International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2602-4810 / 2602-4535
Current Publisher: Pen Academic Publishing (10.29329)
Total articles ≅ 41
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International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research; doi:10.29329/ijiasr

Mehtap Kılıç Eren
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 191-204; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.7

Abstract:
Healthy cells maintain genome integrity by activating a conserved DNA damage response (DDR) pathway that halts the progression of the cell cycle and activates DNA repair. Molecular disorders preventing DDR functioning properly often predispose to cancer. Therefore DDR acts as a tumor suppressor barrier. DDR often leads to not only cell cycle arrest and DNA repair, but also induces cellular senescence and apoptosis. Ultimately, “autophagy” as a self-degradation and recycling program of cellular components can be induced by DDR. In healthy cells and the initial stage of cancer, autophagy appears to have a tumor suppressor function by eliminating damaged organelles, and protein aggregates to promote genomic instability. However, in advanced tumors, autophagy s activated, particularly as a result of hypoxia and metabolic stress, to promote tumor survival under these conditions. Autophagy can also be induced by DNA damaging chemotherapy agents in tumor cells, which mostly results in resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In addition, activation of certain oncogenes in advanced tumors may promote autophagy activation and guarantee the persistence of tumors. Thus, currently development of inhibitors targeting autophagy with potential clinical use is increasing rapidly. In this review, the DDR and autophagy signaling mechanisms, as well as the interconnecting pathways of both are highlighted. Moreover, the biological consequences of the companion of these two important cellular responses in cancer are discussed.
Hülya Yaman, Bolu İzzet Baysal University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 100-111; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.2

Abstract:
Peynirin tadını ve aromasına etki eden faktörler sütün kalitesi, üretim süreci, laktik asit bakterileri ve olgunlaşma sırasındaki karmaşık biyokimyasal reaksiyonlar oluşturmaktadır. Olgunlaşma dönemindeki önemli biyokimyasal yollar arasında yer alan laktoz metabolizması ile organik asitlerin oluşması, lipoliz yoluyla yağ asitlerin parçalanması peynirin tadını ve aromasının etkilenmektedir. Kromatografik analizlerle belirlenen bu özellikler doğru ancak zahmetli, pahalı ve zaman alıcıdır. Bu nedenle çalışmadaki amacımız, beyaz peynirin olgunlaşması sırasında meydana gelen bu değişiklikleri belirlemek için kızılötesi (FTIR) spektroskopisine dayalı hızlı ve basit bir enstrümantal yöntem geliştirmek ve olgunlaşmasırasında üretilen ana organic asitlerin eş zamanlı olarak belirlenmesi için bir tahmin algoritması geliştirmektir. Beyaz peynir numuneleri 40 gün olgunlaştırılmış ve numuneler 1, 20 ve 40 günlük depolamadan sonra analize dilmiştir. Farklı örnekleme yöntemiyle hazırlanan örnekler FTIR bölgesinde (4000 ila 700 cm-1) taşınabilir bir FTIR kullanılarak taranmıştır. Aynı zamanda HPLC ve GC ile organic ve yağ aside profili belirlenerek, toplanan spekrumların olgunlaşma süre ve organik asit içerikleri ile ilişkilendirilmiştir. Tahmin modelleri geliştirmek için sınıf analojisinin (SIMCA) yumuşak bağımsız modellemesi ve kısmi en küçük kareler regresyonu (PLSR) ile analiz edilmiştir. SIMCA peynir örneklerinin olgunlaşma süresine göre kümelemesine izin verdi. İlginç bir şekilde, numunelerin gruplanmasını yönlendiren sinyal, peynir aromasına katkıda bulunan organik ve yağ asitlerin oluşumu ve konsantrasyonu ile ilişkili bulunmuştur. Örnekleme yöntemleri arasında peynir ekstraklarının diğer yöntemlere göre daha iyi SIMCA model oluşturduğu gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca aynı sinyal, organik ve yağ asit seviyeleri regresyon algoritmaları (PLSR) geliştirmek için kullanılmış ve PLSR modelleri mükemmel uyum göstermiştir (r-değeri> 91). Organik asit profili 10 dakikadan daha kısa sürede doğru bir şekilde belirlenebilmiştir. Sonuç olarak Portatif kızılötesi üniteler, olgunlaşma sırasında meydana gelen karmaşık biyokimyasal değişiklikleri izlemek ve beyaz peynirde dengeli bir tat gelişimi için önemli olan kalite parametrelerini tahmin etmek için hızlı, basit bir araç ve yerinde Teknik olarak kullanılabilir.
Emmanuel Korode, Emmanuel Korode & Jalil Idi James, Gombe State University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 112-129; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.3

