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Current Publisher: PeerJ (10.7717)

Latest articles in this journal

Yuzhao Ma, Quanqi Li
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9912/fig-4

Abstract:
Background Implementing sustainable farming practices for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the North China Plain may be a way to reduce carbon emissions. No tillage generally results in less net CO2 loss from farmland, but no tillage also reduces the grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat. Wide-precision planting of winter wheat may enhance the grain yield and WUE; however, it is not known precisely how tillage and planting patterns affect CO2 exchange, grain yield and WUE. Methods In this study, two tillage methods (conventional tillage, T and no tillage, NT) and two planting patterns (conventional planting, C and wide-precision planting, W) were used in two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons. Results Compared with the T treatments, the NT treatments had significantly lower cumulative net CO2 emissions in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 (30.8 and 21.3%, respectively), and had lower grain yields (9.0 and 9.4%, respectively) and WUE (6.0 and 7.2%, respectively). The W treatments had a compensating effect on grain yield failure and reduced cumulative net CO2 emissions more than C treatments, thereby increasing WUE, reducing carbon emissions per unit water consumption, and increasing the yield carbon utilization efficiency (YCUE). The lowest cumulative CO2 emissions and highest YCUE were observed for NT with W treatment. Results from this analogous tillage experiment indicated that NT and W farming practices provide an option for reducing carbon emissions and enhancing WUE and YCUE for sustainable winter wheat development.
Yuzhao Ma, Quanqi Li
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9912/fig-2

Abstract:
Background Implementing sustainable farming practices for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the North China Plain may be a way to reduce carbon emissions. No tillage generally results in less net CO2 loss from farmland, but no tillage also reduces the grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat. Wide-precision planting of winter wheat may enhance the grain yield and WUE; however, it is not known precisely how tillage and planting patterns affect CO2 exchange, grain yield and WUE. Methods In this study, two tillage methods (conventional tillage, T and no tillage, NT) and two planting patterns (conventional planting, C and wide-precision planting, W) were used in two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons. Results Compared with the T treatments, the NT treatments had significantly lower cumulative net CO2 emissions in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 (30.8 and 21.3%, respectively), and had lower grain yields (9.0 and 9.4%, respectively) and WUE (6.0 and 7.2%, respectively). The W treatments had a compensating effect on grain yield failure and reduced cumulative net CO2 emissions more than C treatments, thereby increasing WUE, reducing carbon emissions per unit water consumption, and increasing the yield carbon utilization efficiency (YCUE). The lowest cumulative CO2 emissions and highest YCUE were observed for NT with W treatment. Results from this analogous tillage experiment indicated that NT and W farming practices provide an option for reducing carbon emissions and enhancing WUE and YCUE for sustainable winter wheat development.
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/supp-12

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/supp-10

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/supp-8

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/supp-3

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/supp-1

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/fig-6

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/fig-3

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
Chuan He, Simiao Hu, Wanxing Zhou
Published: 15 September 2020
by PeerJ
PeerJ, Volume 8; doi:10.7717/peerj.9941/fig-2

Abstract:
Background This study aimed to develop an analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang (1-9), Ang II, Ang (1-7), Ang (1-5), Ang III, Ang IV in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture supernatant. Methods HUVEC culture supernatant was added with gradient concentrations (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) of standard solutions of the Ang peptides. These samples underwent C18 solid-phase extraction and separation using a preconcentration nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry system. The target peptides were detected by a Q Exactive quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer in the parallel reaction monitoring mode. Ang converting enzyme (ACE) in HUVECs was silenced to examine Ang I metabolism. Results The limit of detection was 0.1 pg for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5 pg for Ang (1-9), Ang (1-7), and Ang (1-5). The linear detection range was 0.1–2,000 pg (0.05–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang II and Ang III, and 0.5–2,000 pg (0.25–1,000 ng/ml) for Ang (1-9) and Ang (1-5). Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were
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