Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

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EISSN : 2581-5520
Total articles ≅ 62
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Senthil Kumar Raju, Praveen Sekar, Shridharshini Kumar, Maruthamuthu Murugesan, Mohanapriya Karthikeyan
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i4.1

Abstract:
Due to the wide range of applications in the field of medicine, gold nanoparticles are the most promising agents in nanotechnology with a variety of physical, chemical, optical and mechanical properties. Researchers have been interested in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in recent years because of their wide range of applications and low toxicity. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant-mediated extracts has shown the fastest reduction due to the presence of phytoconstituents like phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, etc. Proteins, vitamins and minerals are included in the extracts and act as stabilizing and capping agents. Gold nanoparticles are made from plant extracts and are of natural origin, they are thought to be safer for biomedical uses. In this review, we elaborate about the plant mediated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles and its biological applications with special emphasize to cancer therapeutics.
Radhe Shyam Sharma, Bharat Tyagi, Pradeep Chouhan
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 21-25; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i4.2

Abstract:
Introduction: Plants have been utilized as a natural source of medicinal compounds for thousands of years. Humans use numerous plants and plant-derived products to cure and relieve various physical and mental illnesses. These plants are used in traditional Chinese, Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Tibetan medicines. Ancient literature such as Rigveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, CharakSamhita, and Sushrut Samhita also describes the use of plants for the treatment of various health problems. In recent times, the focus on plant research has increased worldwide, and a large body of evidence has been collected to show the immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus Phyllacanthus(ECP) leaves against D-galactosamine induced liver damage in Wistar rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by D-Galactosamine (270 mg/kg body weight) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) on the 14th day of a total two-week experiment. In contrast, the extract of the investigated plant was given orally throughout the whole experiment at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Silymarin (100 mg/kg body weight) was given orally as a standard hepatoprotective drug. Results and Discussion: Histological studies showed that 400 mg/kg CP attenuated hepatocellular necrosis in d-GalN intoxicated rats. It was concluded from the results that the ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus Phyllacanthus leaves reduces D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Deto Ursul Jean- Paul N'Guessan, Abdulrahim Altoam Alzain, Eunice Melissa Adouko, Diomandé Sékou, Songuigama Coulibaly, Mahama Ouattara
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i3.4

Abstract:
Introduction: Present leishmaniasis treatment regimen has many limitations including severe adverse effects, toxicity, and Leishmania strains resistance. In the present study, the objective is to perform QSAR, molecular docking and ADME prediction studies on benzimidazolylchalcones in order to select an antileishmanial drug candidate. Materials & methods: QSAR models were performed on 12 benzimidazolylchalcones with antileishmanial activities against promastigote strains of L. donovani. Binding free energy calculations were performed using MM-GBSA to assess the affinity of the ligands for the proteins. In addition, the three most active compounds (4a-c, IC50 <1-μM) were docked with the protein phosphodiesterase B1 (PDB ID: 2JK6). Results and Discussion: The optimum model has squared correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.983, and leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation coefficient (Q2CV) value of 0.942. The number of descriptors involved in the model is acceptable (R2 - Q2CV = 0.041), which confirms the model’s stability and validates the developed model’s predictive power. Docking studies revealed that the best compound 4c formed hydrogen bond with SER 464, pi-cation contact with LYS 61 and hydrophobic interactions with LEU 62, TYR 64 and LEU72 of the active site of L. donovani phosphodiesterase B1. ADME properties results showed that all three molecules have good pharmacokinetic properties. Conclusion: Finally, molecular dynamics simulation studies at 30 ns revealed stable interactions with the 2JK6 protein. This study validates the choice of the ortho-chlorinated derivative of benzimidazolylchalcones as the lead compound for developing new derivatives with optimized antileishmanial properties.
Shivakant Shukla, Anoop Singh
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 29-32; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i3.5

