BMC Biochemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 1471-2091 / 1471-2091
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 552
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Published: 27 December 2018
BMC Biochemistry, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12858-018-0102-z

Abstract:
Sepsis is a severe condition characterised by the body's systemic inflammatory response to infection. The specific sepsis-related biomarkers should be used in clinical diagnosis, therapeutic response monitoring, rational use of antibiotics, and prognosis (risk stratification), etc. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the expression level of Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3) and the mechanism of high expression in sepsis patients. Septic cell model experiments were performed by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Jurkat cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and zymosan, respectively. SP600125, SB203580 and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) were used to inhibit JNK1/2, p38MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways in septic cell model, respectively. These results showed that DcR3 levels were higher in sepsis group than control. DcR3 mRNA and protein levels in HUVECs were increased following treatment with LPS, LTA and zymosan, and also increased in Jurkat cells treated by LPS, but not by LTA or zymosan. When HUVECs were treated with the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, DcR3 expression was decreased compared with controls. However, SP600125 and SB203580 had no effect on DcR3 mRNA or protein levels. The results indicated that DcR3 secretion proceeded through the NF-κB signalling pathway in HUVECs.
Published: 18 December 2018
BMC Biochemistry, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12858-018-0101-0

Abstract:
Studying proteins and enzymes involved in important biological processes in the Aedes aegypti mosquito is limited by the quantity that can be directly isolated from the mosquito. Adding to this difficulty, digestive enzymes (midgut proteases) involved in metabolizing blood meal proteins require a more oxidizing environment to allow proper folding of disulfide bonds. Therefore, recombinant techniques to express foreign proteins in Escherichia coli prove to be effective in producing milligram quantities of the expressed product. However, with the most commonly used strains having a reducing cytoplasm, soluble expression of recombinant proteases is hampered. Fortunately, new E. coli strains with a more oxidizing cytoplasm are now available to ensure proper folding of disulfide bonds. Utilizing an E. coli strain with a more oxidizing cytoplasm (SHuffle® T7, New England Biolabs) and changes in bacterial growth temperature has resulted in the soluble expression of the four most abundantly expressed Ae. aegypti midgut proteases (AaET, AaSPVI, AaSPVII, and AaLT). A previous attempt of solubly expressing the full-length zymogen forms of these proteases with the leader (signal) sequence and a modified pseudo propeptide with a heterologous enterokinase cleavage site led to insoluble recombinant protein expression. In combination with the more oxidizing cytoplasm, and changes in growth temperature, helped improve the solubility of the zymogen (no leader) native propeptide proteases in E. coli. Furthermore, the approach led to autocatalytic activation of the proteases during bacterial expression and observable BApNA activity. Different time-points after bacterial growth induction were tested to determine the time at which the inactive (zymogen) species is observed to transition to the active form. This helped with the purification and isolation of only the inactive zymogen forms using Nickel affinity. The difficulty in solubly expressing recombinant proteases in E. coli is caused by the native reducing cytoplasm. However, with bacterial strains with a more oxidizing cytoplasm, recombinant soluble expression can be achieved, but only in concert with changes in bacterial growth temperature. The method described herein should provide a facile starting point to recombinantly expressing Ae. aegypti mosquito proteases or proteins dependent on disulfide bonds utilizing E. coli as a host.
Published: 14 December 2018
BMC Biochemistry, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12858-018-0103-y

Abstract:
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major form of energy storage in eukaryotes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of TAG biosynthesis. Mammalian DGATs are classified into DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies. It was unclear which DGAT was the major isoform expressed in animal cells. The objective was to identify the major DGAT mRNA expressed in cultured mouse adipocytes and macrophages and compared it to that expressed in tung tree seeds. qPCR evaluated DGAT mRNA levels in mouse 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages and tung tree seeds. TaqMan qPCR showed that DGAT2 mRNA levels were 10–30 fold higher than DGAT1 in adipocytes and macrophages, and DGAT mRNA levels in adipocytes were 50–100-fold higher than those in macrophages. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory tristetraprolin/zinc finger protein 36 (TTP/ZFP36) mRNA levels were 2–4-fold higher in macrophages than those in adipocytes and similar to DGAT1 in adipocytes but 100-fold higher than DGAT1 in macrophages. SYBR Green qPCR analyses confirmed TaqMan qPCR results. DGAT2 mRNA as the major DGAT mRNA in the mouse cells was similar to that in tung tree seeds where DGAT2 mRNA levels were 10–20-fold higher than DGAT1 or DGAT3. The results demonstrated that DGAT2 mRNA was the major form of DGAT mRNA expressed in mouse adipocytes and macrophages and tung tree seeds.
Published: 3 December 2018
BMC Biochemistry, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12858-018-0100-1

