Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
ISSN / EISSN : 1756-283X / 1756-2848
Current Publisher: SAGE Publications (10.1177)Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 714
Latest articles in this journal
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284820980860
In the absence of secondary causes, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, local, progressive, T-helper type 2 immune-mediated disorder characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. In the last 20 years, the incidence and prevalence of EoE have risen sharply, and the chances of encountering affected patients in clinics and endoscopy rooms have increased. Nevertheless, it is estimated that the mean diagnostic delay of EoE is 4–6 years in both children and adults. Unfortunately, the longer the disease stays unrecognized, the likelier it is for the patient to have persistent or increased esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, to complain of non-resolving symptoms, and to develop fibrotic complications. Early detection depends on the recognition of initial clinical manifestations that vary from childhood to adulthood and even among patients of the same age. The disease phenotype also influences therapeutic approaches that include drugs, dietary interventions, and esophageal dilation. We have herein reviewed epidemiologic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features and therapeutic options of EoE focusing on differences and similarities between children and adults that may certainly serve in daily clinical practice.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284820985298
Background: Endoscopic resection of extensive esophageal neoplastic lesions is associated with a high rate of esophageal stricture. Most studies have focused on the risk factors for post-endoscopic esophageal stricture, but data on the therapeutic management of these strictures are scarce. Our aim is to describe the management of esophageal strictures following endoscopic resection for early esophageal neoplasia. Methods: We included all patients with an endoscopic resection for early esophageal neoplasia followed by endoscopic dilatation at a tertiary referral center. We recorded the demographic, endoscopic, and histological characteristics, and the outcomes of the treatment of the strictures. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, we performed 166 endoscopic mucosal resections and 261 endoscopic submucosal dissections for early esophageal neoplasia, and 34 (8.0%) patients developed an esophageal stricture requiring endoscopic treatment. The indication for endoscopic resection was Barrett’s neoplasia in 15/34 (44.1%) cases and squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) in 19/34 (55.9%) cases. The median [(interquartile range) (IQR)] number of endoscopic dilatations was 2.5 (2.0–4.0). Nine of 34 (26.5%) patients required only one dilatation, and 22/34 (65%) had complete dysphagia relief following three endoscopic treatment sessions. The median number of dilatations was significantly higher for SCN [3.0 (2–7); range 1–17; p = 0.02], and in the case of circumferential resection [4.0 (3.0–7.0); p = 0.03]. Endoscopic dilatation allowed a sustained dysphagia relief in 33/34 (97.0%) patients after a mean follow-up of 25.3 ± 22 months. Conclusion: Refractory post-endoscopic esophageal stricture is a rare event. After a median of 2.5 endoscopic dilatations, 97.0% of patients were permanently relieved of dysphagia. Circumferential endoscopic esophageal resections should be considered when indicated.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284820982802
Background: Long-term data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients switched from originator to biosimilar infliximab SB2 are lacking. The aim of the conducted study was to investigate the effectiveness, immunogenicity and safety of a large prospectively followed-up IBD patient cohort that was entirely switched from originator infliximab to biosimilar SB2 treatment. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center, longitudinal, observational study describing clinical outcomes in IBD patients, over an 80-week period following switch from originator infliximab to SB2. Primary outcome measures were change of disease activity [Harvey-Bradshaw Index for Crohn’s disease (CD), partial Mayo Score for ulcerative colitis (UC)], C-reactive protein (CRP), infliximab trough levels (TLs), anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) and adverse events. Results: One hundred and forty-four IBD patients (94 CD, 50 UC), with median duration of 30.5 months’ (range 2–110) treatment with originator infliximab were evaluated. Mean change of disease activity compared with baseline was −0.9 (SD 2.6), –0.4 (2.2) and –0.4 (2.0) in CD; 0.1 (1.1), 0.1 (1.1) and 0.1 (1.3) in UC patients at weeks 24, 48 and 72. Median infliximab TLs were 6.2 µg/ml (interquartile range 2.3–12.2), 5.0 µg/ml (2.7–10.0), 6.6 µg/ml (3.5–12.4) and 5.1 µg/ml (2.7–10.9) at baseline and weeks 24, 48 and 72. Median CRP levels were within normal ranges throughout the study. After the switch, 9.8% of the patients developed new ADAs. Persistence on SB2 was 90% (95% confidence interval 0.85–0.95), 79% (0.72–0.86), 72% (0.64–0.80) at weeks 26, 52 and 78. Serious adverse events occurred in 11 patients. Conclusion: Over the individual patient follow-up of 80 weeks, switch to biosimilar SB2 from originator infliximab does not result in increased disease activity or changed immunogenicity patterns. The switch to SB2 was well tolerated.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284820977385