Abstract:
Instroduction: Cassia sophera Linn (C. sophera) is a medicinally important plant belonging to the family of Caesalpiniaceae. The whole part of the plant is used as traditional folk medicine and is reported to possess analgesic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and antiasthmatic activity. Materials and Methods: Eddy’s hot plate and Analgesiometer tests were used to asses the antinociceptive activity of Cassia sophera. Pentobarbitone narcosis potentiation test was used to evaluate the hypnotic and sedative effect, while anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by Maximum electroshock-induced seizure test and Pentylenetetrazol induced seizure test. Results and Discussion: Test drug (440 mg/kg) produced significant analgesia, potentiated the pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and exhibited anticonvulsant effect against hind limb tonic extension phase of maximum electroshock-induced seizure test and seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol. Conclusion: The preliminary screening of seed extract of Cassia sophera, Linn. exhibited analgesic, anticonvulsant effects and potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time. The ethanol extract of seed of Cassia sophera, Linn. deserves further investigation to elucidate the mechanisms of action.
Reenoo Jauhari, Bhawna D Chauhan, Ankita Singh
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i3.1

Abstract:
HIV/AIDS is one of the fatal diseases within the world and is caused by human immunodeficiency virus. Aids initially cause immune system failure resulting in infection and risk of cancers. HIV infection caused by blood transfusion and by using contaminated syringes, HIV is present in body in 2 forms – Free virus & within infected immune cells. CD4 T- cells are infected by HIV and reduce its numbers by breaking down T-cells. Most of the symptoms of HIV are opportunistically caused by bacteria, virus, fungi etc. The infection is smaller than 1% per annum in couples who used condoms. Female condoms may provide equal level of protection. The treatment of antiretroviral drugs has changed AIDS from a life-threatening disease to a feasible disease. Research has known how the virus replicates, manipulates, and hides in infected persons. Although our understanding is increased about the virus yet, a cure and vaccine remain tough.
Gunjan Pranav Malode, Sarin A Chauhan, Shivam A Bartare, Lochana M Malode, Jagdish V Manwar, Ravindra L Bakal
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i3.2

Abstract:
Nanoemulsions have small droplet size and are kinetically stable colloidal systems. These are the thermodynamically stable isotropic system in which two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase by means of appropriate surfactant and cosurfactant. Nanoemulsion droplet sizes fall typically in the range of 20–200 nm and shows narrow size distribution. They have enhanced functional properties in comparison to conventional emulsions. The composition and structure of the nanoemulsions can be controlled for the encapsulation and effective delivery of bioactive lipophilic compounds. Nanoemulsions have potential application in the food industry for the delivery of nutraceuticals, coloring and flavoring agents, and antimicrobials. This review aims to provide consolidated information regarding various formulation and characterization techniques developed for nanoemulsions. Various characterization techniques for nanoemulsions include determination of entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential as well as characterization through differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
Prasanthi T, Laxmana Rao A, Reshma P, Sushanthi P, Merwin P, Ajay P
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 13-17; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i3.3

Abstract:
Introduction: A simple, rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive and stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of Pravastatin in pure and tablet dosage form. Materials & Methods: HPLC Method was developed using Zorbax ODS (250×4.6 mm ×5 μ) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid pH adjusted to 3 and methanol in the ratio 50:50 v/v. Pravastatin peak was monitored at 238 nm, and the retention time was 4.44 minutes. Results and Discussion: ICH guidelines were followed to validate the proposed method regarding specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, system suitability, and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10–50 μg/mL, and also the regression equation was found to be y=124936 x+19884 R2=0.997. For intra- and inter-day precision, the %RSD for Pravastatin was 1.05 and 0.917%. Percentage mean recovery was found to be 98.36%. LOD and LOQ values were 0.231 and 0.701 μg/mL, respectively. Pravastatin stability was inspected under various forced degradation conditions, and it was found to be easily degraded in acidic and basic conditions. Conclusion: The developed method was found to be having a suitable application for routine quality control analysis of Pravastain in pharmaceutical formulations.
Abu Asad Chowdhury, Masuma Akter Brishti, Giyas Uddin, Fazlul Karim Tipu, Shaila Kabir, Shah Amran
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 4-9; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i2.2

