Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2393-9079 / 2393-9087
Published by: IP Innovative Publication Pvt Ltd (10.18231)
Total articles ≅ 202
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Shoheb S Shaikh, Sachin M Kokate
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 238-242; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.042

Abstract:
Daily rhythmic variations in biological functions affect the efficacy and/or toxicity of drugs: a large number of drugs cannot be expected to exhibit the same potency at different administration times. The “circadian clock” is an endogenous timing system that broadly regulates metabolism, physiology and behavior. In mammals, this clock governs the oscillatory expression of the majority of genes with a period length of approximately 24 h. Genetic studies have revealed that molecular components of the circadian clock regulate the expression of genes responsible for the sensitivity to drugs and their disposition. The circadian control of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics enables ‘chrono-pharmaceutical’ applications, namely drug administration at appropriate times of day to optimize the therapeutic index (efficacy vs. toxicity). On the other hand, a variety of pathological conditions also exhibit marked day-night changes in symptom intensity. Currently, novel therapeutic approaches are facilitated by the development of chemical compound targeted to key proteins that cause circadian exacerbation of disease events. This review presents an overview of the current understanding of the role of the circadian biological clock in regulating drug efficacy and disease conditions, and also describes the importance of identifying the difference in the circadian machinery between diurnal and nocturnal animals to select the most appropriate times of day to administer drugs in humans.
Arpit Agrawal, Pankaj Kannauje
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 298-300; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.053

Abstract:
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms is a rare and potentially life threatening condition characterised by hypersensitivity reactions to a drug with prolonged latency, in the form of skin rashes, hyper eosinophilia and systemic features like fever, lymphadenopathy, leucocytosis, internal organ involvement (liver, kidney, lung). Though it can occur in response to many drugs but very few cases has been described in relation to one of the most commonly used antibiotic ceftriaxone. Here we have described a case of DRESS in a patient who has been treated with ceftriaxone outside our hospital for sore throat.
Amit Kumar, S. Sai Prasanna, R. Charishma, R. Satya Divya, R. V. V. Sowjanya
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 258-262; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.046

Abstract:
: To study the prevalence of DFU among diabetic patients and the management of DFU among diabetic patients.: Prospective observational study. : The study was conducted in inpatients with diabetes of all departments and inpatients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) of surgical department of age 20 to 80 of both genders with sample size 150 were included from September 2019 to march 2020. The prevalence of DFU among diabetic patients was 16%. Among them more diabetic cases were seen in age group of 50-59 and DFU in 40-49 and More diabetic cases are observed in male compared to female. DFU observed equally and the most common causative organism for DFU was staphylococcus aureus followed by proteus species, klebsiella and pseudomonas aeruginosa and more cases of DFU were noticed in diabetic patients with duration of 6-10 years. As the main cause of DFU is infection the primary treatment is anti microbial therapy and the most prescribed class of antibiotics is cephalosporins followed by nitroimidazoles, penicillins, oxazolidinones, lincosamides etc. surgical procedures like debridement, amputation and sometimes both were done in 9,14,1 patients respectively. : Our study revealed the information regarding the prevalence of DFU among diabetic patients is due to lack of knowledge and uncontrolled diabetes may develop poor circulation which leads to wound that may heal slowly which leads to DFU.
Yatish Byndoor, Tamilisetti Vidya Sagar, Sanjay Kumar
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 280-283; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.050

Abstract:
Several factors may affect identification and treatment of erectile dysfunction by health care providers, this study evaluates prescribing pattern of PDE-5 inhibitors and assess effectiveness of Sildenafil and Tadalafil in patients with erectile dysfunction.This is a descriptive and observational study, observed participants without providing any interventions, after fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were enrolled into study and informed written consent was obtained from all patients, data was obtained from medical records, analysed descriptively. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire is used in assessment of erectile dysfunction and treatment outcomes.In our study, 80% of patients were prescribed with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 20% received nutritional supplements. 80 percent of drugs were prescribed under generic name, subjects treated with Sildenafil/Tadalafil were found to be associated with higher mean scores for questions of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Tadalafil scored high in terms of sexual desire domain.PDE5 inhibitors represent major first-line oral therapy option for men with erectile dysfunction, shift of market from brand to generic products allows more freedom of choice, although multiple reports suggest general equivalency of four major PDE5 inhibitors, tadalafil suggested to be preferable.
Anup K Chakraborty, Harshita Tripathi, Sarita Karole, Kavita R Loksh
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 270-279; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.049

Abstract:
Is a significant therapeutic plant has a place with family apocynaceae contains in excess of 70 distinct sorts of chemotherapeutic agents and alkaloids which help in treating different illnesses. For the most part, it is known as Vincarosea, Ammocallisrosea and Lochnerarosea. There are numerous or more than 400 alkaloids present in plant, which are used as flavor, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, fragrance, ingredients, food addictives, and pesticides. To develop a validated high performance thin layer chromatographic method for the analysis of leaves and flower extracts of Sample solutions were applied onto the plates with automatic TLC sampler Linomat V (Camag, Muttenz, Switzerland) and were controlled by WinCATS software. Plates were developed in 10 x 10cm twin trough glass chamber (Camag, Muttenz, Switzerland). A CAMAG TLC scanner was used for scanning the TLC plates. Pre-coated silica gel aluminium plates 60F254. For vincristine, simultaneous estimation of vincristine was performed by HPTLC on a silica gel plate using toluene-methanol-diethylamine (8.75: 0.75: 0.5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The Rf value was found to be 0.76 for flower and 0.80 for leaves at 250 nm which shows the presence of vincristin in . In this research paper, a validated HPTLC Method has been developed for the analysis of leaves and flower extracts
Sunil Chaudhry, Vishwas Sovani
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 301-304; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.054

