Cerebral Cortex

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1047-3211 / 1460-2199
Published by: Oxford University Press (OUP) (10.1093)
Total articles ≅ 7,214
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, Erin I Walsh, Marnie E Shaw, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Published: 20 October 2021
The objectives of this study were to investigate the long-term associations between changes in physical activity levels and hippocampal volumes over time, while considering the influence of age, sex, and APOE-ε4 genotype. We investigated the effects of change in physical activity on hippocampal volumes in 411 middle age (mean age = 47.2 years) and 375 older age (mean age = 63.1 years) adults followed up to 12 years. An annual volume decrease was observed in the left (middle age: 0.46%; older age: 0.51%) but not in the right hippocampus. Each additional 10 metabolic equivalents (METs, ~2 h of moderate exercise) increase in weekly physical activity was associated with 0.33% larger hippocampal volume in middle age (equivalent to ~1 year of typical aging). In older age, each additional MET was associated with 0.05% larger hippocampal volume; however, the effects declined with time by 0.005% per year. For older age APOE-ε4 carriers, each additional MET was associated with a 0.10% increase in hippocampal volume. No sex effects of physical activity change were found. Increasing physical activity has long-term positive effects on hippocampal volumes and appears especially beneficial for older APOE-ε4 carriers. To optimize healthy brain aging, physical activity programs should focus on creating long-term exercise habits.
J Camchong, A F Haynos, T Hendrickson, M B Fiecas, C S Gilmore, B A Mueller, M G Kushner, K O Lim
Published: 20 October 2021
Theoretical models of addiction suggest that alterations in addiction domains including incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive control lead to relapse in alcohol use disorder (AUD). To determine whether the functional organization of neural networks underlying these domains predict subsequent relapse, we generated theoretically defined addiction networks. We collected resting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 45 individuals with AUD during early abstinence (number of days abstinent M = 25.40, SD = 16.51) and calculated the degree of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within these networks. Regression analyses determined whether the RSFC strength in domain-defined addiction networks measured during early abstinence predicted subsequent relapse (dichotomous or continuous relapse metrics). RSFC within each addiction network measured during early abstinence was significantly lower in those that relapsed (vs. abstained) and predicted subsequent time to relapse. Lower incentive salience RSFC during early abstinence increased the odds of relapsing. Neither RSFC in a control network nor clinical self-report measures predicted relapse. The association between low incentive salience RSFC and faster relapse highlights the need to design timely interventions that enhance RSFC in AUD individuals at risk of relapsing faster.
, Luis A Riquelme, Daniel Perez-Chada,
Published: 14 October 2021
Recent studies from us and others suggest that traditionally declarative structures mediate some aspects of the encoding and consolidation of procedural memories. This evidence points to the existence of converging physiological pathways across memory systems. Here, we examined whether the coupling between slow oscillations (SO) and spindles, a mechanism well established in the consolidation of declarative memories, is relevant for the stabilization of human motor memories. To this aim, we conducted an electroencephalography study in which we quantified various parameters of these oscillations during a night of sleep that took place immediately after learning a visuomotor adaptation (VMA) task. We found that VMA increased the overall density of fast (≥12 Hz), but not slow (<12 Hz), spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep, stage 3 (NREM3). This modulation occurred rather locally over the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. Although adaptation learning did not affect the density of SOs, it substantially enhanced the number of fast spindles locked to the active phase of SOs. The fact that only coupled spindles predicted overnight memory retention points to the relevance of this association in motor memory consolidation. Our work provides evidence in favor of a common mechanism at the basis of the stabilization of declarative and motor memories.
Jiahua Xu, Lei Hao, Menglu Chen, Ying He, Min Jiang, Ting Tian, Hui Wang, Yanpei Wang, Daoyang Wang, Zhuo Rachel Han, et al.
Published: 13 October 2021
Sex differences in human emotion and related decision-making behaviors are recognized, which can be traced back early in development. However, our understanding of their underlying neurodevelopmental mechanisms remains elusive. Using developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging and computational approach, we investigated developmental sex differences in latent decision-making dynamics during negative emotion processing and related neurocognitive pathways in 243 school-aged children and 78 young adults. Behaviorally, girls exhibit higher response caution and more effective evidence accumulation, whereas boys show more impulsive response to negative facial expression stimuli. These effects parallel sex differences in emotion-related brain maturity linking to evidence accumulation, along with age-related decrease in emotional response in the basolateral amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in girls and an increase in the centromedial amygdala (CMA) in boys. Moreover, girls exhibit age-related decreases in BLA–MPFC coupling linked to evidence accumulation, but boys exhibit increases in CMA–insula coupling associated with response caution. Our findings highlight the neurocomputational accounts for developmental sex differences in emotion and emotion-related behaviors and provide important implications into the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of sex differences in latent emotional decision-making dynamics. This informs the emergence of sex differences in typical and atypical neurodevelopment of children’s emotion and related functions.
Hiraku Watanabe, Sho Kojima, Kazuaki Nagasaka, Ken Ohno, Noriko Sakurai, Naoki Kodama, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Published: 11 October 2021
Although brain gray matter (GM) plastically changes during short-term training, it is still unclear whether brain structures are stable for short periods (several months). Therefore, this study aimed to re-test the short-term variability of GM volumes and to clarify the effect of factors (gender and BDNF-genotype) expected to contribute to such variability. The subjects comprised 41 young healthy adults. T1-weighted images were acquired twice with an interval of approximately 4 months using a 3 T-MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to calculate GM volumes in 47 regions. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Test–retest variability (%TRV) were used as indices of variability. As a result, the ICCs in 43 regions were excellent (ICC > 0.90) and those in 3 regions were good (ICC > 0.80), whereas the ICC in the thalamus was moderate (ICC = 0.694). Women had a higher %TRV than men in 5 regions, and %TRV of the Val66Val group was higher than that of the Met carrier group in 2 regions. Moreover, the Female-Val66Val group had a higher %TRV than the Male-Met carrier group in 3 regions. These results indicate that although the short-term variability of GM volumes is small, it is affected by within-subject factors.