Abstract:
Objective: This work aimed to validate a simple UV-Visible spectrophotometric method for estimating Cefixime trihydrate in bulk and to produce an accurate, precise, repeatable, and cost-effective method. Material and Methods: The pH 7.4 Phosphate buffer was utilized as the solvent throughout the experiment. The drug’s absorption maxima (max) were discovered to be at 288 nm. Beer’s law was found to be obeyed in the range of 10-45 μg/mL during the quantitative analysis of the substance at 288 nm. In the doses tested, the approach was found to be linear, with the line equation y = 0.035x – 0.002 and a correlation coefficient of 0.999. Results and Discussion: Cefixime Trihydrate recovery values varied from 99.656 percent to 101.825 percent. Six duplicates of the experiment had a relative standard deviation of less than 2%. The interday precision range was 0.52-1.02%, and the intraday precision range was 0.57-0.995 percent relative standard deviation (RSD percent). The detection and quantification limits were 0.914 and 3.142 μg/mL, respectively. The method’s robustness and ruggedness had a percent relative standard deviation of 0.532-0.827 percent. Conclusion: As a result, the proposed procedure was precise, accurate, and economical. This method could be used to determine the quantity of medicine in bulk.
Suboj Babykutty, Arya George, Subinjit J Vijayan, Soya Pk Sidheek, Sudheena Sulfath, Athira Gg Moly, Juvin A Thomas, Hima Xavier, Prabhakumari Chellama, Dhanya Sn Rajalekshmi
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i2.5

Abstract:
Introduction: Isodeoxyelephantopin (C19H20O6), plant-derived sesquiterpene, extracted from Elephantopus Scaber Linn., have tremendous contributions in inhibiting the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The cell viability assay was shown to be procured half-maximal inhibitory concentration of isodeoxyelephantopin on the MDA-MB-231cell line. Apoptosis was screened by AO/ EB staining and it was confirmed by annexin V staining. The DNA damaging property of IDOE was examined by comet assay. The cell cycle arrest determined using flow cytometry analysis and the growth inhibition due to the modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein p53 were substantiated by RT PCR. Scratch wound migratory assay was done to evaluate the migratory effect of IDOE on the MDA-MB-231 cell line. RT-PCR analysis showed that expression of MMP-2/9 was inhibited by IDOE treatment. Result: Anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effect of IDOE was determined by cell cycle analysis and annexin v staining. Cells were arrested in the G2/M phase and it is due to the modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein p53. The mRNA level expression studies of matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2/9 provide supporting data to prove the anti-migratory property.
Sagarika Majhi, Madhu Verma, Iti Chauhan, Raj Kumari, Meenakshi Sharma
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Volume 4, pp 10-14; https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v4i2.3

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19 has been named as the third most pathogenic human coronavirus disease till date. The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic is still continued, and the new strain is expected to co-habit with us for a significant duration. The only way of protection from SARS-CoV-2 depends upon public health interventions such as active testing, along with immediate tracking of cases and limited social gatherings until clinically approved vaccines become widely available. Further, personal prophylactic measures such as social interspacing and proper use of quality masks can prevent the spread of this contagious virus. Objective: The current protocol is aimed to collect data on adverse event, after COVID vaccination and such studies in future can help in prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Method: The protocol was conducted in selected centres of Uttar Pradesh, India. It was done over a time period of 3 months. A valid protocol includes two shots of immunization procedure for all enrolled participants. Immediate (within 6 hrs), sudden (within 24 hours) and delayed adverse events occurred after 24 hours of vaccine administration were noted. Conclusion: In India, vaccine pharmacovigilance is still in its developmental stages. Irrespective of whether adverse event (AE) after immunization (AEFI), a steady stream of full information on vaccine-related AE is required. Because there is so few Indian researches on vaccination adverse effects, as a result, need for vaccine pharmacovigilance on a broad scale in India has emerged in recent times.
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