Scientific Reports

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ISSN / EISSN : 20452322 / 20452322
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 105,098
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Ece Z. Asirim, Tim-Henning Humberg, G. Larisa Maier, Simon G. Sprecher
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-13; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59614-y

Abstract:Organisms possess an endogenous molecular clock which enables them to adapt to environmental rhythms and to synchronize their metabolism and behavior accordingly. Circadian rhythms govern daily oscillations in numerous physiological processes, and the underlying molecular components have been extensively described from fruit flies to mammals. Drosophila larvae have relatively simple nervous system compared to their adult counterparts, yet they both share a homologous molecular clock with mammals, governed by interlocking transcriptional feedback loops with highly conserved constituents. Larvae exhibit a robust light avoidance behavior, presumably enabling them to avoid predators and desiccation, and DNA-damage by exposure to ultraviolet light, hence are crucial for survival. Circadian rhythm has been shown to alter light-dark preference, however it remains unclear how distinct behavioral strategies are modulated by circadian time. To address this question, we investigate the larval visual navigation at different time-points of the day employing a computer-based tracking system, which allows detailed evaluation of distinct navigation strategies. Our results show that due to circadian modulation specific to light information processing, larvae avoid light most efficiently at dawn, and a functioning clock mechanism at both molecular and neuro-signaling level is necessary to conduct this modulation.
Y. Z. He, Y. M. Liu, C. G. Bao
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59540-z

Abstract:We have performed a quantum mechanic calculation (including solving the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations to obtain the spatial wave functions, and diagonalizing the spin-dependent Hamiltonian in the spin-space to obtain the total spin state) together with an analytical analysis based on a classical model. Then, according to the relative orientations of the spins SA, SB and SC of the three species, the spin-structures of the ground state can be classified into two types. In Type-I the three spins are either parallel or anti-parallel to each other, while in Type-II they point to different directions but remain to be coplanar. Moreover, according to the magnitudes of SA, SB and SC, the spin-structures can be further classified into four kinds, namely, p + p + p (all atoms of each species are in singlet-pairs), one species in f (fully polarized) and two species in q (a mixture of polarized atoms and singlet-pairs), two in f and one in q, and f + f + f. Other combinations are not allowed. The scopes of the parameters that supports a specific spin-structure have been specified. A number of spin-structure-transitions have been found. For Type-I, the critical values at which a transition takes place are given by simple analytical formulae, therefore these values can be predict.
Yoichiro Yoshida, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Makoto Miyazaki, Naoya Aisu, Teppei Yamada, Ryuji Kajitani, Taro Munechika, Yoshiko Matsumoto, Hideki Nagano, Hideki Shimaoka, et al.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-7; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59648-2

Abstract:Capecitabine is selectively converted from 5′-DFUR to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in tumours by thymidine phosphorylase (TP). We investigated the addition of 5-nitrouracil (5-NU), a TP inhibitor, into blood samples for precise measurements of plasma 5-FU concentrations. The plasma concentration of 5-FU was measured after capecitabine administration. Two samples were obtained at 1 or 2 h after capecitabine administration and 5-NU was added to one of each pair. Samples were stored at room temperature or 4 °C and 5-FU concentrations were measured immediately or 1.5 or 3 h later. The mean plasma 5-FU concentration was significantly higher at room temperature than at 4 °C (p < 0.001). The 5-FU concentration was significantly increased in the absence of 5-NU than in the presence of 5-NU (p < 0.001). The 5-FU change in concentration was greater in the absence of 5-NU, and reached 190% of the maximum compared with baseline. A significant interaction was found between temperature and 5-NU conditions (p < 0.001). Differences between the presence or absence of 5-NU were greater at room temperature than under refrigerated conditions. 5-FU plasma concentrations after capecitabine administration varied with time, temperature, and the presence or absence of 5-NU. This indicates that plasma concentrations of 5-FU change dependent on storage conditions after blood collection.
Seongjun Park, Boram An, Seonjoo Park
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59547-6

Abstract:The study of intracellular gene transfer may allow for the detection of interesting evolutionary processes such as ancient polyploidization. We compared 24 plastid genomes (plastomes) from tribe Delphinieae, one from tribe Nigelleae and one from tribe Ranunculeae, including five newly sequenced genomes. The functional transfers of the plastids rpl32 and rps16 to the nucleus in tribe Delphinieae were identified. Unexpectedly, we discovered multiple divergent copies of the nuclear-encoded plastid rpl32 in the genus Aconitum. Phylogenetic and synonymous substitution rate analyses revealed that the nuclear-encoded plastid rpl32 underwent two major duplication events. These ancient gene duplication events probably occurred via multiple polyploidization events in Aconitum between 11.9 and 24.7 Mya. Furthermore, our sequence rate analysis indicated that the eight plastid-encoded rpl subunits in Aconitum had a significantly accelerated evolutionary rate compared to those in other genera, suggesting that highly divergent paralogs targeted to the plastid may contribute to an elevated rate of evolution in plastid rpl genes. In addition, heteroplasmy of the plastid matK from two Aconitum species suggested the existence of potentially functional plastid maturases in its plastome. Our results provide insight into the evolutionary history of the tribe Delphinieae.
Hisako Fukunaga, Toshikatsu Kaburaki, Shintaro Shirahama, Rie Tanaka, Hiroshi Murata, Tomohito Sato, Masaru Takeuchi, Hideto Tozawa, Yoshihiro Urade, Mari Katsura, et al.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59666-0

