Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
ISSN / EISSN : 2090-6706 / 2090-6714
Current Publisher: Hindawi Limited (10.1155)
Total articles ≅ 500
Latest articles in this journal
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2020/2107430
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is considered an indolent cancer, but some PTC patients do present with distant metastases and treatment strategies for such patients are not well established. Recently, lenvatinib, an inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases, has been introduced to treat patients with advanced PTC but carries a risk of serious adverse events such as hemorrhage. Here, we report a PTC patient with a left adrenal metastasis and lenvatinib-induced hemorrhage who underwent successful surgical resection and was subsequently treated with a lower dose of lenvatinib. The patient has now been in a stable state with no adverse events for nearly two years. This case highlights the importance of surgical resection of metastatic PTC and subsequent lenvatinib therapy, even when the tumor is at an advanced stage.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-5; doi:10.1155/2020/8815745
Pancreatic cancer is one of the seven leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Diffuse pancreatic carcinoma is very rare and underreported in the literature. Many advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer. However, most pancreatic cancer cases are detected at the terminal or metastatic stages. Therefore, timely diagnosis and therapeutic management are desirable goals for this disease. Although the proliferation of pancreatic cancer has been reduced by intervention, more work is needed to treat and prevent the disease. The purpose of this article is to present a case of a 54-year-old male with pancreatic cancer and to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prevention of pancreatic tumors in general as well as pancreatic carcinoma in particular.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-7; doi:10.1155/2020/8819392
Neuroendocrine tumors are aggressive and rare tumors which can occur almost everywhere in the body. The annual incidence of neuroendocrine tumors is 2.5-5 per 100000. We report seven cases of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors which were diagnosed and treated at our hospital from the time period of 2016-2018 knowing that the total number of our hospital tumor board cases registry during the same period was 444 cases.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-9; doi:10.1155/2020/8853704
Background. Clinical decisions in patients with peritoneal dissemination of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMN) diagnosed during pregnancy are challenging. However, their slow progression and favorable prognosis allow deferring definitive treatment until after spontaneous delivery, a reasonable period of breastfeeding, and fertility preservation. Case Presentation. Two pregnant patients were incidentally diagnosed with LAMN and extensive peritoneal spread at 20 weeks gestation and at cesarean section. Treatment with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in both cases was delayed until spontaneous delivery at term and breastfeeding in the first patient and breastfeeding and fertility preservation in the second patient. Both patients remain disease-free for over 5 years, and their children are healthy. The literature review highlights the challenges that physicians face in treating pregnant patients with stage IV appendiceal tumors. Conclusion. Pregnancy management decisions in patients with peritoneal spread from mucinous appendiceal tumor should be based on understanding the tumor biology and prognosis. Definitive treatment in pregnant patients with favorable tumors, such as LAMN, may be delayed until spontaneous delivery without compromising maternal survival.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-5; doi:10.1155/2020/8814871
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We report a case of a 69-year-old male with concurrent appendiceal and rectal masses who underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of RDD with IgG4-positive plasma cells. It is believed to be a subset of RDD that shares similar features with IgG4-related disease suggesting some overlap of the two diseases. Because gastrointestinal RDD accounts for less than 1% of extranodal disease, it is important to recognize this entity in order to guide management. We review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal RDD and discuss the possible overlap with IgG4-related disease.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-5; doi:10.1155/2020/8048056
Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor and infrequently described in medical literature as case reports and case series. Diagnosis is often incidental with high index of histopathological suspicion from clinical pathologist. The pathological pattern is quite unique with distinct immunohistochemical stains. Up to this day, there is no established standard treatment owing to the scarcity of this tumor. In this case report, we describe a case of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma unexpectedly diagnosed with transthoracic needle biopsy, along with a review of the current literature.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-7; doi:10.1155/2020/7052536
