Advances in Anatomic Pathology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1072-4109 / 1533-4031
Total articles ≅ 2,555
Current Coverage
SCOPUS
MEDICUS
MEDLINE
PUBMED
SCIE
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

Komkrit Ruangritchankul,
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000376

Abstract:
A novel DEK::AFF2 fusion carcinoma was recently described in 29 patients who originally presented with non-viral–associated nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. The tumors occurred at multiple sites in the head and neck including in the sinonasal tract, middle ear, and temporal bone. This tumor behaves aggressively involving adjacent vital structures, frequently recurs, and is inclined to develop lymph node and distant metastasis. This review aims to summarize the demographic, clinical, pathologic, immunophenotypic features, and pattern of molecular alterations as well as to discuss the differential diagnosis of DEK::AFF2 fusion carcinoma.
Alice Indini, Maurizio Lombardo, Angelo Sidoni, Andrea Gianatti, Mario Mandalà,
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000375

Abstract:
Over the last years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated remarkable anti-tumor activity and beneficial effects in patients with early and advanced melanoma. However, ICIs provide clinical benefit only in a minority of patients due to primary and/or acquired resistance mechanisms. Immunotherapy resistance is a complex phenomenon relying on genetic and epigenetic factors, which ultimately influence the interplay between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. Information is accumulating on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the production of resistance and the resulting diminished therapeutic efficacy. In addition, current knowledge on predictors of response and toxicity to immunotherapy and on biomarkers that reliably identify resistant patients is in progress. In this review, we will focus on the tumor microenvironment changes induced by ICIs in melanoma, summarizing the available evidence of clinical trials in the neoadjuvant and metastatic setting. We will also overview the role of potential biomarkers in predicting disease response to ICIs, providing insight into current and future research in this field.
, Thomas Hilser, Claudia Kesch, Aykhan Isgandarov, Henning Reis, Milan Wahl, Isabel Kasper-Virchow, Boris A. Hadaschik, Viktor Grünwald
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000373

Abstract:
Immune-checkpoint-inhibitor (ICI) therapy has been one of the major advances in the treatment of a variety of advanced or metastatic tumors in recent years. Therefore, ICI-therapy is already approved in first-line therapy for multiple tumors, either as monotherapy or as combination therapy. However, there are relevant differences in approval among different tumor entities, especially with respect to PD-L1 testing. Different response to ICI-therapy has been observed in the pivotal trials, so PD-L1 diagnostic testing is used for patient selection. In addition to PD-L1 testing of tumor tissue, liquid biopsy provides a noninvasive way to monitor disease in cancer patients and identify those who would benefit most from ICI-therapy. This overview focuses on the use of ICI-therapy and how it relates to common and potential future biomarkers for patient-directed treatment planning.
, Ozgur Mete
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000365

Abstract:
Adrenal paraganglioma (or “pheochromocytoma”) and extra-adrenal paraganglioma, collectively abbreviated PPGL, are rare but spectacular nonepithelial neuroendocrine neoplasms. These are the most inheritable neoplasia of all, with a metastatic potential in a varying degree. As of such, these lesions demand careful histologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic characterization to provide the clinical team with a detailed report taking into account the anticipated prognosis and risk of syndromic/inherited disease. While no histologic algorithm, immunohistochemical biomarker, or molecular aberration single-handedly can identify potentially lethal cases upfront, the combined analysis of various risk parameters may stratify PPGL patients more stringently than previously. Moreover, the novel 2022 WHO Classification of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors also brings some new concepts into play, not least the reclassification of special neuroendocrine neoplasms (cauda equina neuroendocrine tumor and composite gangliocytoma/neuroma-neuroendocrine tumor) previously thought to belong to the spectrum of PPGL. This review focuses on updated key diagnostic and prognostic concepts that will aid when facing this rather enigmatic tumor entity in clinical practice.
Emad Ababneh,
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000370

