ISSN / EISSN : 20452322 / 20452322
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 116,075
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Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-2; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69879-y
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-17; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70220-w
The fitting of complex receptor-response data where fractional response and occupancy do not match is challenging. They encompass important cases including (a) the presence of “receptor reserve” and/or partial agonism, (b) multiple responses assessed at different vantage points along a pathway, (c) responses that are different along diverging downstream pathways (biased agonism), and (d) constitutive activity. For these, simple models such as the well-known Clark or Hill equations cannot be used. Those that can, such as the operational (Black&Leff) model, do not provide a unified approach, have multiple nonintuitive parameters that are challenging to fit in well-defined manner, have difficulties incorporating binding data, and cannot be reduced or connected to simpler forms. We have recently introduced a quantitative receptor model (SABRE) that includes parameters for Signal Amplification (γ), Binding affinity (Kd), Receptor activation Efficacy (ε), and constitutive activity (εR0). It provides a single equation to fit complex cases within a full two-state framework with the possibility of incorporating receptor occupancy data (i.e., experimental Kds). Simpler cases can be fit by using consecutively reduced forms obtained by constraining parameters to specific values, e.g., εR0 = 0: no constitutive activity, γ = 1: no amplification (Emax-type fitting), and ε = 1: no partial agonism (Clark equation). Here, a Hill-type extension is introduced (n ≠ 1), and simulated and experimental receptor-response data from simple to increasingly complex cases are fitted within the unified framework of SABRE with differently constrained parameters.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-19; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69825-y
This study presents the preparation of membranes of polylactic acid (PLLA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and their corresponding membranes coated with polyaniline (PANI) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). Scanning electron microscopy micrographs reveal that all the membranes exhibit nanofibrous morphology. The adsorption capacity and the removal efficiency of the membranes are studied as a function of (initial adsorbate concentration, pH of the medium, temperature, contact time and adsorbent dosage). Coated membranes with PANI showed better adsorption performance and their DC conductivities were correlated to MB concentrations. Adsorption isotherms have also been performed and the adsorption process has been tested according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The regeneration and reuse of the prepared membranes to re-adsorb MB were also investigated. The enhancement in adsorption performance and reusability of PANI-coated membranes in comparison with non-coated ones are fully discussed.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70292-8
Sugarcane crop is important for both sugar and biofuels. A world collection of sugarcane and related grasses (WCSRG) maintained at Miami, FL contains > 1,200 non-redundant clones of different species and genera within the Saccharum complex. However, linkage of undesirable alleles with useful genes in wild species has hindered its efficient utilization in sugarcane breeding. A core collection developed previously with smaller number of clones representing WCSRG did not take into account > 120 wild/exotic clones maintained at the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma, Louisiana. Moreover, the genome complexity and sub-tropical to temperate growing climate of Louisiana warrant a region-specific core collection that can be used for base-broadening breeding aimed at efficient introgression of desirable alleles. Genetic diversity of 1,485 clones within WCSRG and Louisiana (commercials, wild/exotic) using 423 SSR alleles showed an average gene diversity (h) at 0.208 among all species groups where Erianthus-like Saccharum species (ELSS), Miscanthus spp., and S. spontaneum each formed a distinct cluster, Saccharum robustum, S. officinarum, hybrid cultivars, and S. edule grouped together in a major cluster, and Saccharum sinense and S. barberi formed distinct grouping. A 309-clone diversity panel (SDP1) was developed that captured the genetic diversity based on the combination of maximum length subtree and manual selection to maximize representation of Louisiana clones and minimize import of clones from Miami. SDP1 shared 324 alleles out of the 423 alleles in the entire population of 1,485 clones and captured the genetic diversity of the entire collection with an average gene diversity (h) at 0.163. The variation within (11–17%) and among (83–89%) the populations in SDP1 were comparable with the entire population of 1,485 clones (9–15% and 85–91%, respectively). The breadth of the genetic variation of SDP1 was exemplified by the intra- and inter-specific diversity of a 190-clone mini-core collection with markers derived from known cold-responsive genes. SDP1 will facilitate genome-wide association studies for identification of trait-specific markers for use in marker-assisted breeding in Louisiana and elsewhere.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70272-y
High water quality and sufficient water availability are the main concerns of water users. Promoting the efficient use of tap water can contribute to sustainable drinking water management and progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. In many metropolises, water suppliers treat municipal water with appropriate treatment processes and well-maintained distribution infrastructure. Under this circumstance, it is acceptable that municipal water can be a source of drinking water. The presence of residual chlorine in tap water, connected to municipal water supply, inactivates pathogenic microorganisms and prevents recontamination. However, adding chlorine to tap water may affect the organoleptic properties of drinking water. On the other hand, the use of point-of-use (POU) water dispensers, which provides an additional treatment step on tap water, is not energy-efficient. A randomized, double-blind water taste test was conducted in the Taipei metropolis to assess whether tap water from public drinking fountains and filtered water from POU water dispensers have similar organoleptic properties. An odds ratio (OR) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to measure the participants’ ability to distinguish between the two water varieties. A five-region hypothesis test was conducted to test the OR, and a 95% bootstrap confidence interval of the AUC was calculated. The results of the study showed that the 95% five-region confidence interval of OR equal to (0.5, 1.49), and the 95% bootstrap confidence interval of AUC equal to (0.42, 0.56). These results implied that people in the Taipei metropolis could not distinguish between tap water and filtered water. It is recommended that more drinking fountains be installed and maintained fully functional and clean to achieve excellence in tap water access.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70232-6