Background: One in four patients with primary Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) develops recurrent CDI (rCDI). With every recurrence, the chance of a subsequent CDI episode increases. Early identification of patients at risk for rCDI might help doctors to guide treatment. The aim of this study was to externally validate published clinical prediction tools for rCDI. Methods: The validation cohort consisted of 129 patients, diagnosed with CDI between 2018 and 2020. rCDI risk scores were calculated for each individual patient in the validation cohort using the scoring tools described in the derivation studies. Per score value, we compared the average predicted risk of rCDI with the observed number of rCDI cases. Discrimination was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Two prediction tools were selected for validation (Cobo 2018 and Larrainzar-Coghen 2016). The two derivation studies used different definitions for rCDI. Using Cobo’s definition, rCDI occurred in 34 patients (26%) of the validation cohort: using the definition of Larrainzar-Coghen, we observed 19 recurrences (15%). The performance of both prediction tools was poor when applied to our validation cohort. The estimated AUC was 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI); 0.32–0.54] for Cobo’s tool and 0.42 (95% CI; 0.28–0.56) for Larrainzar-Coghen’s tool. Conclusion: Performance of both prediction tools was disappointing in the external validation cohort. Currently identified clinical risk factors may not be sufficient for accurate prediction of rCDI.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284821997792
Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at significantly increased risk for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) with an increased risk of adverse outcomes including increased in-hospital mortality, IBD treatment failure, re-hospitalization, and high CDI recurrence rates. The existing literature on predictors of these adverse outcomes is limited. We evaluated four potentially modifiable novel risk factors [body mass index (BMI), statin use, opioid use, and antidepressant use] on CDI risk and adverse outcomes in these patients. Methods: Using a retrospective design, variables were abstracted from records for patients with IBD and CDI from 2008 to 2013. Statistical analysis comprised descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: There were 137 patients with IBD and CDI included in this study. On multivariate analysis controlling for age, 43% of patients in the overweight BMI category had severe or severe, complicated CDI, compared with 22% of patients in the underweight/normal BMI [odds ratio (OR) 2.85, p = 0.02] and 19% in the obese category (OR 3.95, p = 0.04). Statin use was associated with severe or severe, complicated CDI when controlling for age and BMI (OR 5.66, p = 0.01). There was no association between statin use and IBD exacerbations following CDI. Opioid and antidepressant use were not associated with disease severity or frequency of IBD exacerbations following CDI. Conclusions: An overweight BMI and statin use were associated with severe or severe, complicated CDI in IBD patients. Further studies are needed to better understand how these factors impact management of patients with IBD to improve clinical outcomes and potentially reduce the risk of complications from CDI.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284821997794
Background: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are increasingly used for rheumatic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but are associated with the development of anti-TNF-induced lupus (ATIL). Nonetheless, few ATIL studies on non-Caucasian IBD patients exist. Here, we investigated the incidence, clinical features, and risk factors of ATIL in Korea. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of IBD patients undergoing anti-TNF therapy at our tertiary IBD center between 2008 and 2020. ATIL was diagnosed as a temporal association between symptoms and anti-TNF agents, and the presence of at least one serologic and non-serologic American College of Rheumatology criterion. The risk factors for ATIL occurrence were assessed using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: Of 1362 IBD patients treated with anti-TNF agents, 50 (3.7%) ATIL cases were suspected, of which 14 (1.0%) received a definitive diagnosis. Arthritis and mucocutaneous symptoms were observed in 13 and 4 patients, respectively. All ATIL cases were positive for anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Four patients (30.8%) improved while continuing anti-TNF therapy. At the final follow up, the ATIL group ( n = 14) had a lower IBD remission rate (30.8% versus 68.8%, p = 0.019) than the non-ATIL group ( n = 36). Ulcerative colitis and longer disease duration were associated with ATIL occurrence, with hazard ratios of 7.017 ( p = 0.005) and 1.118 ( p = 0.002), respectively. Conclusion: Although rare, ATIL is associated with poor treatment response to IBD in Korean patients. ATIL should be considered if arthritis and mucocutaneous symptoms develop during anti-TNF therapy for IBD.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284821994046
Background: Prevention of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a challenge in clinical practice, particularly in patients who need systemic antimicrobial therapy. We aimed to evaluate the role of oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) in prevention of primary or future CDI in patients on systemic antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science was performed from 2000 to January 2020. We included case-control or cohort studies that included patients on systemic antimicrobial therapy who did or did not receive oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) and were evaluated for development of CDI. Odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: Four studies including 1352 patients evaluated OVP for primary CDI prevention, with CDI occurring in 29/402 patients on OVP (7.4%) compared with 10.4% (99/950) without OVP. Meta-analysis revealed no significant decrease in risk of CDI in patients who received OVP (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03–1.03; p = 0.06). There was significant heterogeneity with I2 = 76%. Ten studies including 9258 patients evaluated OVP for secondary CDI prevention. Future CDI occurred in 91/713 patients on OVP (13.3%) compared with 21.9% (1875/8545) who did not receive OVP. Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant decreased risk of future CDI (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.59; p < 0.00001). Significant heterogeneity was seen with I2 = 59%. Discussion: Based on observational data, OVP appears to decrease the risk of future CDI in patients with prior CDI who require systemic antimicrobial therapy. However, OVP was not effective for primary prevention of CDI.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284821994741