Abstract:
Familial endocrine tumor syndromes are continuously expanding owing to the growing role of genetic testing in routine clinical practice. Pathologists are usually the first on the clinical team to encounter these syndromes at their initial presentation; thus, recognizing them is becoming more pivotal in routine pathology practice to help in properly planning management and further family testing. Our increasing knowledge about them is reflected in the newer syndromes included in the new World Health Organization classification and in the evolving discovery of new endocrine tumors and new familial associations. In many of these syndromes, the clinical features and co-occurrence of multiple neoplasia are the only clues (multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes). In other syndromes, specific morphologic findings (pituitary blastoma and DICER1 syndrome, cribriform morular thyroid carcinoma, and AFP syndrome) and available ancillary studies (SDHB in SDH-deficient tumor syndromes) can aid pathologists. The aim of this review is to provide a primer on recent updates on familial endocrine tumor syndromes and related tumors, focusing on recent classification changes or tumor syndromes where a clearer role for pathologists is at play.
Zahra Alipour, Jacob R. Sweeney, Qingzhao Zhang,
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000369

Abstract:
Most pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are slow-growing, and the patients may survive for many years, even after distant metastasis. The tumors usually display characteristic organoid growth patterns with typical neuroendocrine morphology. A smaller portion of the tumors follows a more precipitous clinical course. The classification has evolved from morphologic patterns to the current World Health Organization classification, with better-defined grading and prognostic criteria. Recent advances in molecular pathology have further improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of these tumors. Various issues and challenges remain, including the correct recognition of a neuroendocrine neoplasm, accurate classification and grading of the tumor, and differentiation from mimickers. This review focuses on the practical aspects during the workup of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and attempts to provide a general framework to help achieve an accurate diagnosis, classification, and grading.
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000371

Abstract:
Malignant mesothelioma of the testicular tunics is rare. About one third of cases are metastatic and carry a poor prognosis. This paper reviews the epidemiology, clinicopathologic features, treatment, and outcome of this entity.
, Michiya Nishino
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000368

Abstract:
The diagnosis of “follicular neoplasm” (FN) in thyroid cytopathology has a long history that originated not long after the practice of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules. From the outset, this interpretive category was intended to convey a set of differential diagnoses rather than a precise diagnosis, as key diagnostic features, such as capsular and vascular invasion, were not detectable on cytology preparations. Cytologic-histologic correlation studies over the past several decades have shown that FN interpretation can be applied to the spectrum of nonneoplastic tumors to carcinomas. Most tumors classified as FN include follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, noninvasive follicular thyroid tumor with papillary-like nuclear features, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Less common entities that may be classified as FN on FNA include hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, and nonthyroidal lesions such as parathyroid tissue, paraganglioma, and metastatic tumors. Advances in our ability to detect characteristic molecular alterations (eg, GLIS gene rearrangements for hyalinizing trabecular tumor) in FNA samples may assist in the identification of some of these entities. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiology, history, and evolution of the terminology and the current differential diagnosis according to the recently published 2022 World Health Organization classification, molecular testing, and management of nodules classified as FN.
Advances In Anatomic Pathology; https://doi.org/10.1097/pap.0000000000000363

Abstract:
Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy that poses challenging issues regarding the diagnostic workup. Indeed, no presurgical technique or clinical parameters can reliably distinguish between adrenal cortical adenomas, which are more frequent and have a favorable outcome, and ACC, and the final diagnosis largely relies on histopathologic analysis of the surgical specimen. However, even the pathologic assessment of malignancy in an adrenal cortical lesion is not straightforward and requires a combined evaluation of multiple histopathologic features. Starting from the Weiss score, which was developed in 1984, several histopathologic scoring systems have been designed to tackle the difficulties of ACC diagnosis. Dealing with specific histopathologic variants (eg, Liss-Weiss-Bisceglia scoring system for oncocytic ACC) or patient characteristics (eg, Wieneke index in the pediatric setting), these scores remarkably improved the diagnostic workup of ACC and its subtypes. Nevertheless, cases with misleading features or discordant correlations between pathologic findings and clinical behavior still occur. Owing to multicentric collaborative studies integrating morphologic features with ancillary immunohistochemical markers and molecular analysis, ACC has eventually emerged as a multifaceted, heterogenous malignancy, and, while innovative and promising approaches are currently being tested, the future clinical management of patients with ACC will mainly rely on personalized medicine and target-therapy protocols. At the dawn of the new Fifth World Health Organization classification of endocrine tumors, this review will tackle ACC from the pathologist’s perspective, thus focusing on the main available diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tissue-tethered features and biomarkers and providing relevant clinical and molecular correlates.
Back to Top Top