Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0362-1642 / 1545-4304
Published by: Annual Reviews (10.1146)
Total articles ≅ 1,509
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Latest articles in this journal

Kevin S. Shah, James C. Fang
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-014725

Abstract:
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve blood glucose control by blocking renal glucose reabsorption with little subsequent risk of hypoglycemia. Consequently, there are decreases in plasma volume, body weight, and blood pressure. Additional putative benefits include improved cardiovascular energetics, decreased systemic inflammation, and less renal dysfunction. Multiple cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetic patients have demonstrated this drug class reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Reductions in heart failure (HF) hospitalization suggested that SGLT2 inhibitors might prove useful for the primary treatment of HF. Two large subsequent trials studying SGLT2 inhibitors in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) demonstrated a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, HF hospitalizations, and renal-specific adverse events. This medication class is now recognized as a new pillar of therapy for patients with HFrEF. The cardiovascular and HF community await the results of ongoing trials of SGLT2 inhibition in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Lorraine J. Gudas
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-104428

Abstract:
While the uses of retinoids for cancer treatment continue to evolve, this review focuses on other therapeutic areas in which retinoids [retinol (vitamin A), all- trans retinoic acid (RA), and synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α-, β-, and γ-selective agonists] are being used and on promising new research that suggests additional uses for retinoids for the treatment of disorders of the kidneys, skeletal muscles, heart, pancreas, liver, nervous system, skin, and other organs. The most mature area, in terms of US Food and Drug Administration–approved, RAR-selective agonists, is for treatment of various skin diseases. Synthetic retinoid agonists have major advantages over endogenous RAR agonists such as RA. Because they act through a specific RAR, side effects may be minimized, and synthetic retinoids often have better pharmaceutical properties than does RA. Based on our increasing knowledge of the multiple roles of retinoids in development, epigenetic regulation, and tissue repair, other exciting therapeutic areas are emerging. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Kaitlyn E. Redford, Geoffrey W. Abbott
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-104249

Abstract:
Since prehistory, human species have depended on plants for both food and medicine. Even in countries with ready access to modern medicines, alternative treatments are still highly regarded and commonly used. Unlike modern pharmaceuticals, many botanical medicines are in widespread use despite a lack of safety and efficacy data derived from controlled clinical trials and often unclear mechanisms of action. Contributing to this are the complex and undefined composition and likely multifactorial mechanisms of action and multiple targets of many botanical medicines. Here, we review the newfound importance of the ubiquitous KCNQ subfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels as targets for botanical medicines, including basil, capers, cilantro, lavender, fennel, chamomile, ginger, and Camellia, Sophora, and Mallotus species. We discuss the implications for the traditional use of these plants for disorders such as seizures, hypertension, and diabetes and the molecular mechanisms of plant secondary metabolite effects on KCNQ channels. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Daniele Piomelli, Alex Mabou Tagne
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052220-021800

Abstract:
The endocannabinoids are lipid-derived messengers that play a diversity of regulatory roles in mammalian physiology. Dysfunctions in their activity have been implicated in various disease conditions, attracting attention to the endocannabinoid system as a possible source of therapeutic drugs. This signaling complex has three components: the endogenous ligands, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl- sn-glycerol (2-AG); a set of enzymes and transporters that generate, eliminate, or modify such ligands; and selective cell surface receptors that mediate their biological actions. We provide an overview of endocannabinoid formation, deactivation, and biotransformation and outline the properties and therapeutic potential of pharmacological agents that interfere with those processes. We describe small-molecule inhibitors that target endocannabinoid-producing enzymes, carrier proteins that transport the endocannabinoids into cells, and intracellular endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes. We briefly discuss selected agents that simultaneously interfere with components of the endocannabinoid system and with other functionally related signaling pathways. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Renee C. Geck, Gabriel Boyle, Clara J. Amorosi, Douglas M. Fowler, Maitreya J. Dunham
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-032221-085807

Abstract:
As costs of next-generation sequencing decrease, identification of genetic variants has far outpaced our ability to understand their functional consequences. This lack of understanding is a central challenge to a key promise of pharmacogenomics: using genetic information to guide drug selection and dosing. Recently developed multiplexed assays of variant effect enable experimental measurement of the function of thousands of variants simultaneously. Here, we describe multiplexed assays that have been performed on nearly 25,000 variants in eight key pharmacogenes ( ADRB2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, NUDT15, SLCO1B1, TMPT, VKORC1, and the LDLR promoter), discuss advances in experimental design, and explore key challenges that must be overcome to maximize the utility of multiplexed functional data. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman, Stephen S.G. Ferguson
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-021821-091747

