International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2602-4810 / 2602-4535
Published by: Pen Academic Publishing (10.29329)
Total articles ≅ 43
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Gözde Kibar & Mehmet Tekin Babaç Emel Uslu, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Gözde Kibar, Mehmet Tekin Babaç, Ataşehir İstanbul Ngbb Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 29-44; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.1

Abstract:
In the study, Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) method was used to identify and differentiate between twelve different white oaks to show their genetic diversity. On the other hand, interspecific hybridization is quite common among oak species. This situation makes the hybridization between closely related parents possible. Besides genetic diversity of some white oaks, the five putative hybrids which are morphologically indistinguishable were also studied. ISSR markers produced a total of 89.71 % polymorphism with Quercus taxa and a total of 175 bands were revealed by 11 ISSR primers. Statistical analysis software’s, Minitab, NTSYS-pc (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System) and POPGENE (Population Genetic Analysis) software’s were used to reveal variations between these white oaks. Effective allelic frequency, Shannon index, genetic distance was calculated by the POPGENE software. The most distance taxon was Q. pontica, then Q. vulcanica found to be genetically distant among the taxa. The results of the two analyses, cluster (CA) and principal component (PCA) are in correlation with each other and giving four groups among the studied oak taxa. Putative hybrids are usually located between their presumed parents in the dendrogram and graphs. Consequently, this preliminary study showed that ISSR markers can be used with confidence for genetic diversity of white oaks. It can also be helpful for putative hybrids to some extent.
Mustafa Altın, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Nazli Gulriz Ceri, Ersen Ertekin, Engın Tastaban, Gizem Sakallı
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 45-60; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.2

Abstract:
Diz eklemi gibi kompleks ve yaralanmaya müsait olan bir eklemde yapıların birbiri ile uyumlu çalışması önemlidir. Meniskopati sonrası bu uyum bozulduğunda eklem biyomekaniği olumsuz etkilenecektir. Diz ekleminin stabilitesinde önemli olan ligamentum patella (LP)’yı meniskopati sonrası değerlendirmeyi amaçladık. Çalışmamızda 18-45 yaş arasında olan 36 kişinin, 62 dizi değerlendirilmiştir. Manyetik rezonans görüntüleme (MRG) sonuçlarına göre menisküs lezyonu olan ve olmayan iki grup oluşturuldu. LP’nin uzunluğunu MRG, kalınlığını ve ekojenitesini ultrasonografi (USG) ve elastisitesini de shear wave elastografi (SWE) ile değerlendirdik. Elde edilen verileri yaş, cinsiyet, vücut kitle indeksi (VKİ), egzersiz yapma, dominant taraf, sigara ve alkol kullanımı parametreleri ve Görsel analog skala (GAS), Western Ontario McMaster Üniversitesi osteoartrit indeksi (WOMAC) ve Pittsburgh uyku kalitesi indeksi (PUKİ) skorları açısından karşılaştırdık. Kontrol grubumuzda, LP’nin uzunluğu arttıkça elastisitesinin de artığını, dominant tarafı sağ olanlarda LP sertliğinin daha fazla ve LP’nin erkeklerde daha kalın olduğunu bulduk. Olgu grubumuzda, meniskopatinin görülme oranı erkeklerde daha yüksekti. Alkol kullananlarda LP’nin daha sert ve kalın olduğu görüldü. LP’nin kalınlığı arttıkça uyku esnasında ağrı skoru daha fazlaydı. Meniskopatili dize sahip kişilerde VKİ kontrol grubuna göre biraz daha yüksektir. LP uzunluğu ile elastisitesi arasında pozitif yönde bir ilişki vardır. Meniskopatili dizde LP’nin kalınlığı artarken uzunluğu ve elastisitesi anlamlı bir şekilde değişmemiştir. LP kalınlığındaki artış hareket ve uyku esnasında ağrıyı arttırmıştır. Yaptığımız çalışma meniskopatili dizde LP’yi SWE ile değerlendiren ön çalışma niteliğindedir.
Ömer Zaimoğlu & Kenan Turgut Menekşe Suzan Teker, Fine Arts, Ömer Zaimoğlu, Kenan Turgut
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 61-71; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.3

