Journal of Applied and Advanced Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2519-9412
Published by: Phoenix Research Publishers (10.21839)
Total articles ≅ 159
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Huda Y Ghidan, Alaa Y Ghidan, Hytham M Ahmed
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2021.v6.7191

Abstract:
A virus is an ultramicroscopic (20-300 nanometers in diameter) metabolically inert, infectious agent that replicates only within the cells of living hosts. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is announced by World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. As of 23 August 2020, 23,407,334 infected people and 810,242 deaths were reported worldwide. COVID-19 has affected our daily lives and influences all aspects of life, including economic, social, health, etc. On the healthcare level, the world is faced with many challenges, including diagnosis, quarantine, and treatment of suspected cases, overloaded doctors and healthcare professionals and the requirement of a high level of protection. This research focused on preventive measures - preventive medicine - to combat coronavirus according to Islamic law's and modern medicine's perspective. Sharia focuses on preserving diseases to achieve its objectives thereby, so it has legislated some of the rulings that achieve this purpose, so it based its provisions on bringing interests and warding off evil. This research has been divided into two requirements; the first requirement is that the researcher talked about preventive strategies, one of the most important branches of medicine because it precedes disease before it occurs to be rectified with awareness and guidance. The second requirement: supporting scientific research to make vaccines and medicines is the most important findings of the researcher. Besides the review intent to explaining the extent of compatibility and difference between practical applications in Islamic jurisprudence and modern medicine, Explaining the importance of treatment from diseases and epidemics and the necessity of supporting scientific research to find medicines and vaccines( not only preventive strategies), and A statement of the importance and necessity of adhering to the instructions and instructions issued by the competent medical authorities and institutions with expertise and competence to prevent transmission of infection by prevention, treatment and taking vaccinations.
Alaa Yousef Ghidan, Huda Yousef Ghidan
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, Volume 5, pp 19-23; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2020.v5.349

Abstract:
There are ethics for making experiments on animals that should be restricted by for respect and safety of animal's right of living. The basic of these procedures is forbidden because animals are creatures of God and his soul. These experiments are allowed within certain restrictions for the importance of saving human beings. There is a legal affair for those who don't show a commitment in dealing with these ethics while they are dealing with experiments on living creatures.
, Fatima Yousef Ghethan, Mohammad Alghanmi, Casimeer C. Sangeetha, Ernest David, Malik Saleh Hadadin, Mohammad Yasin Mohammad
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, Volume 5, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2020.v5.342

Abstract:
Coronaviruses are enveloped non-segmented positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales and broadly distributed in humans and other mammals. The recommendations for the management of COVID-19 are mentioned in a lot of Updated Literature such as in The "L. Spallanzani" National Institute for the Infectious Diseases. These recommendations are considered as expert's opinions, which may be modified according to newly produced literature data. In addition, Chloroquine and its derivative, hydroxychloroquine, have a long history as safe and inexpensive drugs for use in malaria-endemic regions and as daily treatments for autoimmune diseases, with the most common side effect being eye damage after long-term use (Kapoor and Kapoor 2020). Although previous studies have revealed that chloroquine has therapeutic activity against viruses, including human corona virus OC43 in animal models and SARS-CoV in cell culture studies. we proposed that from natural Medicine the polyphenol compounds in olive leaf extracts were responsible for the stimulation of probiotic Microbes growth and metabolism and that olive leaf extracts ingested in human diet might have the same effect on desirable components of the intestinal microflora, Herbal medicines, plant products, and phototherapeutic have been widely used all over the world since ancient times. Such as Orange, garlic, Bananas, and lemon have an effect on increasing the immune system. On the other hand; Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a piece of evidence to treat the harmful responses arising from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are microbial agents which could be potentially used as an alternative to anti-viral to treat human infectious disease, especially influenza; there is a novel treatment by using magnetite nanoparticles as nanomedicine drug for Covid- 19.
Faten Ganim Abed
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, Volume 5, pp 6-10; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2020.v5.324

Abstract:
Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the most important greenhouse gases and most important climate forcing agents due to their significant impact on climate, and their concentrations have been increased since the pre-industrial time by 150 and 40 % respectively, basically from fossil fuel combustion and land-use change emissions. In this research, the atmospheric concentration of CH4 and CO2 over Iraq is measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Time series and time-averaged maps were generated to study and analyse the distribution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. The results show a significant increase of these two gases with an average increase (3.5 and 5.11 ppbv/ year ) in a rate of (2.69 % and 4 %) for CH4 at SPL 925 hPa and 400 hPa, respectively ; the average increase of CO2 is (1.85 ppm/ year) represent (3.31%) for the whole period. The considerable increase of CH4 and CO2 concentration can affect human healthiness and earth radiative balance. Also, the Satellite observation of AIRS can efficiently show the spatiotemporal variations of CH4 and CO2 for the study area.
Mahulkar Ankita Vidyadhar Vaijayanti
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, Volume 5, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2020.v5.318

Abstract:
Amphiphilic biosurfactants are surface-active biological molecules secreted by hydrocarbanoclastic microorganisms. Biosurfactants are eco-friendly, less toxic, biodegradable, and low-cost material, so it has more advantages over chemical surfactants. In this research, Pseudomonas spp., biosurfactant producing microorganisms isolated from different sources of soil samples. IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4 isolates obtained from Garden soil sample; Metal contaminated soil sample; Petroleum contaminated soil sample; Oil contaminated soil sample; respectively. Each isolates identified as Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, screened for biosurfactant producers. Each isolate showed positive results for the hemolysis test, drop collapse test, oil displacement test, and emulsification test. All isolate incubated in mineral salt medium for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant extracted from IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4 showed 35%, 65%, 20%, 52% emulsification index respectively. Antimicrobial activity of extracted biosurfactants against pathogenic microorganisms checked by agar cup method. IS2 isolate shows the highest antimicrobial activity among all. All isolate showed a higher zone of inhibition against gram-positive microorganisms than gram-negative microbes. The purpose of this study involves the assessment of the antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant producers from the soil environment.
A.B. Umar, A.H. Dankaka, M. Manjur Shah
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2019.v4i6.312

