Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online)

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2176-9478 / 2176-9478
Current Publisher: Zeppelini Editorial e Comunicacao (10.5327)
Total articles ≅ 247
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Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online) pp 1-9; doi:10.5327/z21769478766

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Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 55, pp 381-400; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200705

Abstract:
A sustentabilidade dos assentamentos humanos, principalmente áreas urbanas, e dos ecossistemas como um todo envolve a adoção de estratégias territoriais integradoras, que levem em conta os aspectos ambientais, econômicos, sociais e culturais. O enfoque dos serviços ecossistêmicos pode ser aliado no fortalecimento da visão integrada do território metropolitano e da água como elemento-chave integrador. Nesse contexto, este estudo teve como objetivo a proposição de um conjunto de indicadores de avaliação de capital natural e da oferta e demanda do serviço ecossistêmico de provisão de água para regiões metropolitanas, tendo como recorte a Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC) (PR). O conjunto de indicadores foi selecionado de uma base teórica pautada em levantamento bibliográfico e posteriormente validado por especialistas pelo método Delphi, com envio de questionários eletrônicos em duas rodadas de validação. Os indicadores validados foram utilizados posteriormente para análise da provisão de água na RMC. Embora a mancha urbana concentre as maiores demandas por recursos hídricos, os municípios do seu entorno são os maiores provedores reais ou potenciais de serviços ecossistêmicos. Alguns municípios, principalmente os localizados no extremo norte da RMC, destacam-se pela significativa disponibilidade hídrica. No entanto, a análise demonstra tendência de degradação do capital natural e consequente comprometimento na provisão de água na RMC. Há a necessidade de se ampliar, em grande parte da região, a implementação das políticas de proteção da biodiversidade, de se estimular a criação de novas unidades de conservação e de fortalecer o monitoramento do uso do solo e a busca por soluções inovadoras para melhorar a gestão da água na metrópole.
Fabiano Rocha Diniz, Luiz Vieira Filho, Roberto Montezuma
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 55, pp 331-353; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200619

Abstract:
Recife is an amphibious city whose urban development does not value its rivers. In the past, the city’s main watercourse, the river Capibaribe, was understood to play a key role in structuring urban spaces and providing connectivity. Since then, this understanding has dwindled, and the resulting situation is a cause of great concern. Recife City has turned its back on the banks of its rivers and neglected both their capacity to smooth and shape urban space, and their potential to create a coherent image of the city. Recife is one of those cities in the world that are most vulnerable to climate change, ranking 16th in the list of world hotspots. In order to confront these challenges and rethink the role of the river that runs in the heart of Recife, researchers, architects, engineers, and sociologists from Research and Innovation for Cities — Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (INCITI-UFPE) were invited by the Recife City Hall to draw up plans for a park stretching along the river’s banks. Capibaribe Park Project attempts to answer one key question: How can we use the river to transform the city? The park project is based on a structural approach to landscape and is guided by the precepts of sustainability and regeneration of public spaces, in line with the emerging paradigm that combines a cross-disciplinary and cross-sector approach with water-sensitive design and social participation. The present article presents an overview of the main characteristics and development of this project, its theoretical and methodological underpinnings, its contribution to society, and the results achieved so far. It shows how, in addition to the planned park, the project also envisages the installation of a much more extensive system of parks, as a first stage towards the creation of park-city by the 500th anniversary of the foundation of Recife, in 2037.
Maria Do Carmo Sobral
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 55, pp 281-281; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200553edt

, , Maiara Gabrielle De Souza Melo
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 55, pp 282-297; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200711

Abstract:
Integrated water resources management is advancing in Brazil as decentralized and participatory governance gains more prominence. However, local actions need to be better understood since several public policies are effectively implemented at this level. The present article aims to present the current debate about the local dimension in water resources governance. The paper analyzes empirical cases of water resources management in semi-arid Brazil, based on the performance of inter-municipal consortia and São Francisco’s River Basin Committee. Research shows that municipalities do not ignore the need to adopt new management models in response to their known financial and technical limitations. Cases of inter-municipal consortia and river basin committees have proven to be opportunities for greater visibility and action of local participants. Inter-municipal consortia assist in sanitation management, because they increase the access of municipalities to the services provided. On the other hand, dynamics of the river basin committee expanded the possibilities of participation of local actors, allowing the debate and shared decision-making. Nevertheless, identifying factors and strategies for the successful organization of local participation and cooperation in these new governance arrangements is needed.
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 55, pp 401-419; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200658

Abstract:
Global climate change and extreme climate variability directly affect the hydrological cycle and rainfall variability, which highlights the importance of studying climatic conditions as a support for water resource management in regions with low water availability, such as the Upper Tietê River Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Alto Tietê – BHAT). This study aims to present a diagnosis for BHAT water availability conditions in future climate scenarios, based on the high-resolution models CMCC-CM, MIROC4h, ETA-MIROC5, and ETAHADGEM2- ES, for the time slices 2020-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2099, in order to provide climate information for BHAT’s management. The main results showed a clear upward trend in the average annual temperatures. For the RCP8.5 scenario, the average annual increase was 0.5°C from 2006 to 2099. Precipitation showed high interannual variability without a specific defined trend. The average annual flow showed a slight positive trend in the period 2006–2099. However, it also presented a decrease in the monthly average flow in the wet period (13%) and an increase in the dry period (9.7%), compared to the historical data simulated for the time slice 2020–2040 of the RCP8.5 scenario. However, the annual increase in BHAT water availability at future scenarios should not be sufficient to meet the growing demand for water in the region. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate water availability based on other high-resolution climate models, in order to evaluate uncertainties, and in other regions with different supply systems that provide water to the São Paulo Metropolitan Region, identifying alternative water supply sources.
Suelen Nascimento Dos Santos, Jonathas Barbosa De Araújo Freitas, , , Caroline Cibelle Correia Clemente
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 56, pp 28-40; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200661

