#### Scientific Reports

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ISSN / EISSN : 2045-2322 / 2045-2322
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Ningning Ding, Yongde Zhong, JiaXiang Li, Qiong Xiao
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05114-0

Abstract:
The selection of native greening plants to improve rural greening technology is crucial for enriching methods of building rural plant landscapes. However, there are few studies from the perspective of visual preference using quantitative methods. By using eye-tracking technology, this study studies students in the Central South University of Forestry and Technology and villagers in Changkou Village, Fujian Province, employing pictures of plant organs—leaves, flowers, and fruits—as stimulating materials to analyze five indicators: the total duration of fixations, the number of fixations, average duration of fixations, average pupil size and average amplitude of saccades. A number of findings came from this research First, people visually prefer leaves, followed by flowers and fruits. In terms of species, Photinia × fraseri, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Photinia serratifolia, Cunninghamia lanceolata and Koelreuteria bipinnata have higher overall preference. Families such as Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Araliaceae, Myricaceae and Cupressaceae have stronger visual attraction than others. Second, there are distinct differences in the preference of shapes and textures of leaves: aciculiform, strip, cordiform, sector and jacket-shape are more attractive; leather-like leaves have a higher visual preference than paper-like leaves; different colors and whether leaves are cracked or not have little effect on leaf observation. Third, the preference for flowers with different inflorescence and colors is significant. Capitulum, cymes and panicles are more attractive; purple is the most preferred color, followed by white, yellow and red. Finally, there are significant differences in preferences for fruit characteristics, with medium-sized fruits and black fruits preferred, while kidney-shaped and spoon-shaped fruits are considered more attractive. Pomes, pods, samaras, and berries have received relatively more attention.
, Sandra Imach, Gabriele Iberl, Marietta Kirchner, Felix Herth, Franziska Trudzinski
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05118-w

Abstract:
In daily routine, many COPD patients report early onset augmented dyspnea following use of NIV (Deventilation Syndrome, DVS) as a negative side-effect. The aim of this study is the clinical characterization and concrete definition of DVS. This monocenter prospective observational study collected demographic, physiologic and symptomatic data from 67 in-patients with severe COPD Gold III–IV and chronic hypercapnic failure before, during and after use of an established NIV. During their inpatient follow-up, we examined patients during the first hour after termination of nocturnal NIV. DVS was defined by the authors as an increase of ≥ 2 points on the Borg scale during the first 30 min in patients who reported repeated dyspnea after the use of NIV. We monitored cardiovascular and respiratory data and measured diaphragm excursion. Subjective dyspnea was documented by use of the Borg scale and questionnaires. In addition, respirator and demographic data were collected. DVS occurred in 58% of our COPD patient collective, showing predominant emphysema phenotype. Patients with DVS were more severely ill than non-DVS concerning bronchial obstruction (FEV1 0.6 vs. 0.8 l, p< 0.05) and hypercapnia during spontaneous breathing (pre NIV pCO2: 54.5 vs. 49.3 mmHg, p< 0.02). DVS patients showed significantly higher respiratory rates (RR) (20.1 vs. 18.1/min p< 0.05) after termination of NIV. This trial characterizes and defines early onset augmented dyspnea after the use of NIV, referred to as DVS. It is hereby brought to attention as a frequent side effect of long-term home ventilation and possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are elucidated.
, Jerry L. Campbell, Yezdi B. Pithawalla, Hamideh Pourhashem, Raheema S. Muhammad-Kah, Mohamadi A. Sarkar, Jianmin Liu, Willie J. McKinney, Robinan Gentry, Maria Gogova
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05108-y

Abstract:
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can be a useful tool for characterizing nicotine pharmacokinetics (PK) from use of tobacco products. We expand a previously published PBPK model to simulate a nicotine PK profile, following single or multiple use of various tobacco products [cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems, or a nicotine inhaler (NICOTROL)] The uptake route in the model was designed to allow for three uptake compartments: buccal cavity (BC), upper respiratory tract (URT) (conducting and transitional airways) and lower respiratory tract (alveolar region). Within each region, the model includes product-specific descriptions of the flux of nicotine into plasma, as well as the flux of nicotine from the BC and URT to the gastrointestinal tract. These descriptions are based on regional deposition and diffusion models of nicotine into plasma, which depends on the product type. Regional deposition flux combined with regional differences in physiological parameters (e.g., blood perfusion ratio and tissue thickness) play a key role in the product-specific PK profile of nicotine. The current model describes the slower flux of nicotine into plasma across the BC and URT, as well as the rapid flux known to occur in the alveolar region. Overall, the addition of the BC and respiratory tract compartments to the nicotine model provided simulation results that are comparable to the nicotine time-course plasma concentrations reported from clinical studies for the four product categories simulated.
Digambar Kavitake, Bhavana Veerabhadrappa, S. J. Sudharshan, Sujatha Kandasamy, Palanisamy Bruntha Devi, Madhu Dyavaiah,
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05190-2

