Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia

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ISSN / EISSN : 2085-4145 / 2527-2950
Total articles ≅ 261
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, Johan Harlan
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art11

Micronutrients play a significant role in metabolism reaction although this only needs a few micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and folic acid as folate substitutes. Fortification and supplementation program aims to meet the requirement of micronutrients by providing synthetic formula. The Indonesian government has applied iron-folic acid fortification (IFA) in flour. Moreover, the IFA supplementation program was given to vulnerable groups, pregnant mothers and women at reproductive age, including adolescent girls. The program has been applied for almost five decades, but the micronutrients deficiencies remain high. This study aims to review effects of the supplementation and fortification to vulnerable groups in Indonesia. This is necessary to to determine their effectiveness within a specified period since the program has been applied for decades and to assess whether an additional program is needed or not. The data of this study were collected from verified international journal articles in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)/PubMed and Cochrane Library website. 11 articles related to the program were obtained. The program has been conducted for an extended period, yet its effectiveness should be reinforced to diminish the micronutrient deficiencies. It is mandatory to reformulate an additional program to strengthen the program. Nutrition education program, campaign for a healthy and balanced diet, protein consumption based local resources can be designated to assist the eradication of micronutrient deficiencies.
, Rizka Dwi Aulia, Arif Eko Wibowo, Evy Novita Permatasari, Samsul Bakhri, Abdurrahman Abdurrahman
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art14

Pleural effusion is pathological accummulation of pleural fluid. The most common causes of pleural effusion are cancer, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism and heart failure. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two risk factors of heart failure. A 74-year-old male patient came to the emergency room feeling fatigued all over the body since seven days before, dyspneu and notable reduced appetite and weight loss. Initial vital examination revealed an increase in heart rate and blood pressure (BP=140/80 mmHg, 120 bpm). Oxygen saturation was normal and deteriorate from time to time (92.5%). Chest physical examination showed pleural effusion on the right lungs. Laboratory findings noted an elevated blood glucose and mild hypokalemia in patients. ECG result showed old myocardial infact (OMI) anteroseptal and infrequent premature ventricular contraction (PVC). Chest X-Ray revealed a massive pleural effusion on the right lugs, a mediastinal shift and cardiomegaly. The patient were given IVFD RL, gliquidone, Lantus Bisoprolol, B-Complex, and also thoracentesis for the pleural effusion. The underlying pathology largely determines the clinical symptoms of pleural effusion. In this case, the most probable underlying cause is heart failure. The risk factors of heart failure, in this case, are undetected diabetes melitus, hypertension, OMI and arrythmia. Increasing prevention and early detection of chronic illness such as diabetes melitus and hypertension is a very necessary step.
, Zainuri Sabta Nugraha, Ety Sari Handayani
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art8

Latar belakang: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) merupakan neurotrophin yang disekresi oleh dendrit. BDNF berperan pada diferensiasi, maturasi dan menjaga survival neuron. BDNF juga berperan penting pada neuroplastisitas, learning and memory. Ekspresi BDNF menurun pada kondisi stres. Propolis mengandung chyrisin yang memiliki efek antioksidan dan neuroprotektan. Penelitian ini ingin melihat efek propolis terhadap ekspresi BDNF pada hippocampus tikus yang diinduksi stres.Tujuan: untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian propolis terhadap ekspresi BDNF di hippocampus pada tikus yang diinduksi stres.Metode: Penelitian eksperimental dengan menggunakan rancangan posttest only control group design. Subjek penelitian ini tikus Rattus norvegicus jantan, berumur 4 bulan dengan berat badan 200-300 gram dari galur Spraque-Dawley. Tikus dibagi secara random menjadi 5 kelompok, masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari 5 ekor tikus. Kelompok N tidak mendapat perlakuan. Kelompok K mendapat perlakuan stres, kelompok P1, P2 dan P3 mendapat perlakuan stres dan pemberian propolis dosis 100, 150 dan 200 mg/kgbb/hari. Perlakuan stres menggunakan model stres isolasi sosial. Pemberian propolis secara oral menggunakan sonde. Perlakuan stres dan pemberian propolis selama 14 hari. Hari ke-15 dilakukan terminasi dan pengambilan jaringan otak. Selanjutnya dilakuakan pembuatan sediaan histologis dengan pewarnaan imunohistokimia menggunakan antibodi anti BDNF. Pengamatan menggunakan mikroskop cahaya dengan perbesaran 1000 kali pada area CA1 hippocampus.Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan signifikan ekspresi BDNF di area CA1 hippocampus pada semua kelompok (p. 0.000). Ekspresi BDNF tertinggi pada kelompok P3. Ekspresi terendah pada kelompok K. Kesimpulan: Terdapat pengaruh pemberian propolis terhadap ekspresi BDNF pada hippocampus tikus yang diinduksi stres. Dosis propolis 100,150 dan 200mg/kgbb meningkatkan ekspresi BDNF.
Sri Sulistyowati, , Soetrisno Soetrisno, Eric Edwin Yuliantara, Supriyadi Hari Respati, Muhammad Adrianes Bachnas, Wisnu Prabowo, Hafi Nurinasari, Dympna Pramelita, Dewi Setiyawati, et al.
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art6

