ISSN / EISSN : 1177-5467 / 1177-5483
Published by: Informa UK Limited (10.2147)
Total articles ≅ 4,404
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Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2137-2144; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s368633
Purpose: To evaluate efficacy of a novel risk stratification system in minimizing resident surgical complications and to evaluate whether the system could be used to safely introduce cataract surgery to earlier levels of training. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study on 530 non-consecutive cataract cases performed by residents at Columbia University. Risk scores, preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraoperative complications, postoperative day 1 (POD1), and month 1 (POM1) exam findings were tabulated. The relationship between risk scores and POD1 and POM1 BCVA was modeled using linear regression. The relationship between risk scores and complication rates was modeled using logistic regression. Logistic regression was used to model the rates of complications across different levels of training. Rates of complications were compared between diabetic versus non-diabetic patients using t-tests. Results: Risk scores did not have significant association with intraoperative complications. Risk scores were predictive of corneal edema (OR = 1.36, p = 0.0032) and having any POM1 complication (OR = 1.20, p = 0.034). Risk scores were predictive of POD1 (β = 0.13, p < 0.0001) and POM1 (β = 0.057, p = 0.00048) visual acuity. There was no significant association between level of training and rates of intraoperative (p = 0.9) or postoperative complications (p = 0.06). Rates of intraoperative complication trended higher among diabetic patients but was not statistically significant (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Higher risk scores were predictive of prolonged corneal edema but not risk of intraoperative complications. Our risk stratification system allowed us to safely introduce earlier phacoemulsification surgery.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2157-2166; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s368972
Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic had a disproportionate impact on patients from racial and/or ethnic minority groups, causing many to delay healthcare. This study evaluates the role telehealth visits played in helping patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) return for subsequent, in-person eye examinations after the outbreak of COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzed 8147 patients with DM who had completed an outpatient ophthalmology and/or optometry visit in 2019 and who were due for return evaluation after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. Factors associated with return for subsequent, in-person eye examination were assessed. Results: The mean age of patients was 68.8 (± 13.0) years, and 42% were women. 7.4% of patients identified as Asian; 2.9% as Black; 3.4% as Hispanic or Latin American; 0.92%, as more than one race; 1.78%, as other races; and 80.7% as White. Patients from racial and/or ethnic minority groups completed fewer in-person eye examinations after the outbreak of COVID-19 compared with White patients (35.6% versus 44.5%, χ2=36.172, P< 0.001). However, both groups accessed telehealth services at a similar rate during this period (21.1% versus 21.9%, χ2=0.417, P=0.518). Importantly, patients who received telehealth services returned for subsequent, in-person eye examinations at substantially higher rates, regardless of race (51.0% and 46.6%, respectively, χ2=1.840, P=0.175). This offset the otherwise lower rate of return experienced by patients from racial and/or ethnic minority groups compared with White patients among the group of patients who did not receive any telehealth services (32.7% versus 42.7%, χ2=36.582, P< 0.001). The impact of telehealth on the likelihood of in-person return remained significant after taking into account age, gender, race, language, residence, severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and vision in a multivariate model. Conclusion: Telehealth initiatives benefited patients from racial and/or ethnic minority groups by reducing disparities in access to eye care experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2199-2208; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s367807
