ISSN / EISSN : 2045-2322 / 2045-2322
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 146,006
Latest articles in this journal
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99992-5
Uni-modal, not bi-modal, of abnormal grain growth has been observed in (111) oriented and nano-twinned Cu films. Because of the highly anisotropic microstructure, our kinetic analysis and calculation showed that it is the mobility which dominates the uni-modal growth, in which the lateral growth rate can be two orders of magnitude higher than the vertical growth rate. As a consequence, the abnormal grain growth has been converted from bi-modal to uni-modal.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98556-x
We present a subcritical fracture growth model, coupled with the elastic redistribution of the acting mechanical stress along rugous rupture fronts. We show the ability of this model to quantitatively reproduce the intermittent dynamics of cracks propagating along weak disordered interfaces. To this end, we assume that the fracture energy of such interfaces (in the sense of a critical energy release rate) follows a spatially correlated normal distribution. We compare various statistical features from the obtained fracture dynamics to that from cracks propagating in sintered polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) interfaces. In previous works, it has been demonstrated that such an approach could reproduce the mean advance of fractures and their local front velocity distribution. Here, we go further by showing that the proposed model also quantitatively accounts for the complex self-affine scaling morphology of crack fronts and their temporal evolution, for the spatial and temporal correlations of the local velocity fields and for the avalanches size distribution of the intermittent growth dynamics. We thus provide new evidence that an Arrhenius-like subcritical growth is particularly suitable for the description of creeping cracks.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99939-w
Endothelial cells and pericytes are highly dynamic vascular cells and several subtypes, based on their spatiotemporal dynamics or molecular expression, are believed to exist. The interaction between endothelial cells and pericytes is of importance in many aspects ranging from basic development to diseases like cancer. Identification of spatiotemporal dynamics is particularly interesting and methods to studies these are in demand. Here we describe the technical details of a method combining the benefits of high resolution intravital imaging and whole-mount histology. With intravital imaging using an adapted light weight dorsal skinfold chamber we identified blood flow patterns and spatiotemporal subtypes of endothelial cells and pericytes in a 4D (XYZ, spatial+T, time dimension) manner as representative examples for this model. Thereafter the tissue was extracted and stained as a whole-mount, by which the position and volumetric space of endothelial cells as well as pericytes were maintained, to identify molecular subtypes. Integration of the two imaging methods enabled 4D dissection of endothelial cell–pericyte association at the molecular level.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99987-2
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a tissue ablation method, uses short high electric pulses and results in cell death in target tissue by irreversibly permeabilizing the cell membrane. Potato is commonly used as a tissue model for electroporation experiments. The blackened area that forms 12 h after electric pulsing is regarded as an IRE-ablated area caused by melanin accumulation. Here, the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) was used as a dye to assess the IRE-ablated area 3 h after potato model ablation. Comparison between the blackened area and TTC-unstained white area in various voltage conditions showed that TTC staining well delineated the IRE-ablated area. Moreover, whether the ablated area was consistent over time and at different staining times was investigated. In addition, the presumed reversible electroporation (RE) area was formed surrounding the IRE-ablated area. Overall, TTC staining can provide a more rapid and accurate electroporated area evaluation.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99940-3
Gastric diffuse-type adenocarcinoma represents a disproportionately high percentage of cases of gastric cancers occurring in the young, and its relative incidence seems to be on the rise. Usually it affects the body of the stomach, and it presents shorter duration and worse prognosis compared with the differentiated (intestinal) type adenocarcinoma. The main difficulty encountered in the differential diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinomas occurs with the diffuse-type. As the cancer cells of diffuse-type adenocarcinoma are often single and inconspicuous in a background desmoplaia and inflammation, it can often be mistaken for a wide variety of non-neoplastic lesions including gastritis or reactive endothelial cells seen in granulation tissue. In this study we trained deep learning models to classify gastric diffuse-type adenocarcinoma from WSIs. We evaluated the models on five test sets obtained from distinct sources, achieving receiver operator curve (ROC) area under the curves (AUCs) in the range of 0.95–0.99. The highly promising results demonstrate the potential of AI-based computational pathology for aiding pathologists in their diagnostic workflow system.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99233-9