Background and Aims: Elevated fecal calprotectin (FC) levels have been reported to correlate with histological activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the accuracy of FC for evaluating histological activity of UC remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of FC for evaluating histological activity of UC, based on updated definitions. Methods: Related studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Adult participants diagnosed with UC were included when sufficient data could be extracted to calculate the accuracy of FC for evaluating histological activity. The primary outcome was histological response, and the secondary outcome was histological remission, defined according to a recently updated position paper of European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization. Statistics were pooled using bivariate mixed-effects models. The area under the curve was estimated by summary receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: Nine studies were included, from which 1039 patients were included for the analysis of histological response and 591 patients for histological remission. For the evaluation of histological response, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve were 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52–0.82], 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63–0.87), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.76–0.83), respectively. For the evaluation of histological remission, the corresponding estimates were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.71–0.81), 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62–0.78), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75–0.82), respectively. FC had a higher accuracy in studies using Nancy Index. For histological response, the cut-off values of FC ranged from 50 to 172 µg/g, and the sensitivity was higher in studies with FC cut-off values >100 µg/g (0.77 versus 0.65). Conclusion: FC is a valuable biomarker for assessing histological activity in patients with UC. A cut-off value of 100–200 µg/g is more appropriate to spare patients from an unnecessary endoscopy and biopsy.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284821989559
The gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon site of metastasis in melanoma. However, when the primary melanoma cannot be found, the diagnosis of gastric melanoma by endoscopic biopsy is problematic mainly because some tumors are amelanotic and do not contain melanin granules detectable by microscopy. A 56-year-old Caucasian man with melanoma was referred to us following an initial histopathological diagnosis via gastroscopy of poorly differentiated primary gastric carcinoma. A computerized tomography (CT) scan showed metastatic disease and on the basis of this information we started palliative chemotherapy. However, the atypical presentation of the disease with subcutaneous metastases prompted us to make a more in-depth evaluation. Immunohistochemical evaluation modified the diagnosis to melanoma. After only one cycle of chemotherapy, treatment was changed to dabrafenib + trametinib, which was better tolerated and initially induced a partial response. The patient is currently in good clinical condition 20 months after diagnosis. Our case report highlights the difficulty in diagnosing melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract and indicates the need for pathologists and clinicians to consider such a possibility when they are faced with a diagnosis of poorly differentiated gastric cancer and unusual sites of metastasis.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 14; doi:10.1177/1756284820986670
Background: There is a lack of data about demographic and treatment characteristics of adolescent patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this retrospective, epidemiological study was to evaluate characteristics and therapeutic features of Hungarian adolescents with IBD. Methods: We analysed the social security databases of the National Health Insurance Fund. Adolescent patients with IBD for whom data from 2009 to 2016 were observable in the database were enrolled. Patients aged 14 to 17 years and 18 to 21 years were defined as middle and late adolescent patients. Results: The incidences of IBD were 20.12 per 100,000 middle adolescent patients and 29.72 per 100,000 late adolescent patients. Admission to gastroenterology department was higher in both groups compared with admissions to surgery department. Mesalazine was used by a high proportion of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Rates of corticosteroid use were similar in both groups, with a tendency to decrease over time. The need for biologic agents was higher in the middle adolescent patients. The proportion of patients in the middle adolescent group who received anti-TNF therapy showed an increasing tendency. Conclusion: Our data suggest differences in the treatment strategies of gastroenterologists for these age groups. The greater need of anti-TNF therapy among the middle adolescent group indicates that adolescent patients before the transition to adult care may have a more severe disease phenotype. We expect that a strategy of early, effective treatment will significantly ameliorate the subsequent disease course, which is manifested in adult care.