Abstract:Treatment of uveitis is complicated because of its multiple aetiologies and elevation of various inflammatory mediators. To determine the mediators that are elevated in the vitreous humor according to the aetiology of the uveitis, we examined the concentrations of 21 inflammatory cytokines, 7 chemokines, and 5 colony-stimulating/growth factors in vitreous samples from 57 eyes with uveitis associated with intraocular lymphoma (IOL, n = 13), sarcoidosis (n = 15), acute retinal necrosis (ARN, n = 13), or bacterial endophthalmitis (BE, n = 16). Samples from eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (n = 15), which is not associated with uveitis, were examined as controls. Heat map analysis demonstrated that the patterns of inflammatory mediators in the vitreous humor in eyes with uveitis were disease-specific. Pairwise comparisons between the 5 diseases showed specific elevation of interferon-α2 in ARN and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in BE. Pairwise comparisons between IOL, ARN, and BE revealed that levels of IL-10 in IOL, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in ARN, and IL-22 in BE were significantly higher than those in the other 2 types of uveitis. These mediators are likely to be involved in the immunopathology of specific types of uveitis and may be useful biomarkers.
Humayan Kabir Rana, Mst. Rashida Akhtar, M. Babul Islam, Mohammad Boshir Ahmed, Pietro Lió, Fazlul Huq, Julian M. W. Quinn, Mohammad Ali Moni
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-15; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-57916-9

Abstract:Welding generates and releases fumes that are hazardous to human health. Welding fumes (WFs) are a complex mix of metallic oxides, fluorides and silicates that can cause or exacerbate health problems in exposed individuals. In particular, WF inhalation over an extended period carries an increased risk of cancer, but how WFs may influence cancer behaviour or growth is unclear. To address this issue we employed a quantitative analytical framework to identify the gene expression effects of WFs that may affect the subsequent behaviour of the cancers. We examined datasets of transcript analyses made using microarray studies of WF-exposed tissues and of cancers, including datasets from colorectal cancer (CC), prostate cancer (PC), lung cancer (LC) and gastric cancer (GC). We constructed gene-disease association networks, identified signaling and ontological pathways, clustered protein-protein interaction network using multilayer network topology, and analyzed survival function of the significant genes using Cox proportional hazards (Cox PH) model and product-limit (PL) estimator. We observed that WF exposure causes altered expression of many genes (36, 13, 25 and 17 respectively) whose expression are also altered in CC, PC, LC and GC. Gene-disease association networks, signaling and ontological pathways, protein-protein interaction network, and survival functions of the significant genes suggest ways that WFs may influence the progression of CC, PC, LC and GC. This quantitative analytical framework has identified potentially novel mechanisms by which tissue WF exposure may lead to gene expression changes in tissue gene expression that affect cancer behaviour and, thus, cancer progression, growth or establishment.
S. S. Batool, Z. Imran, Kamran Rasool, Jaweria Ambreen, Safia Hassan, Saira Arif, Mushtaq Ahmad, M. A. Rafiq
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59563-6

Abstract:This work represents the nature of conduction mechanism in bismuth silicate (BiSiO) nanofibers as a function of temperature and frequency. Scanning electron micrographs and X-rays diffraction patterns exhibited the formation of cubic phases of Bi4(SiO4)3 and Bi12SiO20 nanofibers respectively with an average diameter of ~200 nm. Temperature dependent (300 K–400 K) electrical characterization of fibers was carried out in frequency range of ~20 Hz–2 MHz. The complex impedance analysis showed contribution from bulk and intergranular parts of nanofibers in conduction. Moreover, analysis of the Cole-Cole plot confirmed the space charge dependent behavior of BiSiO nanofibers. Two types of relaxation phenomena were observed through Modulus analysis. In ac conductivity curve, step like feature of plateau and dispersive regions were described by Maxwell-Wagner effect while the dc part obeyed the Arrhenius law. However, frequency dependent ac conductivity revealed the presence of conduction mechanism in diverse regions that was ascribed to large polaron tunneling model. Detailed analysis of complex Impedance and ac conductivity measurement showed negative temperature coefficient of resistance for the BiSiO nanofibers. Current-voltage (IV) characteristics represented ohmic conduction; followed by space charge limited current conduction at intermediate voltages. Results from both ac and dc measurements were in good agreement with each other.
Katrine Højholt Iversen, Louise Hesselbjerg Rasmussen, Kosai Al-Nakeeb, Jose Juan Almagro Armenteros, Christian Salgård Jensen, Rimtas Dargis, Oksana Lukjancenko, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Claus Moser, Flemming S. Rosenvinge, et al.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59549-4