Wildlife-vehicle collisions threaten both humans and wildlife, but we still lack information about the relationship between traffic volume and wildlife-vehicle collisions. The COVID-19 pandemic allowed us to investigate the effects of traffic volume on wildlife-vehicle collisions in the United States. We observed decreased traffic nationwide, particularly in densely populated states with low or high disease burdens. Despite reduced traffic, total collisions were unchanged; wildlife-vehicle collisions did decline at the start of the pandemic, but increased as the pandemic progressed, ultimately exceeding collisions in the previous year. As a result, nationwide collision rates were higher during the pandemic. We suggest that increased wildlife road use offsets the effects of decreased traffic volume on wildlife-vehicle collisions. Thus, decreased traffic volume will not always reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00046-7
In this work, an experimental analysis of the performance of different types of quasi-randomly distributed reflectors inscribed into a single-mode fiber as a sensing mirror is presented. These artificially-controlled backscattering fiber reflectors are used in short linear cavity fiber lasers. In particular, laser emission and sensor application features are analyzed when employing optical tapered fibers, micro-drilled optical fibers and 50 μm-waist or 100 μm-waist micro-drilled tapered fibers (MDTF). Single-wavelength laser with an output power level of about 8.2 dBm and an optical signal-to-noise ratio of 45 dB were measured when employing a 50 μm-waist micro-drilled tapered optical fiber. The achieved temperature sensitivities were similar to those of FBGs; however, the strain sensitivity improved more than one order of magnitude in comparison with FBG sensors, attaining slope sensitivities as good as 18.1 pm/με when using a 50 μm-waist MDTF as distributed reflector.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99222-y
The influence of body mass or metabolic capacity on the association between alcohol consumption and lower risks of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not fully elucidated. We examined whether the body mass index (BMI) affects the association between drinking alcohol and CKD. We defined CKD as an estimated glomerular filtration rate decline < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or positive proteinuria (≥ 1+). Participants were 11,175 Japanese individuals aged 40–74 years without baseline CKD who underwent annual health checkups. Daily alcohol consumption at baseline was estimated using a questionnaire, and the participants were categorized as “infrequent (occasionally, rarely or never),” “light (< 20 g/day),” “moderate (20–39 g/day),” and “heavy (≥ 40 g/day).” Over a median 5-year observation period, 936 participants developed CKD. Compared with infrequent drinkers, light drinkers were associated with low CKD risks; adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.81 (0.69–0.95). Stratified by BMI (kg/m2), moderate drinkers in the low (< 18.5), normal (18.5–24.9), and high (≥ 25.0) BMI groups had adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 3.44 (1.60–7.42), 0.75 (0.58–0.98), and 0.63 (0.39–1.04), respectively. Taken together, the association between alcohol consumption and CKD incidence was not the same in all the individuals, and individual tolerance must be considered.
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00196-8
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99312-x
Despite increasing evidence for an association between circulating uric acid (UA) and depression, the directionality of this association remains unclear and is potentially moderated by low-grade inflammation. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between serum UA concentration and depressive symptoms in Korean individuals with and without low-grade inflammation, as measured using serum high-specific C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. The final study sample comprised 4188 participants, aged 19–79 years, from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2016. Data on serum uric acid (UA) concentrations, serum hs-CRP levels, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores, and relative covariates were retrieved. Negative binomial regression with adjustment for the complex sample design was used to analyze the associations. After adjusting for covariates, log-transformed serum UA concentrations and total PHQ-9 scores were positively associated (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.34 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09–1.66]) for participants without low-grade inflammation and inversely associated (IRR = 0.64 [95% CI = 0.45–0.92]) for participants with low-grade inflammation. In conclusion, the direction of the association between serum UA and depressive symptoms was the opposite in participants with and without low-grade inflammation. The study has the limitation of potential uncontrolled confounders.