Abstract:
The aim of clinical research is to impart knowledge that will improve human health or improve understanding of human physiology. Although, till the end of 20 century pregnancy was always under exclusion criteria, now pervasive exclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials is currently not justified. Pregnancy brings in an array of anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes that can impact the pharmacokinetics of important medications. Pregnancy is often accompanied by chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, tuberculosis, HIV, depression which can require long term therapy. This indicates a need for studies being conducted exclusively in pregnant women. Current communication narrates ethical and regulatory aspects of inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials.
Kranti Tekulapally
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 284-290; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.051

Abstract:
Medical and Dental students are exposed to online classes for the first time during the COVID pandemic. The current study was planned to understand their perceptions about these online classes in contrast to classroom teaching and suggest strategies to improve them.A cross-sectional study was carried out among all the students of Malla Reddy Medical College for Women and Malla Reddy Dental College for Women during September 2020. The study questionnaire containing 20 questions was prepared, prevalidated and distributed to all the study participants as google form. Data from completed questionnaires was entered into an excel sheet and analyzed using descriptive statistics.Analysis of data from 279 students revealed that the 69% of the students used smartphones to attend online classes, 96% of them reported having internet problems and 42% of the students enjoyed the online classes. Understanding of the topic and knowledge gained during online classes were rated average and above average by 59% and 53% of the students respectively. Many students felt that long screen hours have made the classes less interesting and caused health issues like headaches, eyestrain, and backache. They also felt that online classes were less interactive and did not provide much clinical and practical knowledge.Students showed a negative response to online classes. There is a need to make online classes more interactive and interesting by using certain strategies like problem-solving activities, quizzes, discussions, surveys, and polls. Faculty should be trained in good online teaching practices to ensure its success.
M.S. Madhu, S.M. Ahmed, Raghavendra. K.V.
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 291-297; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.052

Abstract:
There are no approved drugs to treat COVID-19, and the vaccine is likely to be ready by early 2021. Many clinical studies are ongoing around the globe to find a cure or prevention of the disease. The objective of the proposed study is to determine the efficacy and safety profile of Mulmina Mango as an adjunct to standard of care treatment on COVID-19 positive subjects undergoing treatment for COVID-19 in Hospital Quarantine. Settings and Design: The enrolled subjects were randomized into either of the two treatment arms in the ratio of 1:1. The freshly diagnosed (24-48 hrs.) COVID-19 positive Male or Female is aged 20 to 65 years (both inclusive) hospitalized patients were approached and checked for their eligibility. They were recruited after signing the written informed consent form. The number of patients included in the study is 48. In efficacy, both the treatment arms and the reduction in clinical symptom scale value and ordinal scale value are seen on day 7. On the ordinal scale, 41.7% of subjects in Treatment arm A showed a reduction of 2 points on the day, and 16.7% of subjects show 2 points reduction in Treatment arm B. In Safety results, there was no clinically significant finding in safety parameters in Treatment arm B. Mulmina Mango showed encouraging results concerning RTPCR, CRP, Dopamine, IgG, CD4, and CD8 parameters. The properties of Mulmina Mango are highlighted below, along with the parameters for each property. Mulmina Mango, COVID-19, Treatment Arm A, Treatment Arm B, MoHFW (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare)
Narinder Singh, Ajeet Pal Singh, Amar Pal Singh
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 243-247; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.043

Abstract:
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness that is quickly spreading over the globe, with significant death and morbidity rates. Dengue fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitos and caused by an RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family. The symptoms might vary from asymptomatic fever to life-threatening complications including hemorrhagic fever and shock. Although dengue virus infections are normally self-limiting, the disease has become a public health concern in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue fever is a major public health concern owing to its rapid worldwide spread, and its burdens are now unmet due to a lack of accurate therapy and a simple diagnostic approach for the early stages of illness.
Abhijit Trailokya, Suhas Erande, Amol Aiwale
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 8, pp 267-269; https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpp.2021.048

Abstract:
This study aimed to assess effectiveness of Evogliptin 5 mg through continues glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with T2DM in retrospective observational real world settings. Overall 6 patients who received Evogliptin as routine clinical practice in management of T2DM were analyzed retrospectively from single center. Data collected from past medical records. FreeStyle Librepro 1.0.6 was used for CGM. CGM was done 15 days prior to adding Evogliptin and repeated immediately after that for next 15 days. Mean BG level, Percentage time in target range (80-140mg/dl), Percentage time above target and Percentage time below target were assessed prior and after adding Evogliptin in existing treatment regimen. Significant reduction in Mean blood glucose level seen after adding Evogliptin in existing treatment regimen from 215 mg/dl to 138 mg/dl (-77 mg/dl P=0.006). Significant improvement seen in Percentage time in target range (80-140mg/dl) from 17% to 44% (27% P value 0.007) and in Percentage time above target from 81% to 43% (- 38%, P valve 0.003). 13.5 % of the patients seen below target. Evogliptin was found to be effective when added to the patients who were uncontrolled on other oral anti-diabetic medications. It effectively showed improvement in continues glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters like Mean blood glucose, more number of patients were in Time in Target range i.e (80-140mg/dl) after adding Evogliptin to existing anti-diabetic medications & well tolerated. Small sample size and retrospective study
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