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of autologous platelet‐rich plasma (PRP) drops for evaporative dry eye (EDE) disease from meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods: This is a retrospective, consecutive case series of 20 eyes of 10 patients with EDE from MGD treated with PRP drops from November 2020 to November 2021 at a single outpatient clinic in Ontario, Canada. PRP drops were prepared from whole blood using a two-step centrifugation method. Patients were instructed to instill these drops six times daily for 4 weeks. The Canadian Dry Eye Assessment (CDEA) questionnaire score, patient subjective assessment (PSA) score, first and average non-invasive break-up times (f/a NIBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), bulbar redness (BR), and meibograph grade (MG) were measured before and after the treatment course. Results: Significant improvements in dry eye symptoms and tear film parameters were observed. Dry eye symptoms significantly improved as per the CDEA (mean difference (MD) = − 5.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [− 7.9, − 3.1], p< 0.001) and PSA (MD = − 2.6, 95% CI = [− 3.9, − 1.2], p< 0.001). There were significant improvements in tear film parameters including fNIBUT (MD = 3.85s, 95% CI = [1.2, 6.8], p=0.006), aNIBUT (MD = − 6.81s, 95% CI = [5.7, 11.1], p< 0.001) and TMH (MD = 0.08, 95% CI = [0.003, 0.2], p=0.045). There was an improvement in conjunctival injection as measured by BR (MD = − 0.36, 95% CI = [− 0.4, − 0.15], p=0.373). Five eyes experienced a one-grade improvement in MG (p=0.453), and none experienced worsening in MG with treatment. No temporary or permanent adverse effects were noted. Conclusion: Four weeks of PRP therapy resulted in significant functional improvements in dry eye symptoms and tear film quality and quantity. Improvements in conjunctival injection and microstructural improvements in meibomian glands were also observed in some eyes. Overall, PRP is a promising treatment option for patients with EDE from MGD refractory to conventional treatments.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2119-2127; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s342720
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy affecting different organ systems including the eye. The purpose of this review is to present and evaluate the medical literature regarding the early ophthalmological manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia. AML affects the ocular system through direct infiltration of tissues, secondary to hematological abnormalities, or in the form of chloroma or myeloid sarcoma in the brain or orbit consequently leading to a variety of manifestations depending on the ocular tissue involved. It is imperative for ophthalmologists to be aware of the early ophthalmological manifestations of AML which will allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening disease.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2129-2136; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s370061
Purpose: To assess refractive outcomes of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) in post-myopic laser refractive surgery eyes. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 35 eyes (21 patients), with history of laser refractive surgery, who were implanted with a trifocal IOL. Surgeon’s standard procedure included femtosecond laser (FLACS), digital registration, and intraoperative aberrometry (IA). The primary outcome measure was absolute prediction error. Secondary measures were refractive outcomes, postoperative residual astigmatism (PRA), monocular uncorrected visual acuity at distance (UDVA; 4m), intermediate (UIVA; 60cm), and near (UNVA; 40cm), and monocular best-corrected visual acuity at distance (BCVA; 4m). Results: At 3 months postoperatively, 71% and 68% of eyes had absolute prediction error 0.5 D or less with IA and preoperative planning respectively, which was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The PRA was 0.5 D or less in 91% of eyes with IA and 56% of eyes with preoperative planning. The PRA differences between IA and preoperative planning were statistically significant (p < 0.002). The percentage of eyes 20/20 or better for monocular UCVA, BCVA, UIVA, and UNVA was 29%, 77%, 78%, and 66%, respectively. Absolute prediction error 0.5 D or less was significantly higher in post-LASIK eyes versus post-PRK eyes (p < 0.003), at 85% and 56% of eyes, respectively. Conclusion: Implantation with a trifocal IOL can provide acceptable refractive and visual outcomes with minimal residual astigmatism in post-myopic LASIK and PRK eyes.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2145-2155; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s370041
Purpose: To evaluate myopia progression over an approximately 6-year follow-up period in children and young adults wearing a commercially available, daily disposable, soft multifocal contact lens with an extended depth of focus (center distance) design. Methods: This retrospective cohort analysis included data from 196 patients of mean (SD) age 12.3 (2.7) years (range, 5– 20 years), fit with the NaturalVue Multifocal (NVMF) contact lens at 15 practices in the United States over 6 years. All patients showed at least − 0.50D of myopic progression in at least one eye prior to wearing the lens. Data from the right eye were analyzed. One-way ANOVA with Tukeys post-hoc t-tests were used for statistical analysis, with a significance level set at P < 0.05. Results: After wearing these lenses for 6– 72 months, the average myopia progression