Similar to humans, the fecal microbiome of dogs may be useful in diagnosing diseases or assessing dietary interventions. The accuracy and reproducibility of microbiome data depend on sample integrity, which can be affected by storage methods. Here, we evaluated the ability of a stabilization device to preserve canine fecal samples under various storage conditions simulating shipping in hot or cold climates. Microbiota data from unstabilized samples stored at room temperature (RT) and samples placed in PERFORMAbiome·GUT collection devices (PB-200) (DNA Genotek, Inc. Ottawa, Canada) and stored at RT, 37 °C, 50 °C, or undergoing repeated freeze–thaw cycles, were compared with freshly extracted samples. Alpha- and beta diversity indices were not affected in stabilized samples, regardless of storage temperature. Unstabilized samples stored at RT, however, had higher alpha diversity. Moreover, the relative abundance of dominant bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Actinobacteria) and 24 genera were altered in unstabilized samples stored at RT, while microbiota abundance was not significantly changed in stabilized samples stored at RT. Our results suggest that storage method is important in microbiota studies and that the stabilization device may be useful in maintaining microbial profile integrity, especially for samples collected off-site and/or those undergoing temperature changes during shipment or storage.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70331-4
The phase change temperature and enthalpy change as a function of polystyrene (PS) concentration in dimethylformamide through a dynamic heating and quenching process were investigated. Cold crystallization, freezing and melting phenomena in a 10 wt% PS solution were all observed. Cold crystallization and melting phenomena were still observed in a 20 wt% solution. In a 30 wt% solution, all three phenomena disappeared without any solvent enthalpy changes, e.g., enthalpy changes at the melting temperature. The disappearance of both the melting temperature and the melting enthalpy change indicated that all polymer and solvent molecules in the 30 wt% solution existed only in the amorphous phase without any phase changes despite repeated heating and quenching processes. Thus, our results can provide a new approach for gelation through enthalpy changes and can be applied in the fabrication of porous membranes with a narrow distribution.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70325-2
Effective vaccine delivery and coverage to rural and resource-poor countries is hindered by the dependence on cold chain storage. As such, developments of cold chain-free technologies are highly sought. Although spray dried adenoviral vectors have shown long term stability at ambient temperatures and relatively low humidity, it remains to be determined whether similar excipient formulations are applicable to other viral vectors. To address this, we have spray dried vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-vectors with a panel of well-characterized sugar excipients to determine the optimal formulation for vector stabilization. Upon reconstitution, we show that trehalose conferred superior stability of VSV both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, following cold chain-free storage at elevated temperatures at 37 °C for 15 days, we show that a VSV-vectored vaccine retains its in vivo immunogenicity, whereas a liquid control completely lost its immune-stimulating ability. Our results provide foundational evidence that spray drying with properly tested excipients can stabilize viral vectors such as VSV, allowing them to be stored long-term at elevated temperatures without dependency on cold chain conditions.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-17; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70231-7
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an invasive subtype of breast cancer but paradoxically associated with increased tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying TNBC immunobiology are incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has both pro- and anti-tumor effects and found in 40–80% of TNBC samples. We report here that IL-17A mRNA and protein are detectable in some human TNBC cell lines and further upregulated by IL-23 and LPS stimulation. Furthermore, the impact of tumor-derived IL-17A in host immune response and tumor growth was examined using murine TNBC 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells transduced with an adenoviral vector expressing IL-17A (AdIL-17A) or control vector (Addl). Compared to Addl-transduction, AdIL-17A-transduction enhanced 4T1 tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo, which was associated with a marked expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). However, AdIL-17A-transduction also induced strong organ-specific and time-dependent immune activation indicated by dynamic changes of NK cells, B cells, CD4, and CD8 T cells in peripheral blood, lung, and tumor site, as well as the plasma levels of IFNγ. Such findings highlight that tumor-associated IL-17A induces concurrent immune activation and immune suppression. Administration of anti-Gr1 or anti-G-CSF antibody effectively depleted MDSCs in vivo, markedly reducing the growth of AdIL-17A-transduced 4T1 tumors, and eliminating lung metastasis. Collectively, our study demonstrates that MDSC depletion is an effective and practical approach for treating IL-17A-enriched mammary carcinomas.
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-10; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70265-x
Bioerosion is a process with a high socio-economic impact that contributes to coastal retreat, and likely to increase with climate change. Whereas limestone bioerosion is well explained by a combination of mechanical and chemical pathways, the bioerosion mechanisms of silicates, which are harder and chemically more resistant, remain elusive. Here we investigated the interface between siltstone and freshwater rock-boring bivalves Lignopholas fluminalis (Bivalvia: Pholadidae). Remains of a microbial biofilm were observed only in the poorly consolidated part of the rock within the macroborings created by bivalves. Secondary Mn-bearing minerals identified in the biofilm suggest that microbes promoted silicate rock weathering by dissolving Mn-rich chlorites. Moreover, hard mineral debris found in a biofilm attached to the shells likely contributed to the abrasion of the rock substrate. Thus, beyond the classical view of chemical and/or mechanical action(s) of macroborers, silicate bioerosion may also be facilitated by an unexpected synergistic association between macro- and microorganisms.