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ISSN / EISSN : 1051-9815 / 1875-9270
Published by: IOS Press (10.3233)
Total articles ≅ 5,129
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Anika Peschl, Ufuk Altun, Ralph W. Conrad
Published: 28 June 2022
BACKGROUND: Mobile, time-flexible work provides advantages for companies and employees. However, those opportunities have so far been used primarily in the administrative sector. OBJECTIVE: In a joint practice-oriented project, the possibilities for flexibilization in the production sector are being investigated. Therefore, practical aids of action are to be developed. In this paper the procedure and first results are shown. METHODS: To obtain initial indications of the opportunities and limitations of mobile, time-flexible work in the production sector, interviews were conducted with employees of the company project partners. An analysis tool was developed based on the results of the interviews. The development follows an iterative process of practice testing and discussion rounds with the project partners. RESULTS: The preliminary analyses show that small and medium-sized companies (SME) need a practical tool for identifying flexibilization potentials in the production sector. In addition, it has been shown that there are several factors that determine or promote the possibilities of mobile, time-flexible work in the production sector. Those factors are considered in the analysis tool. The structure, contents and application of the analysis tool are presented in this paper. CONCLUSION: The presented procedure and analysis tool provide valuable implications for practice. It shows practical ways of analyzing flexibilization potentials of companies and individual jobs. This provides a basis for discussions between the employer and employees, works councils, and applicants for the occupation of job positions in the production sector.
, Anke Sondhof, Ulrike Wrobel
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 391-397;

Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic brought about restrictions, additional workload, insecurity, or need for inventing new routines for professionals worldwide. The pandemic and its restrictions have been discussed as a career shock. OBJECTIVE: Adding knowledge to this, our study investigated the academic and family (care) situation of young scientists in a German technical university. METHODS: We conducted an online survey including young scientists from a technical university in Germany in April 2021. 346 participants (mean age 33 years, 37% women) gave self-ratings on academic and life situation during the pandemic year, care work, preferences for scientific career and family life. RESULTS: Family and career were independent priorities (r = 0.021, p = 0.676). Two thirds (68%) of the young scientists reported no deterioration in scientific outcome during the pandefmic year. But, care times and number of children impacted negatively on scientific productivity in terms of publications. This was true for both women and men. CONCLUSIONS: Young scientists need individual support for their career perspective, according to their concrete career level and life situation.
Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Farzaneh Abbaslou, Seyed Akbar Sharifian, Nazanin Izadi
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 595-600;

BACKGROUND: Shift work may be associated with insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the potential association between shift work and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in professional drivers. METHOD: A total of four hundred fifty-three professional drivers were invited to participate in the study within a periodic medical examination in the occupational setting. One hundred seventy-seven daytime workers were compared with 175 night shifts and 101 early morning shift drivers. Demographic, occupational, and medical examination including blood pressure, anthropometric data was assessed. Measurement of serum insulin, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were done for all drivers. RESULTS: Compared with day workers, night shift and early morning shift drivers displayed higher levels of HOMA-IR. Metabolic syndrome was found to be significantly increased in night workers. In linear regression analysis, insulin resistance was correlated with shift work independently of demographic and occupational characteristics. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that shift work could be a risk factor in developing the risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Suggestively, health strategies such as structured lifestyle counseling in occupational health settings are warranted to improve and modify cardiometabolic risk factors.
Haji Omid Kalteh, Mahmood Salesi, Hamidreza Mokarami
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 707-717;

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, although the effect of positive safety culture on improving safety performance has been confirmed, the mechanisms of this effect are somewhat ambiguous. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of safety culture on safety performance based on a sociotechnical and macroergonomics approach. METHODS: The participants consisted of 276 workers, supervisors, and managers in an oil and gas refinery complex. The data collection conducted using questionnaires including safety culture in accordance with the organization’s sociotechnical characteristics with 12 dimensions (effectiveness of safety management, management’s attitude towards safety, training, awareness and safety policy, peer support, work schedule, job demands, confrontation of tasks and safety, behavioural features and commitment to safety, work equipment and tools, personal protective equipment, workplace hazards, and external environmental factors), safety motivation and safety knowledge as mediators between safety culture and safety performance, and safety compliance and safety participation as the components of safety performance. RESULTS: The examination of paths in three structural models indicated that in the presence of the direct effect, the indirect paths were not approved due to the lack of confirmation of safety motivation ⟶ safety performance and safety knowledge ⟶ safety performance. In the model without the direct effect, indirect paths were confirmed; however, a low amount of safety performance variance was explained by safety culture. CONCLUSIONS: The safety culture tool explained the highest value of variance for the direct path due to the use of industry-related factors.
Harish Kumar Banga, Raj Kumar, Parveen Kalra
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 497-510;

