Advances in Simulation

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EISSN : 2059-0628
Total articles ≅ 156
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, Francisco Maio Matos, Paula Dias de Toledo Rodovalho, Mary Fey, Robert Simon, Sacha Muller-Botti
Published: 7 July 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00175-z

Abstract:
Background Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare (DASH©) is an instrument to assist in developing and evaluating debriefing skills. The objectives of this study were to translate the DASH from English to Portuguese and to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of this translated instrument for Portugal and Brazil. Methods A forward translation of the DASH score sheets and Rater’s Handbook was accomplished and reviewed by authors from both Portuguese-speaking countries to reach the consensus harmonized version. A backward translation was reviewed by the original authors and discussed with the authors to produce the approved harmonized translation. This was then tested through a questionnaire to assess clarity, comprehensiveness, appropriateness, and cultural relevance among 10 simulation specialists from Portugal and Brazil. Results During the forward translation, 19 discrepancies were detected in the Portuguese DASH. After backward translation, 7 discrepancies were discussed and harmonized. All 10 simulation specialists from both countries reviewed the harmonized translation and made 70 suggestions, 64 of which were incorporated in the instrument after discussion among authors. Conclusions The translated DASH has undergone translation to Portuguese and a cross-cultural adaptation across Portugal and Brazil. It may be used to assess debriefings in healthcare settings in these countries.
, , Diana H. Dolmans, Gerard J. Gormley
Published: 3 July 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00177-x

Abstract:
Background Simulation-based education can induce intense learner emotions. The interplay between emotions and learning is less well understood. Gaining greater insights into learner emotions has potential to guide how best we manage emotions and optimise learning. This study aimed to understand learners’ lived emotional experiences in complex simulation and the perceived impact on learning. Methods Eight final-year medical students participated in the study. Wearing video-glasses, participants took part in a ward-based simulation. Video-footage was used to elicitate exploratory interviews and analysed using Template Analysis reflexively. Results Analysis yielded four main themes: ‘nervous anticipation’: encapsulating the fear, anxiety and uncertainty experienced by learners prior to simulation; ‘shock and awe’: feelings of anxiousness and being overwhelmed at the start of a simulation; ‘in the moment: flowing or buffeting with the emotions’: experiencing fear of being judged as incompetent, but also experiencing positive emotions such as satisfaction; ‘safe-landing?’: whilst debriefing aimed to encourage more positive emotions, negative emotions about the simulation could persist even with debriefing. Conclusions Complex simulation can evoke intense emotions in students. If students experienced a positive progression, they reported positive emotions and felt competent which was perceived to have a positive impact on learning. If students experienced failure, they reported strong negative emotions which made them question about their future performance and was perceived as negative for learning. Bringing to the surface these complex emotional dynamics, could permit educators to be aware of and adapt the emotional climate within simulation in order to optimise learning.
Holly Hopkins, Chelsea Weaks, Tim Webster, Melih Elcin
Published: 21 June 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00162-4

Abstract:
Gynecological Teaching Associates (GTAs) and Male Urogenital Teaching Associates (MUTAs) instruct healthcare professional learners to perform accurate and respectful breast, speculum, bimanual vaginal, rectal, urogenital, and prostate examinations. During such sessions, the GTA/MUTA uses their own body to instruct while providing real-time feedback. While GTAs/MUTAs fall under the broader umbrella of Standardized Patient methodology, the specificity of their role indicates need for establishment of Standards of Best Practice (SOBP) for GTA/MUTA programs. On behalf of the Association of Standardized Patient Educators (ASPE), the Delphi process was utilized to reach international consensus identifying the Practices that comprise the ASPE GTA/MUTA SOBP. The original ASPE SOBP was used as the foundation for the iterative series of three surveys. Results were presented at the ASPE 2019 conference for additional feedback. Fifteen participants from four countries completed the Delphi process. Four of the original ASPE SOBP Domains were validated for GTA/MUTA programs: Safe Work Environment, Instructional Session Development, Training GTAs/MUTAs, and Program Management. Principles and Practices were shaped, and in some instances created, to best fit the distinct needs of GTA/MUTA programs. The ASPE GTA/MUTA SOBP apply to programs that engage GTAs/MUTAs in formative instructional sessions with learners. Programs that incorporate GTAs/MUTAs in simulation roles or in summative assessment are encouraged to reference the ASPE SOBP in conjunction with this document. The SOBP are aspirational and should be used to shape Practices within the program’s local context. The ASPE GTA/MUTA SOBP will continue to evolve as our knowledge-base and practice develop.
, Karin Pukk-Härenstam, Christopher Kennedy, Erik Hollnagel, David Slater
Published: 5 June 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00166-0