Abstract:
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is ubiquitously expressed in brain regions responsible for memory and learning. It plays a key role in modulating rapid changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity. mGluR5 supports long-term changes in synaptic strength by regulating the transcription and translation of essential synaptic proteins. β-Amyloid 42 (Aβ42) oligomers interact with a mGluR5/cellular prion protein (PrPC) complex to disrupt physiological mGluR5 signal transduction. Aberrant mGluR5 signaling and associated synaptic failure are considered an emerging pathophysiological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, mGluR5 represents an attractive therapeutic target for AD, and recent studies continue to validate the efficacy of various mGluR5 allosteric modulators in improving memory deficits and mitigating disease pathology. However, sex-specific differences in the pharmacology of mGluR5 and activation of noncanonical signaling downstream of the receptor suggest that its utility as a therapeutic target in female AD patients needs to be reconsidered. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Kanoot Jaruthamsophon, Paul J. Thomson, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Dean J. Naisbitt, Munir Pirmohamed
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-014115

Abstract:
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a hallmark genetic marker for the prediction of certain immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Numerous basic and clinical research studies have provided the evidence base to push forward the clinical implementation of HLA testing for the prevention of such ADRs in susceptible patients. This review explores current translational progress in using HLA as a key susceptibility factor for immune ADRs and highlights gaps in our knowledge. Furthermore, relevant findings of HLA-mediated drug-specific T cell activation are covered, focusing on cellular approaches to link genetic associations to drug-HLA binding as a complementary approach to understand disease pathogenesis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
André Mateus, Nils Kurzawa, Jessica Perrin, Giovanna Bergamini, Mikhail M. Savitski
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-013205

Abstract:
Drug target deconvolution can accelerate the drug discovery process by identifying a drug's targets (facilitating medicinal chemistry efforts) and off-targets (anticipating toxicity effects or adverse drug reactions). Multiple mass spectrometry–based approaches have been developed for this purpose, but thermal proteome profiling (TPP) remains to date the only one that does not require compound modification and can be used to identify intracellular targets in living cells. TPP is based on the principle that the thermal stability of a protein can be affected by its interactions. Recent developments of this approach have expanded its applications beyond drugs and cell cultures to studying protein-drug interactions and biological phenomena in tissues. These developments open up the possibility of studying drug treatment or mechanisms of disease in a holistic fashion, which can result in the design of better drugs and lead to a better understanding of fundamental biology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Robin S. Bon, David J. Wright, David J. Beech, Piruthivi Sukumar
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-030121-122314

Abstract:
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) proteins assemble to form homo- or heterotetrameric, nonselective cation channels permeable to K+, Na+, and Ca2+. TRPC channels are thought to act as complex integrators of physical and chemical environmental stimuli. Although the understanding of essential physiological roles of TRPC channels is incomplete, their implication in various pathological mechanisms and conditions of the nervous system, kidneys, and cardiovascular system in combination with the lack of major adverse effects of TRPC knockout or TRPC channel inhibition is driving the search of TRPC channel modulators as potential therapeutics. Here, we review the most promising small-molecule TRPC channel modulators, the understanding of their mode of action, and their potential in the study and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Randi J. Hagerman, Paul J. Hagerman
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-090147

Abstract:
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and the leading single-gene form of autism spectrum disorder, encompassing cognitive, behavioral, and physical forms of clinical involvement. FXS is caused by large expansions of a noncoding CGG repeat (>200 repeats) in the FMR1 gene, at which point the gene is generally silenced. Absence of FMR1 protein (FMRP), important for synaptic development and maintenance, gives rise to the neurodevelopmental disorder. There is, at present, no therapeutic approach that directly reverses the loss of FMRP; however, there is an increasing number of potential treatments that target the pathways dysregulated in FXS, including those that address the enhanced activity of the mGluR5 pathway and deficits in GABA pathways. Based on studies of targeted therapeutics to date, the prospects are good for one or more effective therapies for FXS in the near future. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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