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, real-time motion tracking devices are widely used for ergonomic assessment of several manual quotidian activities. The real-time tracking of human activities makes it easier to observe the exposure of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the human body. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the suitability of a real-time motion tracking device (Kinect v1 interfaced with a commercial ergonomic assessment software, JACK) for real-time ergonomic evaluation of the strenuous operation of the manual lawn mower. METHOD: The lawn mower operators perform various strenuous activities while operating the manual lawn mower for long intervals of time, which causes WMSDs in the entire body of the operators. These working operators’ activities have been captured using Kinect v1 interfaced with JACK, to address the ergonomic issues responsible for the whole-body WMSDs. The forces acting on the lower back, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment score and static strength have been predicted using JACK. RESULTS: This study proves the exposure of the operators towards the whole-body WMSDs while operating the manual lawn mower. CONCLUSION: The findings provide a quick and straightforward approach for performing the real-time ergonomic evaluation of any operation, which can help the industrial staff estimate the risk of level WMSDs.
Rafet Irmak
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 745-752;

BACKGROUND: The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a common outcome-measure used for assessment of spinal disorders with three officially updated versions. However, there are recently published articles that still use ODI-1.0. This suggests the existence of a block on information flow between developers and end-users. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the articles with missing citation to the latest ODI version, to calculate the life span of previous ODI version and to investigate the existence of a block on information flow. METHODS: PMC-PubMed citation dataset is analyzed by CNA and text processing methods. RESULTS: The most important finding of this study is that there is no block on information flow between developers and users in terms of visibility in citations and full text access restrictions. Three different sub-networks are identified between ODI-1.0 and ODI-2.0 articles. 14% (165) of articles have citation to ODI-1.0 and ODI-2.0 version-articles. The time limit that is required for the new ODI version to become dominant in the literature is between 4 and 9 years. CONCLUSION: There is a missing citation problem in the ODI literature which is not a result of a block on information flow between developers and end-users.
Pedro Senna, Augusto Da Cunha Reis, Igor Leão Santos, Ana Claudia Dias
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 511-527;

BACKGROUND: Public hospital managers in Rio de Janeiro must deal with severe budget costs, which is the only source of income of public hospitals. In this sense, systematic supply chain risk management can contribute to identifying such risks, assessing their severity, and developing mitigating plans, or even revealing the lack of such plans. Private hospital networks must also map their risks since they are facing a diminishing of demand given that unemployment in Brazil, which is growing in the past years, generates an impossibility of affording private healthcare. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how supply chain risk management is being applied in healthcare supply chains from Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. This study considers supply chains located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. To accomplish this objective, we provide answers to two Research Questions: RQ1 - Is SCRM known as a concept among Rio de Janeiro healthcare supply chains? RQ2 - How are risk identification, risk assessment, and risk mitigation being implemented by companies from the healthcare supply chains in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil? METHOD: Our research design is based on four steps: i) Research design; ii) Case selection: iii) Data collection (11 cases selected); iv) Data analysis. RESULTS: The interviews revealed that SCRM is an entirely unknown concept among healthcare supply chains from Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. Managers have empirical knowledge of the risks, and they can identify the most hazardous risks and can come up with solutions to mitigate them, nevertheless, in many situations they do not have the authority or the manpower to implement the solutions, at most, managers implement local risk mitigation initiatives that do not consider the supply chains broader context. CONCLUSION: The healthcare organizations studied by this paper do not apply SCRM. They only apply local isolated solutions not considering a supply chain scope. This can become hazardous since isolated risk mitigation initiatives are often innocuous and have the potential to generate other risks.
, , Lucia Virginia Porro-Diaz, Karla Josselin Reynel,
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 409-419;

