Human Geography Journal
ISSN / EISSN : 20761333 / 23121130
Current Publisher: V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (10.26565)
Total articles ≅ 53
Latest articles in this journal
Human Geography Journal; doi:10.26565/2076-1333
Human Geography Journal, Volume 27, pp 40-47; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-27-05
In the early 21st century, conflicts remained widespread on the political map of the world. The article explores the role of the peninsula as a subject of territorial dispute, territorial expansion, as well as the region of arms deployment and battlefield. A significant challenge to the security of Ukraine and all of Central and Eastern Europe was the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014. Despite the popular in modern Political Geography discourse on the decline of traditional Geopolitics, the peninsulas still can be explored as vulnerable to manifestations of geopolitical and military rivalry. The purpose of the article is to establish a list of peninsulas vulnerable to the manifestation of international territorial claims, disputes and conflicts, and on this basis to propose a classification of peninsular regions according to their position on the political map. The peninsula is a stretch of land that can be functionally used to establish military and civilian control of adjacent territories. Maintaining military bases on the peninsula makes sense to modern nations because of their role as outposts for the effective deployment of land, air, and naval components of the armed forces and their use inland, adjacent regions and airspace. The peninsulas became a battlefields during the so-called proxy wars that took place between the countries of the West and the East on the territory of third countries. The conquest and decolonization of the peninsula have given rise to specific forms of jurisdiction, such as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, with its autonomous system of government within the United Kingdom, or the autonomous Hong Kong and Hong Kong. The large peninsulas are characterized by several historic cores of statehood, some of which may be located outside the state. This creates favorable conditions for regionalism and devolution (Lombardy in Italy), separatism (Catalonia in Spain), irredentism (Crimea, Bakassi) and armed conflicts (Somalia). The Russian annexation of the Crimean Peninsula is a flagrant violation of international law. De-occupation is the only acceptable solution to the problem, but the necessary prerequisites for changing the political regime and paradigm of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation must be ripe for this.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 27, pp 60-69; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-27-07
The article discusses the modern geographical features of the cultivation of grain and leguminous crops in the Sumy region. In recent years, the region has seen an increase in the area allotted for sowing grain and leguminous crops. The largest sown areas occupied by grain and leguminous crops are located in the Romny, Sumy, Glukhovsky, Belopolsky and Konotop districts, and the largest gross grain harvest is also observed in these districts. The highest production volumes of grain and leguminous crops are recorded in Glukhovsky, Sumy, Belopolsky and Romny districts. The leading role in the grain industry of the region is played by corn. According to the gross harvest, the main districts of corn production are Romensky, Glukhovsky and Belopolsky. The sown area allotted for the harvest of this crop is the largest in the Romny, Belopolsky and Buryn regions. The main areas for growing winter wheat are Sumy, Glukhovsky and Belopolsky. Agricultural enterprises in the Glukhovsky, Konotop and Krolevets districts have the highest winter wheat harvest, while the lowest harvest in the Yampol and Akhtyrsky districts. In Sumy, Glukhovsky and Belopolsky districts, the largest sown areas of spring wheat are also the largest. Shostka, Konotop and Yampol districts are distinguished by crops and production of winter rye. The main regions for growing spring barley are Sumy, Konotop and Glukhovsky regions. Shostka, Putivl and Glukhovsky districts are leaders in oat production. Buckwheat is grown in all administrative districts of the Sumy region (with the exception of the Sumy city UTC (united territorial community)), however, the largest gross harvest of this crop is observed in agricultural enterprises of the Lipovodolinsky, Sumy and Krasnopolsky districts. The cultivation of legumes (peas, beans, lupins, beans; without grains and soybeans) by agricultural enterprises is represented in almost all administrative and territorial units of the Sumy region, except for the Putivl district and rural settlements of Sumy city UTC. According to the gross collection of leguminous crops, the Glukhovsky, Romensky and Shostkinsky districts are distinguished. The lowest yield of leguminous crops was recorded in agricultural enterprises of the Seredina-Budsky district, and the highest - Romny.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 27, pp 20-27; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-27-03
In this article, the author analyzes the approaches and methods of studying migration processes, in particular, forced internal displacement of the population. The analysis of foreign and domestic literature showed that domestic researchers of migration processes use traditional methods and approaches, while foreign scientists use interdisciplinary tools of approaches and methods. For a comprehensive socio-geographical study, it is necessary to combine traditional industry and interdisciplinary methods, which will reveal the real extent of forced internal displacement of the population at the regional and national levels. In addition, the use of this technique will allow conducting qualitative or quantitative studies of migrations, assessing the scale of migration processes, and revealing the structural and dynamic characteristics of migrants. To study the internal population displacement, the author suggests using the following approaches: geographical, systemic, synergetic, informational, historical, demographic, economic, legal, sociological, psychological, individual. The author considers the use of traditional methods of socio-geographical research of migration processes. Of great importance are philosophical and general scientific methods, in particular analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, observation, abstraction, and others. The necessity of using sociological and mathematical-statistical methods is substantiated. In this case, depending on the type of data collected, use qualitative (coding or content analysis) or quantitative (statistical methods: regression, descriptive statistics or modeling of structural equations) methods. The effectiveness of research on migration processes is enhanced by mathematical methods, in particular modeling. The following types of models are used in forecasting migration processes: open or closed models; discrete or continuous models; deterministic or stochastic models. The most effective, in our opinion, is the G. Zipf gravity model, as well as various types of regression models.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 27, pp 48-59; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-27-06