Abstract:Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis belong to the Mitis group streptococci, which mostly are commensals in the human oral cavity. Though they are oral commensals, they can escape their niche and cause infective endocarditis, a severe infection with high mortality. Several virulence factors important for the development of infective endocarditis have been described in these two species. However, the background for how the commensal bacteria, in some cases, become pathogenic is still not known. To gain a greater understanding of the mechanisms of the pathogenic potential, we performed a comparative analysis of 38 blood culture strains, S. sanguinis (n = 20) and S. gordonii (n = 18) from patients with verified infective endocarditis, along with 21 publicly available oral isolates from healthy individuals, S. sanguinis (n = 12) and S. gordonii (n = 9). Using whole genome sequencing data of the 59 streptococci genomes, functional profiles were constructed, using protein domain predictions based on the translated genes. These functional profiles were used for clustering, phylogenetics and machine learning. A clear separation could be made between the two species. No clear differences between oral isolates and clinical infective endocarditis isolates were found in any of the 675 translated core-genes. Additionally, random forest-based machine learning and clustering of the pan-genome data as well as amino acid variations in the core-genome could not separate the clinical and oral isolates. A total of 151 different virulence genes was identified in the 59 genomes. Among these homologs of genes important for adhesion and evasion of the immune system were found in all of the strains. Based on the functional profiles and virulence gene content of the genomes, we believe that all analysed strains had the ability to become pathogenic.
Ji-Ping Zhou, Jia-Feng Yu, Ya-Nan Feng, Chun-Long Liu, Pan Su, Su-Hong Shen, Zhi-Jie Zhang
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59715-8

Abstract:The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the passive stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) in patients with and without plantar fasciitis (PF), (2) to explore the correlation between gastrocnemius stiffness and plantar fascia thickness (PFT) as well as the intensity of pain in patients with PF, (3) to detect optimal cut-off points for stiffness of the MG and LG for identifying patients with PF. Forty patients (mean age = 51.1 years ± 12.9) participated in this study. The elastic properties of the MG and LG were quantified using shear wave elastography ultrasound. The thickness of the plantar fascia was measured by B-mode imaging. The intensity of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. The results showed that when the ankle was in the relaxed position, patients with PF had increased passive stiffness in the MG (P < 0.05) but not in the LG. Significant correlations were found between pain and the stiffness of the MG (middle, distal; all P-values < 0.05) and no correlation was observed between pain and PFT (P = 0.416). The initial cut-off point for the stiffness of the MG was 29.08 kPa when the ankle was in the relaxed position. The findings from the present study show that an increase in muscle stiffness is not the same in the individual muscles of the gastrocnemius muscle. Traditional treatment of the whole gastrocnemius muscle might not be targeted at the tight muscle.
Yeonyee Elizabeth Yoon, Kyoung Min Kim, Wonjae Lee, Jong Soo Han, Eun Ju Chun, Soyeon Ahn, Sang Il Choi, Bo La Yun, Jung-Won Suh
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-59606-y

Abstract:We evaluated whether breast arterial calcification (BAC) is associated with the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic women. This retrospective observational cohort study analysed asymptomatic women from the BBC registry. In 126 consecutive women (age, 54.5 ± 7.0 years) who underwent BAC evaluation and repeated coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) examinations, the coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) and segment stenosis score (SSS) were evaluated to assess the progression of coronary arterial calcification (CAC) and coronary atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). CAC and CAP progression were observed in 42 (33.3%) and 26 (20.6%) women, respectively (median interscan time, 4.3 years), and were associated with the presence of BAC and a higher BAC score at baseline. Women with BAC demonstrated higher CAC and CAP progression rates and showed higher chances for CAC and CAP progression during follow-up (p < 0.001 for both). In multivariable analyses, the BAC score remained independently associated with both CAC and CAP progression rates after adjustment for clinical risk factors (β = 0.087, p = 0.029; and β = 0.020, p = 0.010, respectively) and with additional adjustment for baseline CACS (β = 0.080, p = 0.040; and β = 0.019, p = 0.012, respectively) or SSS (β = 0.079, p = 0.034; and β = 0.019, p = 0.011, respectively). Thus, BAC may be related to the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and its evaluation may facilitate decision-making.