Abstract:
In the present study, galactan exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Weissella confusa KR780676 was evaluated for its potential to alleviate oxidative stress using in vitro assays and in vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type) and its antioxidant (sod1∆, sod2∆, tsa1∆, cta2∆ and ctt1∆), anti-apoptotic (pep4∆ and fis1∆) and anti-aging (sod2∆, tsa1∆ and ctt1∆)) isogenic gene deletion mutants. Galactan exhibited strong DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 450 and 138 µg/mL respectively. In the yeast mutant model, oxidative stress generated by H2O2 was extensively scavenged by galactan in the medium as confirmed using spot assays followed by fluorescencent DCF-DA staining and microscopic studies. Galactan treatment resulted in reduction in the ROS generated in the yeast mutant cells as demonstrated by decreased fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, galactan exhibited protection against oxidative damage through H2O2 -induced apoptosis inhibition in the yeast mutant strains (pep4∆ and fis1∆) leading to increased survival rate by neutralizing the oxidative stress. In the chronological life span assay, WT cells treated with galactan EPS showed 8% increase in viability whereas sod2∆ mutant showed 10–15% increase indicating pronounced anti-aging effects. Galactan from W. confusa KR780676 has immense potential to be used as a natural antioxidant for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and food technological applications. As per our knowledge, this is the first report on in-depth assessment of in vivo antioxidant properties of a bacterial EPS in a yeast deletion model system.
, Anna Nora Tassetti, Enrico Nicola Armelloni, Jacopo Pulcinella, Carmen Ferrà, Mario Sprovieri, Fabio Trincardi, Giuseppe Scarcella
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05142-w

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic provides a major opportunity to study fishing effort dynamics and to assess the response of the industry to standard and remedial actions. Knowing a fishing fleet’s capacity to compensate for effort reduction (i.e., its resilience) allows differentiating governmental regulations by fleet, i.e., imposing stronger restrictions on the more resilient and weaker restrictions on the less resilient. In the present research, the response of the main fishing fleets of the Adriatic Sea to fishing hour reduction from 2015 to 2020 was measured. Fleet activity per gear type was inferred from monthly Automatic Identification System data. Pattern recognition techniques were applied to study the fishing effort trends and barycentres by gear. The beneficial effects of the lockdowns on Adriatic endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species were also estimated. Finally, fleet effort series were examined through a stock assessment model to demonstrate that every Adriatic fishing fleet generally behaves like a stock subject to significant stress, which was particularly highlighted by the pandemic. Our findings lend support to the notion that the Adriatic fleets can be compared to predators with medium-high resilience and a generally strong impact on ETP species.
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-04942-4

Abstract:
Understanding the drug solubility behavior is likely the first essential requirement for designing the supercritical technology for pharmaceutical processing. Therefore, this study utilizes different machine learning scenarios to simulate the solubility of twelve non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). The considered NSAIDs are Fenoprofen, Flurbiprofen, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Loxoprofen, Nabumetone, Naproxen, Nimesulide, Phenylbutazone, Piroxicam, Salicylamide, and Tolmetin. Physical characteristics of the drugs (molecular weight and melting temperature), operating conditions (pressure and temperature), and solvent property (SCCO2 density) are effectively used to estimate the drug solubility. Monitoring and comparing the prediction accuracy of twelve intelligent paradigms from three categories (artificial neural networks, support vector regression, and hybrid neuro-fuzzy) approves that adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference is the best tool for the considered task. The hybrid optimization strategy adjusts the cluster radius of the subtractive clustering membership function to 0.6111. This model estimates 254 laboratory-measured solubility data with the AAPRE = 3.13%, MSE = 2.58 × 10–9, and R2 = 0.99919. The leverage technique confirms that outliers may poison less than four percent of the experimental data. In addition, the proposed hybrid paradigm is more reliable than the equations of state and available correlations in the literature. Experimental measurements, model predictions, and relevancy analyses justified that the drug solubility in SCCO2 increases by increasing temperature and pressure. The results show that Ibuprofen and Naproxen are the most soluble and insoluble drugs in SCCO2, respectively.
, Paul Urspruch, Vera Flocke, Anton G. Windfelder, Hermann Aberle, Klaus Lunau, Ulrich Flögel
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05092-3