Abstract:
The environmental damage suffered by urban water bodies and the need for public water supply result in a greater interest in techniques that enable water treatment in an efficient and ecological way, such as River Bank Filtration (RBF). This technique uses the soil as a filtering medium, as well as the biological activities of organisms that dwell in the Hyporheic Zone (HZ), the zone of interaction between the surface water body and its underlying aquifer. Knowledge of sediments and hyporheic organisms is indispensable to study RBF. The present paper aimed to characterize the HZ of the middle section of Beberibe river (Pernambuco State, Brazil) in its sedimentological and biological aspects, with sampling druing the rainy and dry seasons, in two distinct sampling sites, one in a conserved area and the other in a highly urbanized area. Biological characterization was performed at the level of large taxonomic groups of meiofauna, accounting for 982 individuals, with the three most abundant taxa being Nematoda, Annelida, and Rotifera. Permutational Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) statistical tests were performed, showing significant differences for the season and point factors (p < 0.05) in relation to abundance. The highest concentration of individuals and total organic matter were seen in the rainy season, especially at the point located in the urbanized area. With sedimentological characterization by grain size tests of the hyporheic sediments, the predominance of silt was observed during the rainy season, and sandy during the dry season. It was concluded that the main factor that influenced the structure of the meiofauna community was the release of domestic effluents. The information obtained by the present work helps to understand some features of the HZ, which is essential for RBF or other techniques that use the interstitial matrix.
Osvaldo Augusto Vasconcelos De Oliveira Lopes Da Silva, ,
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 56, pp 76-90; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200722

Abstract:
The expansion of Brazilian higher education institutions (HEIs) organized in multicampi structures brought a significant complexity to the academic and administrative management. In this context, environmental management strategies become quite relevant, especially when considering the low effectiveness of the Brazilian Labeling Program (BLP) for the classification of buildings in practice. The main objective of the present paper is to evaluate the BLP efficacy as applied to HEI buildings, aiming to develop a new environmental labeling model for multicampi HEIs. For this purpose, the BLP was applied to the labeling of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Piauí (IFPI), employing data obtained from electricity bills between 2016 and 2018. The energy diagnosis was performed considering distinct indicators,performance indexes, levels and rankings of relative energy efficiency, from which energy efficiency labels could be developed. The results allow the verification of the low efficiency of the BLP, especially in the environmental labeling of HEIs. From the detailed analysis of bills, it is possible to develop environmental labels inspired by the BLP, resulting in a different approach. A novel type-II environmental labeling methodology is then introduced based on the breakdown of electricity bills and statistical methods.
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 56, pp 1-11; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200692

Abstract:
Tropical rainforests are among the most endangered biomes on the planet. They have become the new frontiers for capital expansion, both for the production of agricultural commodities and the exploitation of their natural resources. This article seeks to analyze how the command and control system is being practiced on one of such tropical rainforests, namely the Brazilian Amazon. To achieve the objectives set in the research, exploratory/descriptive methods of qualitative and quantitative approach were carried out through field research and literature review on the subject. In addition, we evaluated the publications that best described the “state of the art” of the theme, always aiming at the quality and comprehensiveness of research by bibliometric mining and field survey through questionnaires administered to military police corporations. While examining the environmental protection agencies and law enforcement agencies, both from Union and the states that make up the Legal Amazon, the conclusion was that all of them devote very little material resources to effective forest protection, and that human resources are infinitely smaller than those recommended by other international nature protection organizations. Moreover, the structure in charge of investigating environmental crimes in the states is either poor or non-existent, and distant from the main regions of deforestation and other environmental crimes, something which favors impunity. It is concluded that the lack of structure of command and control bodies in the Amazon threatens the sustainability of the ecosystem, the economy and the society on local, regional, and global levels.
Monique Carrer Hobold, Alex Hahn Matos, Karen Amorin da Silva,
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais (Online), Volume 56, pp 41-48; doi:10.5327/z2176-947820200635

Abstract:
The generation of large amounts of ash from sugarcane bagasse by itsproducing countries is becoming a worldwide-problem. Its irregularapplication, such as in fertilizers, contaminates soil and water, causing agreat environmental problem. Studies show it is possible to apply ash insome specific areas, such as replacement of portland cement, replacementof clay, as an adsorbent, in the treatment and stabilization of soils, in thepavement of road asphalt, among others. The objective of the present articleis to evaluate which are the most promising areas for the use of sugarcanebagasse ash. The work was developed with a bibliographic search, usingthe bibliometrics technique. The results obtained show that it is possible touse ash in several different areas. However, having a detailed study of thecharacteristics of the ash obtained is important, because they are directlyrelated to the regions and climates where sugarcane is cultivated, besidesits granulometry, collection time the ashes in the boilers, pHs, curing time,etc. In conclusion, results can be very different for the same application area,depending on the properties of the ash obtained.
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