Abstract:
Objectives With ever increasingly complex healthcare settings, technology enhanced simulation (TES) is well positioned to explore all perspectives to enhance patient safety and patient outcomes. Analysis from a Safety-II stance requires identification of human adjustments in daily work that are key to maintaining safety. The aim of this paper is to describe an approach to explore the consequences of human variability from a Safety-II perspective and describe the added value of this to TES. Methods The reader is guided through a novel application of functional resonance analysis methodology (FRAM), a method to analyse how a system or activity is affected by human variability, to explore human adaptations observed in in situ simulations (ISS). The structured applicability of this novel approach to TES is described by application to empirical data from the standardised ISS management of paediatric time critical head injuries (TCHI). Results A case series is presented to illustrate the step-wise observation of key timings during ISSs, the construction of FRAM models and the visualisation of the propagation of human adaptations through the FRAM models. The key functions/actions that ensure the propagation are visible, as are the sequelae of the adaptations. Conclusions The approach as described in this paper is a first step to illuminating how to explore, analyse and observe the consequences of positive and negative human adaptations within simulated complex systems. This provides TES with a structured methodology to visualise and reflect upon both Safety-I and Safety-II perspectives to enhance patient safety and patient outcomes.
Published: 5 June 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00173-1

Abstract:
The healthcare simulation field has no shortage of debriefing options. Some demand considerable skill which serves as a barrier to more widespread implementation. The plus-delta approach to debriefing offers the advantages of conceptual simplicity and ease of implementation. Importantly, plus-delta promotes learners’ capacity for a self-assessment, a skill vital for safe clinical practice and yet a notorious deficiency in professional practice. The plus-delta approach confers the benefits of promoting uptake of debriefing in time-limited settings by educators with both fundamental but also advanced skills, and enhancing essential capacity for critical self-assessment informed by objective performance feedback. In this paper, we describe the role of plus-delta in debriefing, provide guidance for incorporating informed learner self-assessment into debriefings, and highlight four opportunities for improving the art of the plus delta: (a) exploring the big picture vs. specific performance issues, (b) choosing between single vs. double-barreled questions, (c) unpacking positive performance, and (d) managing perception mismatches.
, Lee Ann Riesenberg, Lisa B. Bergman, Michelle R. Brown, Emma C. O’Hagan, Shivani J. Patel, Tekuila R. Carter
Published: 26 May 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00174-0

Abstract:
Background Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is an increasingly popular simulation technique that allows learners to achieve mastery of skills through repetition, feedback, and increasing difficulty. This manuscript describes the implementation and assessment of RCDP in an anesthesia residency curriculum. Methods Researchers describe the comparison of RCDP with traditional instructional methods for anesthesiology residents' application of Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) and communication principles in a simulated environment. Residents (n = 21) were randomly assigned to either Traditional or RCDP education groups, with each resident attending 2 days of bootcamp. On their first day, the Traditional group received a lecture, then participated in a group, immersive simulation with reflective debriefing. The RCDP group received education through an RCDP simulation session. On their second bootcamp day, all participants individually engaged in an immersive simulation, then completed the “Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning” survey. Application of ECC and communication principles during the simulation was scored by a blinded reviewer through video review. Participants ended the bootcamp by ranking the experiences they found most valuable. Results No significant differences were found in the different group members’ individual performances during the immersive simulation, nor in the experiences they deemed most valuable. However, the Traditional education group reported higher levels of satisfaction and self-confidence in learning in 5 areas (p = 0.004–0.04). Conclusions Regardless of RCDP or Traditional education grouping, anesthesia residents demonstrated no difference in ECC skill level or perceived value of interventions. However, members of the Traditional education group reported higher levels of satisfaction and self-confidence in numerous areas. Additional RCDP opportunities in the anesthesia residency program should be considered prior to excluding it as an educational method in our program.
Holly Hopkins, Chelsea Weaks, Elise Napier
Published: 20 May 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00172-2