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized by the proliferation of cancerous cells into the intraluminal space of the blood vessels. It has a low incidence rate of 0.095 cases per 1,000,000. The clinical presentation is insidious and unspecific, often delaying the diagnosis. IVLBCL can be diagnosed through body images and histopathology analysis. This neoplasm averages a 60% response rate to current chemotherapy treatment, favoring rituximab, and doxorubicin-based regimen if it is diagnosed in time. Here, we present the case of a 56-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a fever who was eventually diagnosed with IVLBCL. He presented to the consultation with anemia, fever, and splenomegaly. An infection panel, a bone marrow biopsy, and a PET-CT scan were performed and ruled out the possibility of infections and neoplasms. The patient later developed edematous syndrome. As a result, a renal biopsy was performed which tested positive for intravascular large B-cell lymphoma. Currently, the patient has been in complete remission for 33 months. Along with presenting this specific case, we also reviewed previously published cases of IVLBCL to illustrate the renal involvement of this pathology.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-6; doi:10.1155/2020/1257587
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine cancer with a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. MCC is generally associated with advanced age, fair skin, sun exposure, immunosuppression, and in the majority of cases, the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Neuroendocrine malignancies are associated with a variety of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS), characterized as autoimmune responses to malignancy-associated expression of neural antigens. Our literature review underscores previous case reports of MCC-associated PNS with voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) and anti-Hu (or ANNA-1) autoantibodies. We present the case of a 59-year-old male with regionally metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma complicated by the paraneoplastic manifestation of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. His primary lower neck subcutaneous MCC and metastasis were initially treated with surgery. Additional recurrent lymph node metastases were successfully treated with definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy. His PNS improved with rituximab therapy. Although rare, this case highlights that in the setting of seizures and prominent psychiatric symptoms accompanying an MCC diagnosis, evaluation for autoimmune paraneoplastic encephalitis is warranted. Awareness and detection of preexisting PNS are crucial in the era of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) for advanced MCC, where treatment with ICI has the potential to exacerbate preexisting autoimmune PNS and lead to worsened or even lethal neurologic immune-related adverse events (nirAEs).
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-5; doi:10.1155/2020/5315178
Although the first case of tumor-to-tumor metastasis was reported over a century ago, it remains a rare occurrence. We report a rare case of metastatic infiltrating lobular carcinoma involving clear cell renal cell carcinoma, as well as offer a brief literature review.
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-9; doi:10.1155/2020/7206786
Background. Gynecologic melanomas are extremely rare malignancies, and primary malignant melanoma of the cervix (PMMC) is the rarest among them all, with less than 100 cases reported so far. Although some conditions have been correlated with the pathogenesis of this entity, no specific risk factor has been yet identified, with vaginal bleeding being the most common symptoms. The diagnosis is based on physical examination with speculum assessment and cytologic and histopathologic findings accompanied with immunohistochemical staining of lesion’s biopsies. Case Presentation. We report a case of PMMC in a 34-year-old para-2 patient, among the youngest cases of PMMC reported, that presented to our clinic for routine examination. Gynecologic examination demonstrated a dark, heavily fully pigmented cervical growth completely covering the entire external cervical os. Biopsy obtained and showed malignant melanoma. She underwent radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The pathological diagnosis was FIGO stage IB1 PMMC. Despite 2 courses of anti-PD-1 antibody (Nivolumab) treatment, the patient passed away 13 months after diagnosis (12 months after surgery). Conclusions. Early diagnosis and subsequently early treatment are of high importance regarding patients’ prognosis and survival. No standardized protocols or treatment guidelines specific for this rare cancer have been issued; thus, clinicians are called to assess each case individually. Current treatment options are based on surgical excision mostly with radical hysterectomy, but in advanced or recurrent state of the disease, other treatment modalities, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy, can be employed. Prognosis for these patients is very poor, and survival rate remains extremely low, with the median OS reported being less than 2 years. Reporting and publishing of such cases are both of paramount importance for the better understanding of this uncommon cervical malignancy, and further biological and clinical investigations are required for more suitable and effective therapies to be determined. A new staging system, specific to PMMC, could be of great use for the better correlation of the disease’s stage and prognosis of these patients.