slowed by approximately 0.84 D or 85% compared to baseline, which was statistically significant at all time points (P < 0.0001). Frequency distribution revealed that 91% of wearers showed a decrease in myopia progression compared to baseline, with 79% of wearers showing a ≥ 70% reduction in myopia progression. The average change in axial length in a subset of the population over 47 months of follow-up was approximately 0.10 mm/year. Compared with changes expected in an age- and ethnicity-matched myopic virtual control group obtained from published meta-analysis data, both myopic refractive error progression and axial elongation were significantly lower in NVMF wearers at 12, 24 and 36 months (P < 0.001). Analysis of the age- and ethnicity-matched virtual control group predicted that the Cumulative Absolute Reduction of axial Elongation (CARE) value over 3 years would be 0.45 mm. Conclusion: Wearers of the soft multifocal contact lens displayed significant reductions in myopia progression throughout a follow-up period of 6 years.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2105-2117; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s354570
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Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 2179-2185; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s340508
Tablet based perimetry has the potential to be used as a low-cost, portable method for glaucoma screening. With the advent of tablets with large dynamic luminance range and high spatial resolution, perimetry applications can test visual field locations within the central 30 degrees, just like bowl perimetry. Tablet perimetry has garnered interest in this COVID era as it can be promptly done in the waiting room or even from the comfort of home. The current review focuses on evaluating glaucoma detection sensitivities, diagnostic abilities and correlation of each parameter and examination time of the iPad based perimetry applications with those of HFA.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 1731-1737; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s356657
Purpose: To determine the actual vacuum pressure generated by the Oertli CataRhex 3® (Oertli), using an external measuring system. Methods: The effective vacuum pressure created by the Oertli was measured with a pressure device that was continuous with the vacuum tubing system while closed to the external environment. Measurements were taken with the machine set to 300 and 500 mmHg at flow rates of 20, 35, and 50 mL/min and at bottle heights of 60, 80, and 100 cm. Pressures were recorded after the foot pedal was depressed to vacuum setting (second position), and the pressure was allowed to stabilize. Subsequently, it was compared to the pressure value displayed by the machine. Results: Externally measured vacuum pressure was on average 13.02% greater (39.05 mmHg) than displayed vacuum pressure at 300 mmHg (P < 0.005) and 8.60% greater (42.98 mmHg) than displayed vacuum at 500 mmHg (P < 0.005). The average difference between displayed and measured pressure increased with increasing bottle heights. Conclusion: On average, the vacuum pressure generated in the Oertli was found to be significantly higher than the machine’s reading when the machine was set at 300 mmHg and 500 mmHg. Adjusting vacuum had variable effects on the measured versus displayed pressure readings.
Clinical Ophthalmology, pp 1837-1846; https://doi.org/10.2147/opth.s365647
Purpose: To provide consensus-based current guidelines on optimal dosimetry and patient selection for MicroPulse Transscleral Laser Therapy (TLT) based on a review of the literature and a Delphi method. Methods: A comprehensive search of Pub Med led to the identification and analysis of 61 studies on MicroPulse TLT that contained information on laser settings and patient selection. To determine consensus in areas where there was not enough available literature, a three-round Delphi method was conducted. Results: The response rate was 90% in the first round, 90% in the second round, and 80% in the third round of the Delphi technique. Once all responses were aggregated, a live meeting was held with 80% attendance, and consensus was achieved on each of the findings detailed in this manuscript. Conclusion: Micropulse TLT is a useful addition to the glaucoma armamentarium. When used with proper surgical technique at energy settings within the boundaries described in this manuscript, MicroPulse TLT is a safe and effective treatment for many types and stages of glaucoma. Based on current knowledge and experience, the consensus recommendation of this expert panel is that the standard MicroPulse TLT settings using the revised MicroPulse P3 Probe should be 2500 mW, 31.3% duty cycle, and 4 sweeps at a sweep velocity of 20 seconds each per hemisphere. Both hemispheres avoiding the 3 and 9 clock hours should be treated. The panel also reached consensus on patient selection for MicroPulse TLT providing guidance for the use of the procedure.