Abstract:
One of the most important problems of natural dyeing is lack of raw material. In the recent years, researchers are aimed to solve the deficiency of raw material. The pulp of plants which are obtained from the steam distillation, are used as a dyestuff. We assume that the dyestuff in pulp of oregano and sage after steam distillation remain stable. Wool yarns and silk fabrics have been dyed in previous works done as a master and a Proficiency in Art thesis. The results were showed that our assumption is correct. Based on these results further researches were done. The textile materials were dyed with %100 of pulp of oregano and sage. Mordant dyeing method was applied and three different mordant materials were applied with pre-mordant process. Alum [Kal(SO4)2.12H2O], ferrous (II) sulphate [FeSO4.7H2O] and potassium dichromate [K2Cr2O7] were used as a mordant and potassium bitartrate [KC4H5O6] as an auxiliary agent in alum mordanting. Rubbing (dry and wet) and washing fastness values were determined. Also the depths of shade were evaluated in terms of K/S and CIELAB colour difference values of the dyed fabric samples. According to the results obtained from the dyeing, the capability of pulp of plants is adequate and will supply the lack of the dyestuff. While the colors obtained from silk and wool fabrics are more vivid and dark, the colors of cotton fabrics are quite pale. This study will allow other pulp of plants to be evaluated in this way.
Murat Şeker, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Mehmet Ali Gündoğdu, Neslihan Ekinci, Engin Gür
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 84-103; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.5

Abstract:
For fresh fruits to be consumed and relished, they have to stimulate the senses of taste and smell as well as have good visual properties. In terms of the consumption of a fruit, its aroma, which constitutes the taste and odor elements, is of major importance. Therefore, the wish of consumers to eat fresh fruits is largely due to their rich aroma. The components of aroma that are found in fruits, in very low concentrations, such as ppm or ppb, can easily be perceived sensorially. Flavor, usually composed of volatile compounds, is an important criterion that enhances the appeal of fresh fruits. The aroma in fruits is composed of dozens of compounds in different concentrations. Many researchers have reported that the components of fruit aroma are caused by aldehydes, esters, alcohols, lactones, ketones, terpenoids, and other chemical compounds. The features that make these volatile compounds significant and unite them at a common point are that, even in trace amounts, they are perceived by the senses, and play an extremely effective role on the quality of the fruit. Aroma formation and development takes place in fresh fruits under highly dynamic processes. In this review, aroma biochemistry in fresh fruits and the factors affecting this dynamic process are discussed.
Aksantı Lwango, Instıtut Superıeur de Technıques Medıcales de Bukavu
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 72-83; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.4

Abstract:
The main objective is to inventory the vectors of bilharziasis in the aquatic ecosystems of KABARE locally in Miti-Murhesa Health zone as well as other species of aquatic molluscs in order to activate the fight against this endemic disease of this region. A total of 2762 samples were collected during our investigation period in the aquatic ecosystems in Miti-Murhesa Health Zone. We carried out field work based on shellfish sampling using appropriate methods. This sampling was carried out in 12 different sites. After collect of samples, we identified the mollusc species using the indicated identification keys, counted them and compiled them in Excel software for statistical analyses using Past software. Thus, five species of aquatic molluscs were identified. These species are Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus globosus, Pisidium casernatum, B. forskalii and Lymnaea natalensis. The species Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bilinus globosus are intermediate hosts of intestinal schistosomiasis and urinary schistosomiasis respectively; while Lymnaea natalensis is the intermediate host of fasciolosis. Depending on the frequency of species, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis are constant species, Bulinus globosus and Psidium casernatum are accessory species and finally B. forskalii is an accidental species.Depending on the sites prospected, one species of aquatic mollusc was abundant in the aquatic ecosystems in this area: Biomphalaria pfeifferi; three species are moderately abundant: Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus globosus and Pisidium casernatum, and only one is rare: Tomichia ventricosa. All the prospected sites are diversified in aquatic mollusc species except the Kashekesheke site, but the 2nd tarmaque site, Mulungu River and Kamulonge sites are thus the richest sites in aquatic mollusc species of Miti-Murhesa Health zone. The presence of these species clearly shows the risk of contamination of the population of Miti-Murhesa Health zone. These intermediate hosts of bilharzia are proliferating in the aquatic ecosystems of Miti-Murhesa Health zone; it is therefore important to recommend ways to reduce this proliferation. This study provides the basis for future ecological studies of the intermediate bilharzia host molluscs in this entity.
Ferhat Yıldırım, Polifarma Pharmaceuticals, Umur Kumrulu, Elif Kumrulu, Esma Yazar, Meryem Kuşcu, Gizem Antika, Tuğba Tümer, Marmara University, Kings College, et al.
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 1-13; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.338.1