Abstract:
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the key whole-body imaging technology for observing processes within a living object providing excellent resolution and contrast between soft tissues. In the present work, we exploited the non-destructive properties of MRI to track longitudinally the dynamic changes that take place in developing pupae of the Emperor Moth (Saturnia pavonia) during the last days before eclosion. While in diapause pupae, body fluid was almost homogeneously distributed over the internal compartments, as soon as wings, legs, flight muscles and the head region were fully developed, a significant redistribution of water levels occurred between thoracic and abdominal regions. During the last two days before eclosion, the developing moths transferred substantial amounts of liquid into the gut and the labial gland, and in case of females, into developing eggs. Concomitantly, the volume of the air sacs increased drastically and their expansion/compression became clearly visible in time-resolved MR images. Furthermore, besides ventilation of the tracheal system, air sacs are likely to serve as volume reservoir for liquid transfer during development of the moths inside their pupal case. In parallel, we were able to monitor noninvasively lipid consumption, cardiac activity and haemolymph circulation during final metamorphosis.
, Hironori Nakao, Masaichiro Mizumaki, Yusuke Wakabayashi, Taka-Hisa Arima, Yuichi Yamasaki
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-04933-5

Abstract:
A Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) vortex beam having a spiral wavefront can be characterized by its topological charge (TC). The TC gives the number of times that the beam phase passes through the interval $$[0, 2\pi ]$$ [ 0 , 2 π ] following a closed loop surrounding the propagation axis. Here, the TC spectra of soft X-ray vortex beams are acquired using the in-line holography technique, where interference between vortex waves produced from a fork grating and divergent waves from a Fresnel zone plate is observed as a holographic image. The analyses revealed the phase distributions and the TC for the LG vortex waves, which reflects topological number of the fork gratings, as well as for the Hermite–Gaussian (HG) mode waves generated from the other gratings. We also conducted a simulation of the present technique for pair annihilation of topological defects in a magnetic texture. These results may pave the way for development of probes capable of characterizing the topological numbers of magnetic defects.
Ping Peng, ZhongGen Dong, Jianwei Wei, Lihong Liu, Zhaobiao Luo, Shu Cao, Qiang Xu, Lei Zheng
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05093-2

Abstract:
There is little information regarding the boundaries of the lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous (LGM) flap. The aim of this study was to introduce the modified technique of the LGM flap with extended anterior and/or inferior boundaries and its anatomical basis. Five fresh lower limb specimens were perfused and radiographed. Between December 2003 and August 2018, 27 modified LGM flaps with extended anterior and/or inferior boundaries were raised in 27 patients to reconstruct the soft tissue defects over the middle and upper leg, knee, and lower thigh. Both the lateral popliteal cutaneous artery and musculocutaneous perforators from the lateral sural artery had rich linked arteries communicating with the chain-linked arterial network around both the posterolateral intermuscular septum and the sural nerve, and they also had rich transverse communicating arteries connecting with the perifascial arterial network overlying the anterior compartment in the upper and middle calf. Continuous fascial arterial networks were extended up to the level at the intermalleolar line. Twenty-three flaps survived uneventfully, 2 flaps displayed distal de-epithelialization, and 2 flaps (7.41%) developed partial necrosis. Osteomyelitis was cured successfully in all patients, and no relapse of infection was encountered during the follow-up period. Multiple feeder arteries are the arterial anatomic basis of the modified LGM flap. The modified LGM flap with extended anterior and/or inferior boundaries is feasible, and the modified flap with extended anterior boundaries is safe and reliable.
Philipp Trocha, Juned Nassir Kemal, Quentin Gaimard, Guy Aubin, François Lelarge, Abderrahim Ramdane, Wolfgang Freude, Sebastian Randel,
Published: 20 January 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-04368-4

Abstract:
Laser-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is key to many applications in science and industry. For many use cases, compactness and power efficiency are key, especially in high-volume applications such as industrial sensing, navigation of autonomous objects, or digitization of 3D scenes using hand-held devices. In this context, comb-based ranging systems are of particular interest, combining high accuracy with high measurement speed. However, the technical complexity of miniaturized comb sources is still prohibitive for many applications, in particular when high optical output powers and high efficiency are required. Here we show that quantum-dash mode-locked laser diodes (QD-MLLD) offer a particularly attractive route towards high-performance chip-scale ranging systems. QD-MLLDs are compact, can be easily operated by a simple DC drive current, and provide spectrally flat frequency combs with bandwidths in excess of 2 THz, thus lending themselves to coherent dual-comb ranging. In our experiments, we show measurement rates of up to 500 MHz—the highest rate demonstrated with any ranging system so far. We attain reliable measurement results with optical return powers of only – 40 dBm, corresponding to a total loss of 49 dB in the ranging path, which corresponds to the highest loss tolerance demonstrated so far for dual-comb ranging with chip-scale comb sources. Combing QD-MLLDs with advanced silicon photonic receivers offers an attractive route towards robust and technically simple chip-scale LiDAR systems.