BACKGROUND: Stress and unhealthy lifestyle are serious problems in public health and education, particularly due to their significant relevance in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between stress and lifestyle in teachers at some schools in Lima, Peru, during telework in 2020. METHODS: This observational, quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted in 217 school teachers from Lima. Lifestyle was measured using the FANTASTIC questionnaire; stress was measured using the Teaching Stress Scale (ED-6), comprised of the anxiety, depression, maladaptive beliefs, work pressure and poor coping dimensions. The Spearman correlation between numerical variables, and the difference of the FANTASTIC score according to the categorical variables, were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U test or Kruskal–Wallis test, as necessary. Multivariable analysis was done with a multiple linear regression model to find raw and adjusted β (βa). RESULTS: The median of the ED-6 scale was 81 (RI: 64–105). Sixty-four percent of the teachers had a good-excellent lifestyle; 27.2%, regular; and 8.49%, bad-dangerous. The FANTASTIC score had an inverse correlation with ED-6 (βa: –0.16, 95%; CI: –0.20 to –0.12) adjusted for age and cohabitation with children. Likewise, teachers between 40 and 49 years old (βa: 2.89, 95%; CI: 0.17 to 5.62) had a better lifestyle; and teachers who lived with children (βa: –5.48, 95%; CI: –7.89 to –3.06), a worse lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: As stress increased, the lifestyle quality worsened in teachers at some schools in Lima, Peru, during telework in 2020.
Kiran Kumar Ganji, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Ammar A. Siddiqui, Manay Srinivas Munisekhar, Abdulrahman Alduraywish
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 399-407;

BACKGROUND: Individuals might suffer emotional, psychological, and even bodily challenges as a result of any pandemic. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Saudi Arabian University students and faculty members has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: To assess stress during the COVID-19 pandemic among university college students and faculty members of Jouf University, KSA and evaluate the impact of socio- demographic factors on anxiety and depression levels. METHODS: Two hundred and seventeen participants from Jouf University completed an anonymous web-based survey that includes questionnaires about anxiety and depression symptoms. Beck’s anxiety inventory (BAI) was used to assess the anxiety levels, and Beck’s depression inventory (BDI) was used to determine the depression levels due to COVID 19 pandemic. The research was carried out between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. An ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to explain the odds of observing anxiety and depression. RESULTS: For “moderate anxiety” (22–35), the most frequently observed category of age, nationality, gender, duration spent in lockdown and profession was 20–30 years (n = 15, 65%), Saudis (n = 14, 61%), female (n = 15, 65%),>3 months (n = 17, 74%), and students (n = 15, 65%) respectively. For “moderate depression” (21–30), the most frequently observed category of age, nationality, gender, duration spent in lockdown and profession was 20–30 years (n = 10, 50%), Saudi (n = 15, 65%), female (n = 26, 65%).>3 months (n = 13, 65%), and both students and faculty members, each with an observed frequency of 10 (50%) respectively. Ordinal logistic regression analysis suggested that the observed effects of nationality, gender, and duration spent in lockdown period influenced the anxiety levels among participants. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the lockdown duration was more significant in students than in faculty members and females than in males. Authors recommend the critical need for intervention and prevention strategies to address college students’ mental health.
Mohammad Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad, Arezu Najafi, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, Nazanin Izadi, Zahra Banafsheh Alemohammad, Mahya Shabani, Maryam Saraei
Published: 21 June 2022
Work, Volume 72, pp 737-743;

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance including insomnia and poor sleep quality has been shown to be a major health determinant in occupational settings. Specific occupational exposures to hazards in most workplaces can lead to various health problems, especially sleep problems. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate sleep characteristics, and their relationships with work-related exposures, demographics, and other related variables in workers of a smelting factory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in a 40-year smelting factory located in the East of Tehran Province. A total of 200 male participants were included in the study. Among them, 51 workers were from the production process staff and the rest were office workers. Their shifts were from 6 AM to 5 PM. All participants were asked about demographic characteristics and exposure to respiratory pollutants. All participants answered validated Persian versions of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: The means (SD) of age and BMI were 39.1 (8.9) years and 26.8 (4.5) kg/m2, respectively. Among all participants, 51 (25.5%) experienced exposure to a respiratory pollutant. Among all workers, 96 (48%) experienced poor sleep quality and 87 (43.5%) and 10 (5%) had subthreshold and clinical insomnia, respectively. The mean (SD) night sleep duration was 6.4 (0.96) hours. Data analysis illustrated a significant positive relationship between exposure to respiratory pollutants and insomnia (p-value = 0.03). Howewer, this association between sleep quality and exposure to repiratory pollutants was not significant (p-value = 0.25). Further analysis with binominal regression showed participants with exposure to respiratory pollutants were more susceptible to clinical insomnia (p-value = 0.02, exp(B) = 0.213), and after regressing out the effect of smoking, participants with exposure to respiratory pollutants remained susceptible to clinical insomnia. A lower night sleep duration was observed among participants with exposure to inhalational material (p-value = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures to hazardous material, including inhalational exposures, could cause sleep disturbance, which warrants more attention paid by sleep specialists.
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