Abstract:
Cyanide contamination of Soil and aquatic environment has become a great concern in Nigeria because of increase in the number of cassava processing milling plants. The sample collection and the conduct of this experiment took place between September and October when the country is experiencing late rainfall. The levels of physicochemical parameters in soil and plant samples were obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Soil and plant samples of Amaranthus spinosus were obtained from cassava processing site (site X) and other samples 100m to the cassava mills (site Y) as control. The concentration of metals in soil samples in mg/kg at site ‘X’ recorded were Cr(39.0mg/kg), Mn(3.5mg/kg), Cu(33.0mg/kg), Fe(4.3mg/kg), Pb(2.5mg/kg), and Zn(52.5mg/kg) while that of site ‘Y’ were Cr(16.5mg/kg), Mn(1.3mg/kg), Cu(13.0mg/kg), Fe(1.9mg/kg), Pb(0.3mg/kg), and Zn(17.0mg/kg). The concentration values for AS, Cd and Nickel in the environment were below detection limit for all soil and plant samples. The concentrations of metals in A. spinosus root and shoot in mg/kg from sites ‘X’ were Cr(6.00mg/kg - 8.50mg/kg), Fe(0.55mg/kg - 0.80mg/kg), Cu(4.00mg/kg - 5.50mg/kg), Pb(0.05mg/kg - 0.08mg/kg), Zn(6.00mg/kg - 8.00mg/kg), Mn(0.35mg/kg - 0.5mg/kg) while that of site ‘Y’ were Cr(5.50mg/kg - 8.00mg/kg), Fe(0.545mg/kg - 1.00mg/kg), Cu(4.00mg/kg - 6.50mg/kg), Pb(0.03mg/kg - 0.08mg/kg), Zn(7.50mg/kg - 9.50mg/kg), Mn(0.30mg/kg - 0.60mg/kg). The values of some metals analyzed were above the recommended values by WHO and FEPA. The analysis of effluents and surface water samples resulted in higher figures for most of the parameters and acidic pH in cassava effluent than the surface water sample. The mode of phytoremediation was also investigated. Data obtained suggested the plants could be used for phyto-extraction of these metals. Rhodanese, enzyme that detoxify cyanide was extracted and characterized from the liver of Clarias gariepinus of cassava effluents contaminated Odo-Oba River. The results show specific activities of 0.0526RUmg-1. The optimal temperature and pH of 30˚C and 7.0 were recorded for the enzyme respectively. The Vmax of 9.62RU/Ml and 6.33RU/Ml were obtained for the KCN and Na2S2O3 substrates while for the Km, higher figures of 49.4mM and 28.5mM were recorded respectively. However, the Km values of the fish liver Rhodanese of Clarias gariepinus indicated higher affinity for thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) than for potassium cyanide (KCN) as a substrate, although maximum activity was observed for KCN substrate. Inhibition studies on the enzyme with a number of chloride salts showed that the activity of the enzyme was not affected by Mg2+,, Mn2+,Ca2+ while Ba2+,Hg2+ and Cu2+ inhibited the enzyme considerably.
Büşra Baran, Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Büşra Baran & Seyhun Yurdugül
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 130-140; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.4

Abstract:
Bread, which is an intensively consumed food product should be optimized to minimize the bread staling and therefore waste. Xylanases, a group of enzymes are able to get rid of bread staling and it can be widely isolated from a group of fungi, bacteria or yeast. This review focuses on the main characteristics, producers and the recent textural assistance of xylanases in bakery industry.
Katia Djenadı, Bejaia University, Hassan Khechfoud, Monia Azouaou, Mustapha Bachır Bey, Djamel Edine Katı, Chu Bejaia Hopital Frantz Fanon
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 141-152; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.5

Abstract:
Gut microbiota mainly dominated by bacteria attribute to the divisions Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, plays an important role in host physiology and influences several relevant functions. Bacteria diversity in gut microbiota driven by dietary factors and influences metabolic and immune functions of the host’s physiology. Imbalance in the gut microbiota, named dysbiosis, can lead to the development of various diseases, such as cancer and even psychological dysfunction. Therefore, Gut microbiota is an appropriate target for nutritional interventions to improve health. These facts motivate us to highlight on the influence of phytochemicals on gut microbiota and look for an alternative treatment of inflammatory diseases by using nutritional supplements. Among dietaries phytochemicals elements we found several chemical compounds such as polyphenols and their derivatives, carotenoids, and thiosulfates. Polyphenols as the largest group can gather four main groups: flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenoids, and lignans. These compounds, which constitute a natural reservoir, have proved their efficiency as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules. From this point, we may classify these compounds as an alternative molecule to treat or prevent the development of cancer or even psychological dysfunction.
Jalil Idi James, Gombe State University, Abubakar Aisami, Auwal Shuaibu Mohammed, Linda Saidu, Patricia Samuel, Lama Malum Peter
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 84-99; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.1

Abstract:
Exposure of certain amino acids in some plant peptides makes them biologically active and can be used as remedy for various diseases including diabetes. This investigation has examined the invitro α-amylase inhibitory properties and the antioxidant activities of Psidium guajava (guava) seed protein hydrolysate. Proteins from guava seed were isolated by precipitation using acid and then broken down by pepsin and trypsin. The degree of hydrolysis by trypsin (42.32±0.44%) was significantly higher than pepsin hydrolysis (31.85±0.32%). Tryptic hydrolysate showed the highest α-amylase inhibition (64.06±0.19%) than peptic hydrolysate inhibition (58.19±0.01%) but lower than acarbose used as standard (72.53±0.04%). All the hydrolysates show inhibitory activity as their concentration increases. The antioxidant study revealed that the hydrolysates have DPPH and H2O2 prowling activities with ferric reducing antioxidant property and none of the hydrolysates have higher antioxidant activity than the standard (Ascorbic acid). The outcomes therefore indicate the bioactivities of guava seed protein hydrolysates may make it a beneficial anti-diabetic agents.
Cıhan Tastan, Uskudar University, Sulhattin Yasar, Muhammed Bahattin Tanyolac, Kenan Turgut, Ufuk Tansel Şireli, Cimen Atak, Kamil Haliloglu, Kemal Benlioglu, Kemal Melih Taşkın, et al.
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 153-190; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.6