Alexia Dalski, Gyula Kovács,
Published: 9 October 2021
We explored the neural signatures of face familiarity using cross-participant and cross-experiment decoding of event-related potentials, evoked by unknown and experimentally familiarized faces from a set of experiments with different participants, stimuli, and familiarization-types. Human participants of both sexes were either familiarized perceptually, via media exposure, or by personal interaction. We observed significant cross-experiment familiarity decoding involving all three experiments, predominantly over posterior and central regions of the right hemisphere in the 270–630 ms time window. This shared face familiarity effect was most prominent across the Media and the Personal, as well as between the Perceptual and Personal experiments. Cross-experiment decodability makes this signal a strong candidate for a general neural indicator of face familiarity, independent of familiarization methods, participants, and stimuli. Furthermore, the sustained pattern of temporal generalization suggests that it reflects a single automatic processing cascade that is maintained over time.
Chloe N Soutar, Patrick Grenier, Ashutosh Patel, Pauline P Kabitsis, Mary C Olmstead, ,
Published: 9 October 2021
Neuron-derived 17β-estradiol (E2) alters synaptic transmission and plasticity in brain regions with endocrine and non-endocrine functions. Investigations into a modulatory role of E2 in synaptic activity and plasticity have mainly focused on the rodent hippocampal formation. In songbirds, E2 is synthesized by auditory forebrain neurons and promotes auditory signal processing and memory for salient acoustic stimuli; however, the modulatory effects of E2 on memory-related synaptic plasticity mechanisms have not been directly examined in the auditory forebrain. We investigated the effects of bidirectional E2 manipulations on synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat primary auditory cortex (A1). Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread neuronal expression of the E2 biosynthetic enzyme aromatase in multiple regions of the rat sensory and association neocortex, including A1. In A1, E2 application reduced the threshold for in vivo LTP induction at layer IV synapses, whereas pharmacological suppression of E2 production by aromatase inhibition abolished LTP induction at layer II/III synapses. In acute A1 slices, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated currents were sensitive to E2 manipulations in a layer-specific manner. These findings demonstrate that locally synthesized E2 modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in A1 and suggest potential mechanisms by which E2 contributes to auditory signal processing and memory.
Moataz Assem, Sneha Shashidhara, Matthew F Glasser, John Duncan
Published: 9 October 2021
Recent functional MRI studies identified sensory-biased regions across much of the association cortices and cerebellum. However, their anatomical relationship to multiple-demand (MD) regions, characterized as domain-general due to their coactivation during multiple cognitive demands, remains unclear. For a better anatomical delineation, we used multimodal MRI techniques of the Human Connectome Project to scan subjects performing visual and auditory versions of a working memory (WM) task. The contrast between hard and easy WM showed strong domain generality, with essentially identical patterns of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar MD activity for visual and auditory materials. In contrast, modality preferences were shown by contrasting easy WM with baseline; most MD regions showed visual preference while immediately adjacent to cortical MD regions, there were interleaved regions of both visual and auditory preference. The results may exemplify a general motif whereby domain-specific regions feed information into and out of an adjacent, integrative MD core.
Danqing Yang, , Chao Ding,
Published: 9 October 2021
Neocortical layer 6 plays a crucial role in sensorimotor co-ordination and integration through functionally segregated circuits linking intracortical and subcortical areas. We performed whole-cell recordings combined with morphological reconstructions to identify morpho-electric types of layer 6A pyramidal cells (PCs) in rat barrel cortex. Cortico-thalamic (CT), cortico-cortical (CC), and cortico-claustral (CCla) PCs were classified based on their distinct morphologies and have been shown to exhibit different electrophysiological properties. We demonstrate that these three types of layer 6A PCs innervate neighboring excitatory neurons with distinct synaptic properties: CT PCs establish weak facilitating synapses onto other L6A PCs; CC PCs form synapses of moderate efficacy, while synapses made by putative CCla PCs display the highest release probability and a marked short-term depression. For excitatory-inhibitory synaptic connections in layer 6, both the presynaptic PC type and the postsynaptic interneuron type govern the dynamic properties of the respective synaptic connections. We have identified a functional division of local layer 6A excitatory microcircuits which may be responsible for the differential temporal engagement of layer 6 feed-forward and feedback networks. Our results provide a basis for further investigations on the long-range CC, CT, and CCla pathways.
, Genevieve McPhilemy, Stefani O’Donoghue, Dara M Cannon, Liam Kilmartin, Denis O’Hora, Samuel Sarrazin, Cyril Poupon, Marc-Antoine D’Albis, Amelia Versace, et al.
Published: 5 October 2021
Neuroimaging evidence implicates structural network-level abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD); however, there remain conflicting results in the current literature hampered by sample size limitations and clinical heterogeneity. Here, we set out to perform a multisite graph theory analysis to assess the extent of neuroanatomical dysconnectivity in a large representative study of individuals with BD. This cross-sectional multicenter international study assessed structural and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 109 subjects with BD type 1 and 103 psychiatrically healthy volunteers. Whole-brain metrics, permutation-based statistics, and connectivity of highly connected nodes were used to compare network-level connectivity patterns in individuals with BD compared with controls. The BD group displayed longer characteristic path length, a weakly connected left frontotemporal network, and increased rich-club dysconnectivity compared with healthy controls. Our multisite findings implicate emotion and reward networks dysconnectivity in bipolar illness and may guide larger scale global efforts in understanding how human brain architecture impacts mood regulation in BD.
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