Background: The COVID-19 virus has spread throughout the world and has been declared as a global pandemic by WHO. Some population groups are more susceptible to COVID-19, and one of them is pregnant women. Pregnancy increases risks of the COVID-19, especially thrombotic complications. The SARS-CoV-2 infection may vary widely from asymptomatic to severe infection. Some studies have shown that ABO blood group can be a marker of susceptibility to some disease progression. Objective:This study aims to investigate relationships between the ABO blood group, the COVID-19 infection and its complications in pregnant women at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta.Methods: This study was an observational analytic study with a cross-sectional study design involving 40 pregnant women infected with COVID-19 at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. COVID-19 PCR swabs on the women were administered on their oropharynx and nasopharynx, and laboratory examination of the ABO blood group in all samples was performed. Comparative data distribution of blood groups in the population and the global population distribution were calculated by Chi Square Goodness of Fit. Comparative data between ABO blood group distributions, blood parameters and complications (respiratory, thrombotic, other infections, and death) were calculated by Chi square test and then by One-Way ANOVA. Next, correlation tests for the complications of the blood group and the ages applied a multinomial regression.Results: There were significant differences of thrombotic complications on the blood group of pregnant women infected with COVID-19 (p=0.027). Blood type B significantly tended to experience thrombotic complications when compared to other blood groups (p=0.022).Conclusion: The ABO blood group could affect the complication levels in the pregnant women infected with the COVID 19.
Radya Kusuma Ardianto, Lucky Dimas Abimanyu, Afif Wafiq Waliyuddin, Abi Noerwahjono, Dian Yuliartha Lestari, Fathiyah Safithri
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art12

Acetaminophen is widely used as a fever and pain reliever drug. However, acetaminophen intoxication was common and responsible for thousands of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI) cases worldwide. It was understood that glutathione (GSH) depletion causes a deposit of acetaminophen metabolites which are toxic to liver cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), used as acetaminophen intoxication therapy, has been reported to cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and anaphylactic reaction. This narrative review aimed to discuss other potential candidates in AILI management. The biomolecular approach was used to investigate onion skin in-depth and holistic discussion. According to the results, onion peel extract is rich in flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) and potentially be a candidate in the management of AILI through proposed mechanisms such as restoration of reduced glutathione (GSH), inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, upregulation of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme, and inhibition of TLR4 activity.
, Asnawati Asnawati, Maria Ulfah, Eko Suhartono
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art9

Background: Karamunting leaf is a wetland herb with antioxidant compounds that bind free radicals, reduce oxidative stress, reduce insulin resistance, and prevent the development of pancreatic cell dysfunction and damage.Objective: This study aims to prove the antidiabetic potential of the karamunting leaves ethanolic extract in treating diabetes in white male rats.Methods: This study used a true experimental with a pre-test and post-test control group design. Thirty rats were divided into four groups (control: C, ethanol extract of karamunting dose of 100 mg: P1, 200 mg: P2, and 400 mg: P3). Data on fasting blood glucose levels were taken before (pre-test) and after treatment (post-test). Data on pancreatic islets histomorphological changes (size, number, constituent cells) were analysed quantitatively. Fasting blood glucose levels were analysed using paired t-test, while the histomorphological data of the pancreatic islets were analysed using ANOVA. The data were considered significant if the p-value <0.05 (95% CI).Results: Karamunting leaf ethanol extract treatment reduced fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. A 200 mg/kgBW was demonstrated as the most effective dose that improves the islets and cells number compiles the pancreatic islets, potentially treating diabetes mellitus (DM).Conclusion: Karamunting leaf ethanol extract potential as a natural herbal medicine in treating DM.
Kemas Ya'kub Rahadiyanto, , Ella Amalia
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art4

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Most of healthcare facilities in Indonesia still use Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) rather than GeneXpert MTB/RIF. However, the agreement between both methods is not well established.Objective: This study aims to observe levels of agreement between ZN staining and GeneXpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing adult pulmonary TB at Dr. Mohammad Hoesin General Hospital (RSMH) Palembang.Methods: This study was a retrospective comparative analytical study using an agreement test. Its samples were patient specimens for a period of January 2016 - March 2017 which were examined by ZN staining and GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose pulmonary TB at the Clinical Pathology and Microbiology Installation of RSMH Palembang. Its data were obtained from laboratory results of ZN staining and GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Then, Cohen’s Kappa was used to measure the levels of agreement between both the assays.Results: Of 150 specimens, 69.3% were from male patients and 30.7% were from female patients with mean age of 46.71±14.57. Both ZN staining and GeneXpert positivity were 57.3%. 0.05% of positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF were negative ZN smear, while 0.06% of negative GeneXpert were positive ZN smear. The Cohen’s Kappa coefficient was 0.893 indicating a very good agreement.Conclusion: This study found that there was a very good agreement between ZN staining and GeneXpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing adult pulmonary TB at the RSMH Palembang.
Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.20885/jkki.vol12.iss3.art5

Background: PPI3K/pAKT/pMTOR expression is important in NHL patients. The cascade of biomarker signals regulates translational events, cell survival, cytoskeleton organisation, and ion transport. pPI3K/pAKT/pMTOR enhance gene transcription increasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH is one of the important markers in plasma people with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL).Objective: This study aims to determine the correlation between the expression of kPI3K, pAKT, and pMTOR and serum LDH levels in NHL patients.Methods: This study was used an observational approach with a cross-sectional design. The expression score of pPI3K, pAKT, and pMTOR was obtained from medical records and expressed in histoscore obtained from multiplication between intensity (1=weak, 2=medium, 3=strong) with an express area (1=80%). The correlation between the histoscore of pPI3K, pAKT, and pMTOR expressions with LDH levels was statistically analysed using Pearson correlation tests. Results: The mean of pPI3K, pAKT, and pMTOR expression respectively were 5.29 + 2.95; 4.71 + 2.26 and 7.62 + 1.86. There was a weak correlation between pPI3K expression and serum LDH levels in NHL patients (r=0.293). A very weak correlation occurred between pAKT (r=-0.064) and pMTOR (r=-0.172) with serum LDH in NHL patients.Conclusion: There is a weak correlation between pPI3K expression and serum LDH levels in NHL patients. There is a very weak correlation between pAKT and pMTOR with serum LDH in NHL patients.
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