Abstract:
Human medicinal products for infusion should be tested for sterility at various stages of manufacturing including the final step before marketing. Conventional sterility methods recommended in pharmacopeia need a 14 days incubation period in order to get reliable analytical results. However, rapid alternative methods based on automated detection of microbial growth have the advantage of taking only 5 days for sterility testing of medicinal products which can be very important especially during pandemics and emergency conditions. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the microbial detection potential and capacity of the BACTEC FX system for the rapid sterility testing of Paracerol, a 10 mg/mL paracetamol containing pediatric medicine for infusion, and to specify time required for the detection of a variety of microorganisms. Accordingly, the results showed that there were no significant differences between the BACTEC and conventional membrane filtration methods for detecting contamination. All positive/negative controls and all samples intentionally contaminated with microorganisms were determined correctly by using both methods. BACTEC FX system detected all microorganisms including slow growers significantly faster than the membrane filtration method (p<0.05). This system can be considered as a rapid alternative over conventional sterility methods for the release of human medicinal products for infusion to the markets especially under emergency conditions. However, for each particular products, validation steps should be executed according to European Pharmacopoeia by using a broad range of microorganisms.
Seyhun Yurdugül, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Seyhun Yurdugül & Hawnaz Othman Najmalddin, University of Sulaimani
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 14-28; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.338.2

Abstract:
Vegetable and fruit wastes (VFW) comprise a large portion of wastes that contribute to pollution in different ways. This is because there is a large demand for such perishable products by all countries. The Turkish economy was mostly depending on agriculture before 40 years ago but due to globalization this has been changed into industrialization. Even though the industrialization dominates, the consumption of fruits and vegetables has been in an increasing trend in Turkey and its environs. The usage of such resources can be regulated by governments and organizations to avoid overusing them. Also, there are many ways for treating such inevitable wastes. To mention a few, extracting pigment, antioxidants, pesticides, producing single-celled proteins, enzymes, biofertilizers, green energy, and many others from the wastes can be done.
Mehtap Kılıç Eren
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 191-204; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.7

Abstract:
Healthy cells maintain genome integrity by activating a conserved DNA damage response (DDR) pathway that halts the progression of the cell cycle and activates DNA repair. Molecular disorders preventing DDR functioning properly often predispose to cancer. Therefore DDR acts as a tumor suppressor barrier. DDR often leads to not only cell cycle arrest and DNA repair, but also induces cellular senescence and apoptosis. Ultimately, “autophagy” as a self-degradation and recycling program of cellular components can be induced by DDR. In healthy cells and the initial stage of cancer, autophagy appears to have a tumor suppressor function by eliminating damaged organelles, and protein aggregates to promote genomic instability. However, in advanced tumors, autophagy s activated, particularly as a result of hypoxia and metabolic stress, to promote tumor survival under these conditions. Autophagy can also be induced by DNA damaging chemotherapy agents in tumor cells, which mostly results in resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In addition, activation of certain oncogenes in advanced tumors may promote autophagy activation and guarantee the persistence of tumors. Thus, currently development of inhibitors targeting autophagy with potential clinical use is increasing rapidly. In this review, the DDR and autophagy signaling mechanisms, as well as the interconnecting pathways of both are highlighted. Moreover, the biological consequences of the companion of these two important cellular responses in cancer are discussed.
Hülya Yaman, Bolu İzzet Baysal University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 100-111; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.2