Abstract:
The study is carried out to standardize larval indices namely House Index, Container Index and Breteau Index and also to identify the major breeding sources of mosquitoes in the residential environment in and around the Gwale Local government area of Kano, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study by selecting 50 houses randomly from the 6 wards of Municipality was employed. Every water holding container indoors and outdoors were counted and searched for larval presence and noted on a pretested format. In this study, 300 houses were surveyed in 21 days out of which 94.33% (283 houses) were found to have potential sources for mosquito breeding. All the entomological indices were found to be above the critical level. House Index = 28.67%; Container Index = 12.14%; Breteau Index = 64.00% showing high chances for outbreaks of mosquito borne diseases. The area is prone to mosquito borne disease like malaria and therefore warrants interventions from the competent.
A.B. Umar, A.H. Dankaka, M. Manjur Shah
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2019.v4i6.313

Abstract:
Open dumping and uncontrolled landfilling of solid wastes are the most widely practiced waste disposal methods in many cities of the less-developed regions, especially those in sub Saharan Africa. These practices are unsustainable and pose a major threat to the environment and public health. Of particular concern is the leachate produced at the disposal sites, which is concentrated with biological and chemical substances that could contaminate the soil, surface and groundwater sources in the environment. The effects of leachate percolation on the quality of groundwater sources is of great concern especially in sub Saharan Africa, where untreated self-supply groundwater options represent a major source of water supply for many inhabitants. Given this perspective, the physicochemical characteristics of some groundwater samples from wells around a major waste disposal site; Aisami in Kano metropolis, Nigeria, were examined. The samples were collected from the north, east, south and west directions around the disposal site and analysed for parameters that include: pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+, NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl-, Cu+2, Fe+2 ,Mn+2, Pb, Zn, and Cr. Significant concentrations of most parameters were revealed, often above the WHO recommended thresholds. Accordingly, some measures were highlighted towards protecting, preserving and sustaining groundwater quality as a strategic source of water supply in the area and beyond.
J.R. Randriantsivery, J. Rajaobelison, V. Ramaroson, N. Rabesiranana, L. P. Fareze, F. F. A. Razafitsalama, C. U. Rakotomalala
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research pp 141-145; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2019.v4i5.309

Abstract:
The upper catchment of Ikopa has great potential for surface or sub-surface water resources. The Ikopa River plays an important role in the water supply of the plain of Antananarivo. Knowing that surface water is abundant but exposed to the high risk of pollution, and groundwater remains less exploited because of the insufficiency of the study concerning the recharge and the sources of their mineralization. The objective of this research is to use the isotope method to characterize groundwater to determine their origin and recharge process. The results of chemical analysis show three different facies type of groundwater which dominated by the sodium, nitrate and chloride ions. The isotopic compositions of the waters sampled vary respectively from -7.25‰ to 5-.09‰ for δ18O and from -46.9‰ to -24.7‰ for δ2H. water form the lakes are more enriched compared to those rivers and groundwater. The diagram δ18O- δ2H shows that groundwater is recharged from local rainwater but undergoes low evaporation before infiltration. However, the results obtained from the parameters measured in situ show that a lateral recharge of groundwater from the streams feeds the neighboring aquifers. Lakes are fed by run-off during the rainy season.
S. Bhagavathy, K. Pushya, R. Gayathridevi, J. Jeniffer
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research pp 133-140; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2019.v4i5.304

Abstract:
Bromelain is a major protease, isolated from pineapple (Ananas comosus). Bromelain is accumulated in the entire plant to a different extent and properties depending on its source. In the present study, Bromelain was extracted from all parts of pineapple using sodium citrate buffer. Bromelain was filtered, centrifuged and used for further studies. After the determination of protease activity and protein content, the Core and Pulp extract of A.comosus was chosen using gelatin as the substrate. The Bromelain was purified by precipitation and dialysis. Then SDS-PAGE was performed in order to determine the molecular size of the obtained protein. Then the effectiveness of Bromelain as an anti-browning agent, extracted and purified from pineapple Core and Pulp was determined. The study showed that Bromelain is a better anti-browning agent when compared with some of the available commercial anti-browning agents. Further, the application of Bromelain was tested by stain removal, compared to the positive control, the ability of stain-removing property for the produced enzyme was observed to be good. Immobilized Bromelain prepared using calcium alginate beads and its stability and characters were noted.
Babu Ram Khanal
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, Volume 4, pp 129-132; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2019.v4i4.301

Abstract:
This study focuses on diasporas painful feelings and bitter experiences while they are living in the host land. It stresses on their efforts to maintain connections with people back in their homeland. Besides, the research talks about diasporas's attempt to assimilate, acculturate and integrate in the host countries in their dislocated and unhomely state. the study also explore the changing attitude of intellectuals, writers, journalists and politicians of host countries towards diasporas, that they have recognized diasporas' positive culture and economic contribution to host societies. Gradually and cautiously more host societies and their governments are accepting diaspora members' affiliations as legitimate and sought for their permanence. Moreover, in some host countries, and in liberal circles, membership of in such entities has been regarded as exciting and advantageous but not as an obstacles. Yet, the migrants are backed by criticisms and detriments. They establish networks back in their country of origin and try to influence homeland's politics and sometimes support the violent activities. On top of that, the continued migration and increase in remittances encourage chain of migration and brain drain, and create instability in homeland economics.
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