The purpose of the study is to find out how the distribution and further privatization of land have affected the changes of peri-urban villages in Ukraine since the 1990s, based on the case of the village of Sokilnyky near Lviv. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the redirection of Ukraine's economy from a planned centralized to a market-oriented crony-capitalism, the peri-urban areas of largest cities have become complex, dynamic and contradictory spaces with drastic changes in demography, housing, infrastructure, and land use. The shift of land policy in Ukraine in the 1990s with the weakening of planning regulations and the way land was distributed are the main triggers of how peri-urban areas have been transforming. The analysis of changes in land ownership, household farming/agriculture, detached houses’ number and size, household income and urban morphology (street network, location of houses and commercial units) in Sokilnyky since 1990s reveals three key consequences of privatization and commodification of land in post-socialist cities’ environs: a) land privatization provided the opportunity for small-scale household farming/agriculture for one class of people as a survival strategy, especially during the economic crisis of the 1990s, and a place for housing and commercial construction for another, causing the eclectic nature of peri-urban settlements with mixing different classes of people with different lifestyles; b) land distribution and privatization were crucial in the emergence of chaotic, fragmented and ad-hoc housing and commercial units, since land division into plots in the 1990s preceded urban planning and master plan development; c) privatization has also created a condition for biased land-development for profit, resulting in shrinkage of public spaces, communal lands and green open spaces. The study is based on statistics from local government, historical map analysis, informal interviews/personal communication with urban planners and officials, and fieldwork visual analysis.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 26, pp 5-12; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-26-01
The purpose of this article is to show the place of Georgian land transport in spatial development, in its economic development and future perspectives, with methodoligical aproach. The topic was chosen due to its actuality. Decline in amounts of freight and passenger shows that country is not so attractive to be part of any international transport corridor. To overcome the problem, we should know cause of it and the whole process of development, showing the factors which have influenced on the current result. The aim and novelty of the article is research of human geographical aspects of modern Georgian land transport, which covers the following objectives and issues: analyze existed modern literature around Georgian land transport, find and explain causes and consequences compare current trends with past and setting the perspectives. Examining Georgian land transport will be good example for understanding Caucasian transport corridor in order to connect it with international transport corridors and benefit for local economic growth. Being part of international trading systems is key to Georgia’s geopolitical location. According to current international economic environment and land transport’s infrastructural and economic regress there are several questions how can it be part of international transport corridor. Comparing with EU reforms and study of Chinese transport connections towards European countries will give some answers.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 26, pp 13-23; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-26-02
Human geography, which is an integral branch of contemporary geographical science, relies on a broad methodological basis, using both the general geographical methodological apparatus and the methodological apparatus of related and related sciences. However, taking into account the specifics of the object-subject field of human geography, it is necessary to improve the methodological apparatus, going beyond the use of methods inherent only in geographical science. The anthropogenic factor becomes dominant in all negative changes in the interaction of the “society-human-nature” system. There is a need to replenish the methodological apparatus of human geography through the use of methods of related sciences, in particular, sociology. Sociological methods operate with large amounts of data and can be applied at various stages of socio-geographical research: at the stage of collecting information, its processing and interpretation. Among Ukrainian scientists, human geographers, for now, the use of sociological methods of collecting and processing information is more ignored, unlike foreign scientists. The use of traditional socio-geographical methods and ignoring the methods of related sciences indicate the need for a thorough review of the methodological and methodological foundations of socio-geographical research. This is required by the complexity of the global processes of socio-economic development of modern civilization as a single global socio-geographic system of the planet. At the stage of collecting socio-geographical information, it is important to use sociological methods of collecting information that are indispensable for the study of those features of geographical systems that are not covered by official statistics, as well as for the study of factors of processes and phenomena at the individual and group levels. Sociological research methods have a branched structure, in which they are distinguished as general scientific and special sociological research methods. Sociological methods of data collection can be used in socio-geographical studies, the choice of which depends on the type of goals, objectives, features of the object of study, the material capabilities of the researcher and the capabilities of the toolkit. Sociological methods for collecting information are divided into 5 main classes: survey, analysis of documents, experiment, observation and testing.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 26, pp 55-75; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-26-06