Abstract:
Generally, proteases in medicinal plants had different therapeutic effects such as anti-inflammatory effect; modulate the immune response and inhibitory effect toward tumor growth. In this study, protease was purified and characterized from miswak roots, as medicinal plant and natural toothbrush. Physical and chemical characterization of cysteine protease P1 were studied such as pH optimum (6.5), optimum temperature (50 °C), thermal stability (50 °C) and Km (3.3 mg azocasein/ml). The enzyme digested some proteins in the order of caseine > haemoglobin > egg albumin >gelatin > bovine serum albumin. Hg2+ had strong inhibitory effect on enzyme activity compared with other metal ions. Kinetic of inhibition for determination the type of protease was studied. Iodoactamide and p-Hydroximercuribenzaoic acid (p-HMB) caused strong inhibitory effect on enzyme activity indicating the enzyme is cysteine protease. The biochemical characterization of this enzyme will be display the suitable conditions for using of this enzyme in toothpaste in the future and the enzyme may be used in other applications.
Published: 12 November 2018
BMC Biochemistry, Volume 19, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12858-018-0099-3

Abstract:
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin deposits can be found in the islets of type 2 diabetes patients. The peptide is suggested to be involved in the etiology of the disease through formation of amyloid deposits and destruction of β islet cells, though the underlying molecular events leading from IAPP deposition to β cell death are still largely unknown. We used OFFGEL™ proteomics to study how IAPP exposure affects the proteome of rat pancreatic insulinoma Rin-5F cells. The OFFGEL™ methodology is highly effective at generating quantitative data on hundreds of proteins affected by IAPP, with its accuracy confirmed by In Cell Western and Quantitative Real Time PCR results. Combining data on individual proteins identifies pathways and protein complexes affected by IAPP. IAPP disrupts protein synthesis and degradation, and induces oxidative stress. It causes decreases in protein transport and localization. IAPP disrupts the regulation of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and increases catabolic processes. IAPP causes decreases in protein transport and localization, and affects the cytoskeleton, DNA repair and oxidative stress. Results are consistent with a model where IAPP aggregates overwhelm the ability of a cell to degrade proteins via the ubiquitin system. Ultimately this leads to apoptosis. IAPP aggregates may be also toxic to the cell by causing oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage or by decreasing protein transport. The reversal of any of these effects, perhaps by targeting proteins which alter in response to IAPP, may be beneficial for type II diabetes.
Peter C. Loewen, Jacek Switala, James P. Wells, Fang Huang, Anthony T. Zara, John S. Allingham,
Published: 16 August 2018
BMC Biochemistry, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12858-018-0098-4

Abstract:
Stilbene cleaving oxygenases (SCOs), also known as lignostilbene-α,β-dioxygenases (LSDs) mediate the oxidative cleavage of the olefinic double bonds of lignin-derived intermediate phenolic stilbenes, yielding small modified benzaldehyde compounds. SCOs represent one branch of the larger carotenoid cleavage oxygenases family. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of an SCO-like enzyme from the soil-born, bio-control agent Pseudomonas brassicacearum. In vitro and in vivo assays relying on visual inspection, spectrophotometric quantification, as well as liquid-chormatographic and mass spectrometric characterization were applied for functional evaluation of the enzyme. X-ray crystallographic analyses and in silico modeling were applied for structural investigations. In vitro assays demonstrated preferential cleavage of resveratrol, while in vivo analyses detected putative cleavage of the straight chain carotenoid, lycopene. A high-resolution structure containing the seven-bladed β-propeller fold and conserved 4-His-Fe unit at the catalytic site, was obtained. Comparative structural alignments, as well as in silico modelling and docking, highlight potential molecular factors contributing to both the primary in vitro activity against resveratrol, as well as the putative subsidiary activities against carotenoids in vivo, for future validation. The findings reported here provide validation of the SCO structure, and highlight enigmatic points with respect to the potential effect of the enzyme’s molecular environment on substrate specificities for future investigation.
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