC in different regions remain unclear or conflicting. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence the HRQoL of DTC patients after surgery. This study selected 174 patients with DTC who underwent thyroidectomy. Additionally, 174 participants who were matched by age, gender, and socioeconomic status were recruited from the population as the control group. Both the DTC and control population groups were invited to answer the HRQoL questionnaire SF-36. Scores on seven domains of the HRQoL including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), role-emotional (RE), and mental health (MH), were significantly lower for DTC patients than for the control population. The patients with no comorbidities had much higher scores on the 8 domains of the SF-36 than DTC patients with two or more comorbidities (all P < 0.05). Hypertension, diabetes and depression were the predictive factors of a poor Physical Component Summary (PCS) score and diabetes and depression were predictive factors of the Mental Component Summary (MCS) score at one year of follow-up (all P < 0.05). HRQoL is significantly influenced by many sociodemographic and clinical factors. Hypertension, diabetes and depression had a negative impact on HRQoL in DTC patients. More attention and targeted intervention should be given to DTC patients after surgery to improve quality of life.
Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Camilo Palazuelos, Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Jone M. Altzibar, Carmen González-Donquiles, Eva Ardanaz, Mariona Bustamante, Jessica Alonso-Molero, Carmen Vidal, et al.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-1; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62511-z

Abstract:
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Haoqun An, Yong Hun Lee, Jeong Heon Lee, Chaoxing Wu, Bon Min Koo, Tae Whan Kim
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62721-5

Abstract:
Tungsten disulfide (WS2) quantum dots (QDs) embedded in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) based flexible memristive devices were prepared, and those devices exhibited typical bistable electrical switching and remarkable nonvolatile memristive behaviors. Maximum electricity ON/OFF ratio obtained from the current–voltage (I-V) curves of the device is close to 104. The set voltage of the device is +0.7 V, which effectively reduced the energy consumption. The retention times extracted from data for the devices were as large as 1 × 104 s, which points to these devices having nonvolatile characteristics. Moreover, the highly flexible characteristics of the devices were demonstrated by bending the devices. The carrier transport mechanisms were explained by fitting the I-V curves, and possible operating mechanisms of the devices can be described based on the electron trapping and detrapping processes. WS2 QDs uniformly dispersed in pure transparent N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) were obtained by using ultrasonication and a hydrothermal process in this work.