The paper analyzes transformations of foreign trade in goods of Ukraine in 2000-2017. The choice of the study period is due to the fact that the "recovery" and the gradual growth of the Ukrainian economy after the long crisis of the 1990s has began since 2000. Ukraine had a mostly negative foreign commercial balance (except for 2000-2004 and 2015); generally balanced foreign trade; dangerous import dependency ratio; extremely economy openness index; the high exports ratio in 2000-2017. The volumes of export, imports and foreign commercial turnover had unstable dynamics with negative trends in 2008-2009 and 2013-2015. Base metals and their ware; plant products; animal or plant fats and oils were prevailed in the export component of the foreign commerce; mineral products; machines, equipment and mechanisms, electric and technical equipment; products of chemical and derivative industries were dominant in the structure of import in 2017. The export was characterized by increase in the share of products of the primary sector (due to crop production) and decrease in the secondary sector (due to metallurgy, machine building, chemical and textile industry) during 2001-2017. The import was characterized by decrease in the share of raw materials and increase in the share of all other goods during the mentioned period. Commodity structure of foreign trade became more proportional, without a highly dominant product. The Russian Federation, Poland, Turkey, Italy, India were the key partners in the export of goods, while those ones in the import were the Russian Federation, China, Germany, Poland, Belarus. The key partners remained during 2001-2017 (the Russian Federation, Poland, Turkey, Italy, China, Germany were key partner in export; In the import - the Russian Federation, Germany, Poland, Belarus, the USA, Italy were key partner in import. Despite the drastic decrease in trade relations with the Russian Federation, it remains the largest partner in the Ukrainian foreign commerce. Among the regions of the world, the largest trading partner of Ukraine in recent years is Europe with relevant reduction of CIS countries in the common share. It is necessary to provide a set of measures aimed at increasing the efficiency of export activity and import substitution in the certain sectors of the economy to balance foreign commerce of Ukraine.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 27, pp 5-12; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-27-01
The article runs about the advantages of the cluster approach to the development of the region which, in contrast to others, has to set up close partner ties, the aim of which is to provide the competitiveness both of each separate participant of cluster, and the union on the whole by means of introducing innovations. The cluster union formation is of great of great importance for the economic activity of the region to be efficient, as it encourages attracting investments and producing competitive products and services on the innovative technologies basis. In the article the author draws attention to a low activity of cluster forming process in Ukraine, as in the country there are a set of challenges connected with financial resource deficiency, no confidence to the power bodies, low awareness of enterprises of clustering advantages. The cluster value as an important universal instrument capable of enhancing the economic competitiveness of individual countries (or regions) and the efficient development of the modern global economy is substantiated. On the basis of the research performed there have been defined the main tasks of making the process of clusterization to be more active in the regions of Ukraine. The article analyzes the concept of inclusive development and identifies its key points. The research made it possible to find out that there are a significant number of factors varieties in quality, intensity, force of manifestation and effect, that influence or may have an impact on inclusive local development, which is important for improving the well-being and life quality of the local population, expansion and realization its rights and opportunities. The practical significance of the results obtained is that the scientific findings, the results obtained and the suggested recommendations are a practical basis for the development and improvement of the clustering process in ensuring the economic security of the state.
Human Geography Journal, Volume 27, pp 28-39; doi:10.26565/2076-1333-2019-27-04
In the modern context of, one of the main tasks in the regional development management is to optimally realize the complex potential of the territories, which requires a comprehensive study of the spatial structure and evolutionary potential of agglomerations of all levels in order to identify disparities in their development, correct imbalances and optimize the spatial organization of the region. The first step to solve this problem is to identify the spatial structure and evaluate the interconnections of agglomerations sequentially, from local to regional level. This is becoming more relevant in the context of administrative and territorial reform in Ukraine. The purpose of this study is to analyze the prospects for the development of urban agglomerations and the organization of the administrative and territorial structure of Kharkiv region in view of the prevailing influence of the city of Kharkiv and the Kharkiv agglomeration. The basic theoretical and methodological starting points of the study of urban agglomerations are presented; their characteristics and parameters of boundary determination were defined. The essence of the method of modeling of integral influence function (IIF modeling) was revealed, the author's research methodology was substantiated. The tendencies of introduction of administrative and territorial reform in Ukraine were analyzed. It was established that Kharkiv region occupies mediocre places in terms of formation of the united territorial communities, there were 23 ones in the oblast (3 of them are city, 12 town, 8 rural ones) by the end of 2019. The scheme for dividing into enlarged districts has not yet been approved. According to different plans / proposals, the existing 27 districts of the oblast should be consolidated into nine, seven, six or four enlarged districts (counties). All of the above proposals were considered by the authors, it is established that the existing projects do not fully cover the main prevailing factors of allocation of competitive districts, do not take into account the role of historically formed system of settlement, spatial-statistical parameters, integral potential of territories, urbanization and agglomeration. The authors performed the IIF modeling and constructed the IIF surface of the weighted average settlement potential of Kharkiv region by the base radius of influence (2, 10, 20, and 30 km), which allowed to determine the features of the Kharkov agglomeration structure and the interaction of the settlements in the region by different radiuses of interaction, primary agglomerations, prospective growth points. On the basis of the obtained results of IIF modeling, the author's model of administrative and territorial division of Kharkiv region into eight enlarged districts was proposed, given the specific features of the settlement system and the correlation of area and population of the modeled administrative and territorial units. The scientifically grounded division of the region into enlarged districts (counties) and stimulation of their development will contribute to the most complete and rational use of the territories potential, increase of economic, human, investment potential, rise of the level and quality of life of the population, etc.