Abstract:
Almost all cells of any living organism contain DNA, a hereditary molecule that passes from generation to generation during reproduction. The term "genome" generally refers to the total DNA sequences in an organism. The genome consists of DNA sequences called “gene”, which plays a role in the basic biological processes involved in many phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, such as performing cellular functions, controlling numbers and species, regulating energy production, metabolism, and combating diseases. Gene editing is the process of pre-designing and modifying a particular DNA sequence in a targeted gene. The most widely used technique is CRISPR-Cas technology. For this purpose, the DNA helix is ​​cut at a certain point, to form a double-strand break (DSB), and naturally existing cellular repair mechanisms repair the DSB. Modes of the repair mechanisms may affect the gene function. When DSB is formed, gene editing techniques can be applied to remove, insert, or replace a newly modified sequence using a synthetic donor template DNA. In developed and developing countries, CRISPR-Cas studies in addition to research and development studies are rapidly increasing. In addition to increasing population, changing weather conditions, declining farmland, increasing biotic and abiotic stresses are other important barriers to agricultural production, food, and feed supply. In this report, CRISPR-Cas applications are introduced in detail from the studies that carried out gene modifications in the fields of health, animals, plants, microorganisms, and food supply. Besides, these technologies and applications have been examined in terms of world biosafety legislation and the scientific risk assessment of the products developed using the CRISPR-Cas technique.
Neslihan Demir & Mustafa Yıldız Büşra Dalgıç, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Neslihan Demir, Mustafa Yıldız
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 52-65; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.273.1

Abstract:
In this study, a new Schiff base containing ferrocene and benzothiazol was synthesized from the reaction of ferrocene-2-carboxialdehyde and 6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazole-2-amine. The structure of the synthesized original imine compound 2-((6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl) ferrocene was illuminated by UV-VIS, FTIR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the compound was determined by the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) method against various bacterial and yeast cultures, and the antioxidant activity was determined by the free radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH). DNA cleavage activity of Schiff base was investigated hydrolytically and oxidatively by agarose gel electrophoresis method, and binding to DNA was investigated by UV-Visible field spectroscopy method. It was found that the studied ferrocene and benzothiazole imine compound had more effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) bacteria. The compound was found to exhibit good antioxidant activity compared to the standardized butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). Agarose gel electrophoresis studies showed that the compound cleaved DNA without any external agent, and UV-Vis spectroscopy studies showed that it interacted electrostatically with CT-DNA.
Nural Öztürk, Aydın Adnan Menderes University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 66-83; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.273.2

Abstract:
In breast cancer, electron energies are preferred over photon energies because they provide minimal lung exposure when conditions allow for thin chest wall irradiation after mastectomy. In patients with irregular chest wall, it is difficult to perform a homogeneous irradiation with fixed electron beam therapy due to reasons such as thickness differences, irregular contour and lack of tissue, long scar and area joint problems. Electron arc therapy is propose as an alternative method in such patients. The study was carried out with electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 13.5 and 16 MeV. First, in order to be able to use it in electron arc planning in the planning system, after determining the dose characteristics of all available electron energies of the electron arc technique, the accuracy of these dose distributions was verified with film and TLD dosimetry. After the suitability was determined, electron arc plans were made on the CT simulation image of 20 patients selected due to the difficulty of homogeneous irradiation with the classical method. While the chosen reference dose of 85% covered the PTV homogeneously, it was found that the dose was decreased by an average of 50% compared to photon and classical electron therapy in the examination performed in terms of radiation dose to which the lung volume was exposed. During the planning, a homogeneous dose and bolus of different thicknesses were required depending on the energy in most patients to regulate the reduction in surface dose depending on the arc angle. Bolus prevents the lung and heart from overdosing while ensuring that the dose in the deeper parts of the target volume is more uniform. The use of tertiary block in electron-arc dose distributions prevented unwanted dose reduction in the field edges and provided a more homogeneous dose distribution at 85% reference isodose. If the structure of the patient's contour is very irregular, the dose distribution is not smooth due to the depth difference. In this context, it has been determined that during optimization, the isocenter depth should be chosen for the homogeneity of the dose distribution and to be as equal as possible from the surface at all beam angles. In addition, in the study, it was determined that more appropriate dose distributions were obtaine when the isocenter depth is greater than the maximum reach of electrons. Even if multiple electron fields of different energies are used, more homogeneous dose distributions have been achieve by eliminating field combination problems with the use of electron arc therapy.
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