JSM Mycotoxins

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0285-1466 / 1881-0128
Total articles ≅ 1,050
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Tomoya Yoshinari
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 75-78; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-2-1

Abstract:
カビによって生産されるマイコトキシンについては,これまで数百種類が報告されている.それらの中でも,食品中に混入し,ヒトの健康に害を与える可能性のあるマイコトキシンについては,基準値もしくは規制値を設定することにより,摂取量の低減が図られている.2020年末時点において,日本において規制が行われているマイコトキシンは,総アフラトキシン,アフラトキシンM1,パツリン及びデオキシニバレノールである.本プロシーディングにおいては,それらマイコトキシンの規制値や公定法について紹介する.
Kiyoshi Okano, Masakazu Ichinoe, Yuji Ozu, Haruo Takahashi
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 51-57; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-2-4

Abstract:
Peanuts are one of the most susceptible crops to aflatoxigenic fungi, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and is often contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). AF contamination of peanuts is a major human and animal health hazard that has an economic impact worldwide. Numerous control and management strategies have been developed to reduce the levels of AFs in peanuts and sorting is the final stage in the process targeted at decreasing AF levels. Previous studies have shown that handpicking and electric color sorting are not entirely effective in reducing AF levels because of the occurrence of apparently healthy but internally moldy kernels with high AF levels. A previous study (Hirano, et al. 1998) showed that near infrared (NIR), the ratio of transmittance energies at two wavelengths of 700 to 1100, was applicable for efficiently removing internally moldy kernels. However the use of this procedure was limited to a sample that contained artificially inoculated kernels and low levels of AFs. This present study evaluated the performance of spectrometric sorting in naturally and highly AF-contaminated peanut lots on a commercial scale. The NIR spectrometric sorting clearly showed that AFs could be effectively decreased to levels of < 10 μg/kg even when the lot was highly contaminated with > 700 μg/kg of AFs by rejecting deteriorated kennels, including those that were internally moldy.
Miho Kawanishi, Yusuke Kitani, Takayoshi Shinoda
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 59-62; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-2-2

Abstract:
Recent reports have demonstrated that the deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. is metabolized to deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G) by glycosidation enzymes in infected plants, and subsequently DON-3G accumulates in the plant body. Although DON-3G is less toxic than DON, it is converted back to DON upon release in the intestinal tract of an animal. This reformed DON exhibits the same toxicity as DON initially produced by Fusarium. Thus, testing should be extended to DON-3G and other important mycotoxins. This study aimed to evaluate an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of DON, acetyl forms of DON (3-Ac-DON, 15-Ac-DON), a glycoside form of DON (DON-3G), and another Fusarium mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV), 4-Ac-NIV, T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), zearalenone (ZEA), and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) in wheat and barley. The method was validated using wheat and barley samples spiked with each mycotoxin at levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The average recovery of mycotoxins in wheat and barley ranged from 77.4% to 110.3% with a relative standard deviation of 2.2% to 15.7%. These findings demonstrated that this LC-MS/MS method is reliable for the analysis of Fusarium mycotoxins, including the acetyl and glycoside forms of DON, in wheat and barley. All parameters corresponding to the trueness, repeatability, and reproducibility as intermediate precision satisfied the criteria values.
Abdelrahman Elamin, Shohei Sakuda
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 63-67; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-2-5

Abstract:
Aflatoxin contamination in medicinal herbs raises a big concern. The susceptibility of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa fruit to aflatoxin contamination and infection of aflatoxigenic fungus was evaluated based on ripening stages and fruit parts. Fruits or their parts at different ripening stages, contaminated with aflatoxin by inoculating Aspergillus flavus, were used for investigating the relationship of aflatoxin contamination with ripening stages, fruit parts, and fungal mycelial growth by aflatoxin analysis and microscopic study. The results showed 1) the intermediate ripening stages were highly susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, 2) when each fruit part was inoculated with A. flavus, aflatoxin concentration in the seed part was highest among the fruit parts, and 3) the hilar region is the area of the fungal mycelial penetration within the seed. This study suggests that it is better to store the fruits in a ripe and intact state for preventing aflatoxin contamination during storage.
Akira Furukawa, Mikiko Hayashi, Yukiko Yamada
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 79-91; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-2-3

Abstract:
我が国で家畜用飼料の主原料として海外から輸入されているとうもろこしをはじめとする穀類は,輸入先国における気候状況の影響等により,家畜や人の健康に悪影響を及ぼす「かび毒」を含有する場合があります.本稿では,飼料中のフモニシンの基準の設定を事例とし,国際的な考え方に基づく飼料の基準の設定方法を概説します.
Toshihiro Nagayama
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 21-24; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-1-3

Abstract:
農薬は農作物等の生産性向上と過重労働の低減などを目的に開発・使用される.菌類により発症する植物病害防除と併せ,マイコトキシンの低減効果が高い農薬の開発が進むなど,農薬はカビ毒汚染を抑制する有用な資材のひとつとなっている. 食品に残留した農薬は,食品衛生法に基づき残留基準が設けられて厳しく規制される.法に則り監視・指導され,違反品の廃棄,違反者への懲役または罰金が課せられる.本残留基準は昭和43年に設定されて以来順次拡大され,平成18年にはポジティブリスト制度が導入され,すべての食品に対してすべての農薬が規制対象となった.その後も,新規開発や適用拡大,インポートトレランス,安全性評価見直し等により,逐次,基準値の追加,改正,削除が進められている.
Marin Kishimoto, Tomohiro Furukawa, Toshihiko Karasawa, Yasujiro Morimitsu, Masayo Kushiro
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 9-12; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-1-6

Abstract:
本研究では,つくばの実験圃場中の菌を,改良ジクロルボス-アンモニア(DV-AM)法を用いてスクリーニングし,手法の適用性を検証することを目的とする.DV-AM法は,目視の赤(陽性)白(陰性)判定によるアフラトキシン(AF)産生菌コロニーの検出法であり,培地組成の改良により高感度の検出が可能となっている.7月(立毛の植物体が有る時期)に実験圃場土壌を採取し,本法によるスクリーニングを行った結果,20地点から採取した土壌のうち3点から計4株の陽性株が分離された.この4株についてTLCおよびHPLCを用いてAF産生性を分析したところ,4株すべてでAF産生が確認できた.そのうちの2株について,カルモジュリン遺伝子領域の配列解析および顕微鏡観察を行ったところ,どちらもAspergillus flavusとして同定されたが,培地上に形成されたコロニーの形態学的特徴が違ったほかAF産生能にも差が有り,異なる系統であると考えられた.以上より,改良DV-AM法はAF産生型のA. flavusの分離への適用性が確認され,また,同一圃場において系統の異なるA. flavusが存在しうることが示された.
Yoshitsugu Sugiura
JSM Mycotoxins, Volume 71, pp 25-32; https://doi.org/10.2520/myco.71-1-2

Abstract:
食品由来の真菌を学ぶ学生と初心者のために,不完全菌類の同定に必要な分生子形成様式の種類と特徴,ペニシリウム属菌の特徴,ならびに菌種同定に有効な検索表の使い方などを解説いたします.
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