Abstract:
Background Gynecological Teaching Associates (GTAs) and Male Urogenital Teaching Associates (MUTAs) are individuals trained to instruct health professional learners with their own body to conduct accurate, patient-centered breast, pelvic, urogenital, rectal, and/or prostate examinations. Evidence indicates that this results in improvements in technical competence and communication skills, but there is wide variability to how such programs are implemented and engaged within the curriculum. In this scoping review, we mapped evidence regarding (1) how GTA/MUTA programs are utilized with health professional learners, (2) how GTA/MUTA programs are implemented using the Association of Standardized Patient Educators (ASPE) Standards of Best Practice (SOBP) as a framework, and (3) what broad outcomes are addressed in publications. Methods PubMed, ERIC, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts were searched for all publications addressing instruction of physical examinations with a GTA/MUTA and/or administration of GTA/MUTA programs. Studies were charted in tandem until consensus was identified and then charted individually, using an iterative process. The scoping review protocol was registered prospectively. Results One hundred and one articles were identified, and nearly all highlighted positive results regarding GTA/MUTA programs. Most studies addressed medical students within the USA and Europe. During instructional sessions, three (SD=1.4) learners worked with each GTA/MUTA and an average of 32 min (SD=17) was allocated per learner. GTAs/MUTA instructed both independently (n=33) and in pairs (n=51). Thirty-eight articles provided detailed information consistent with one or more of the Domains of the ASPE SOBP, with six providing specific information regarding safe work environments. Conclusions While studies demonstrate consistently positive outcomes for learners, there is wide variability in implementation patterns. This variability may impact learning outcomes and impact both physical and psychological safety for GTAs/MUTAs and learners. Terminology used to refer to GTAs/MUTAs is inconsistent and may obscure relevant publications. Additional research is indicated to explore the pedagogical variables that result in positive learning outcomes and examine methods to ensure physical and psychological safety of GTAs/MUTAs and learners. Trial registration https://osf.io/x9w2u/.
Michael J. Meguerdichian, , Katie Walker
Published: 11 May 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00171-3

Abstract:
Although in 2020, there are more than 120 healthcare simulation fellowships established globally, there is a paucity of literature on how to design fellowship programs most effectively, to equip graduates with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of a competent simulation educator. Offering a systematic structure to approach simulation fellowship programmatic design may aid in better achieving program goals. In this manuscript, we present the application of the 4-component instructional design model as a blueprint to the development of Simulation Education Fellowships. We offer examples used at the NYC Health + Hospitals simulation fellowship to illustrate how the 4-component model informs fellowship program design which promotes the development of a simulation educator. This manuscript will provide a roadmap to designing curricula and assessment practices including self-reflective logbooks to focus the path toward achieving desired skills and shape future conversations around programmatic development.
, Jabeen Fayyaz, Mireille Gharib, Laura Simone, Carrie Glanfield, Anna Kempinska
Published: 6 May 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00170-4

Abstract:
Background Maintaining acute care physician competence is critically important. Current maintenance of certification (MOC) programs has started to incorporate simulation-based education (SBE). However, competency expectations have not been defined. This article describes the development of a mandatory annual SBE, competency-based simulation program for technical and resuscitation skills for pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians. Methods The competency-based medical education (CBME) program was introduced in 2016. Procedural skill requirements were based on a needs assessment derived from Royal College PEM training guidelines. Resuscitation scenarios were modified versions of pre-existing in-situ mock codes or critical incident cases. All full-time faculty were required to participate annually in both sessions. Delivery of educational content included a flipped classroom website, deliberate practice, and stop-pause debriefing. All stations required competency checklists and global rating scales. Results Between 2016 and 2018, 40 physicians and 48 registered nurses attended these courses. Overall course evaluations in 2018 were 4.92/5 and 4.93/5. Barriers to implementation include the need for many simulation education experts, time commitment, and clinical scheduling during course events. Conclusion We have developed a mandatory simulation-based, technical, and resuscitation CBME program for PEM faculty. This simulation-based CBME program could be adapted to other acute care disciplines. Further research is required to determine if these skills are enhanced both in a simulated and real environment and if there is an impact on patient outcomes.
, Glenn Posner, Kimberly Stone, Marjorie White, , Komal Bajaj, Adam Cheng, Vincent Grant, Simon Huang, Jennifer Reid
Published: 29 April 2021
Advances in Simulation, Volume 6, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s41077-021-00169-x

Abstract:
Healthcare organizations strive to deliver safe, high-quality, efficient care. These complex systems frequently harbor gaps, which if unmitigated, could result in harm. Systems-focused simulation (SFS) projects, which include systems-focused debriefing (SFD), if well designed and executed, can proactively and comprehensively identify gaps and test and improve systems, enabling institutions to improve safety and quality before patients and staff are placed at risk. The previously published systems-focused debriefing framework, Promoting Excellence and Reflective Learning in Simulation (PEARLS) for Systems Integration (PSI), describes a systematic approach to SFD. It includes an essential “pre-work” phase, encompassing evidence-informed steps that lead up to a SFD. Despite inclusion in the PSI framework, a detailed description of the pre-work phase, and how each component facilitates change management, was limited. The goal of this paper is to elucidate the PSI “Pre-work” phase, everything leading up to the systems-focused simulation and debriefing. It describes how the integration of project and change management principles ensures that a comprehensive collection of safety and quality issues are reliably identified and captured.
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