Abstract:
Peynirin tadını ve aromasına etki eden faktörler sütün kalitesi, üretim süreci, laktik asit bakterileri ve olgunlaşma sırasındaki karmaşık biyokimyasal reaksiyonlar oluşturmaktadır. Olgunlaşma dönemindeki önemli biyokimyasal yollar arasında yer alan laktoz metabolizması ile organik asitlerin oluşması, lipoliz yoluyla yağ asitlerin parçalanması peynirin tadını ve aromasının etkilenmektedir. Kromatografik analizlerle belirlenen bu özellikler doğru ancak zahmetli, pahalı ve zaman alıcıdır. Bu nedenle çalışmadaki amacımız, beyaz peynirin olgunlaşması sırasında meydana gelen bu değişiklikleri belirlemek için kızılötesi (FTIR) spektroskopisine dayalı hızlı ve basit bir enstrümantal yöntem geliştirmek ve olgunlaşmasırasında üretilen ana organic asitlerin eş zamanlı olarak belirlenmesi için bir tahmin algoritması geliştirmektir. Beyaz peynir numuneleri 40 gün olgunlaştırılmış ve numuneler 1, 20 ve 40 günlük depolamadan sonra analize dilmiştir. Farklı örnekleme yöntemiyle hazırlanan örnekler FTIR bölgesinde (4000 ila 700 cm-1) taşınabilir bir FTIR kullanılarak taranmıştır. Aynı zamanda HPLC ve GC ile organic ve yağ aside profili belirlenerek, toplanan spekrumların olgunlaşma süre ve organik asit içerikleri ile ilişkilendirilmiştir. Tahmin modelleri geliştirmek için sınıf analojisinin (SIMCA) yumuşak bağımsız modellemesi ve kısmi en küçük kareler regresyonu (PLSR) ile analiz edilmiştir. SIMCA peynir örneklerinin olgunlaşma süresine göre kümelemesine izin verdi. İlginç bir şekilde, numunelerin gruplanmasını yönlendiren sinyal, peynir aromasına katkıda bulunan organik ve yağ asitlerin oluşumu ve konsantrasyonu ile ilişkili bulunmuştur. Örnekleme yöntemleri arasında peynir ekstraklarının diğer yöntemlere göre daha iyi SIMCA model oluşturduğu gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca aynı sinyal, organik ve yağ asit seviyeleri regresyon algoritmaları (PLSR) geliştirmek için kullanılmış ve PLSR modelleri mükemmel uyum göstermiştir (r-değeri> 91). Organik asit profili 10 dakikadan daha kısa sürede doğru bir şekilde belirlenebilmiştir. Sonuç olarak Portatif kızılötesi üniteler, olgunlaşma sırasında meydana gelen karmaşık biyokimyasal değişiklikleri izlemek ve beyaz peynirde dengeli bir tat gelişimi için önemli olan kalite parametrelerini tahmin etmek için hızlı, basit bir araç ve yerinde Teknik olarak kullanılabilir.
Emmanuel Korode, Emmanuel Korode & Jalil Idi James, Gombe State University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 112-129; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.3

Abstract:
Cyanide contamination of Soil and aquatic environment has become a great concern in Nigeria because of increase in the number of cassava processing milling plants. The sample collection and the conduct of this experiment took place between September and October when the country is experiencing late rainfall. The levels of physicochemical parameters in soil and plant samples were obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Soil and plant samples of Amaranthus spinosus were obtained from cassava processing site (site X) and other samples 100m to the cassava mills (site Y) as control. The concentration of metals in soil samples in mg/kg at site ‘X’ recorded were Cr(39.0mg/kg), Mn(3.5mg/kg), Cu(33.0mg/kg), Fe(4.3mg/kg), Pb(2.5mg/kg), and Zn(52.5mg/kg) while that of site ‘Y’ were Cr(16.5mg/kg), Mn(1.3mg/kg), Cu(13.0mg/kg), Fe(1.9mg/kg), Pb(0.3mg/kg), and Zn(17.0mg/kg). The concentration values for AS, Cd and Nickel in the environment were below detection limit for all soil and plant samples. The concentrations of metals in A. spinosus root and shoot in mg/kg from sites ‘X’ were Cr(6.00mg/kg - 8.50mg/kg), Fe(0.55mg/kg - 0.80mg/kg), Cu(4.00mg/kg - 5.50mg/kg), Pb(0.05mg/kg - 0.08mg/kg), Zn(6.00mg/kg - 8.00mg/kg), Mn(0.35mg/kg - 0.5mg/kg) while that of site ‘Y’ were Cr(5.50mg/kg - 8.00mg/kg), Fe(0.545mg/kg - 1.00mg/kg), Cu(4.00mg/kg - 6.50mg/kg), Pb(0.03mg/kg - 0.08mg/kg), Zn(7.50mg/kg - 9.50mg/kg), Mn(0.30mg/kg - 0.60mg/kg). The values of some metals analyzed were above the recommended values by WHO and FEPA. The analysis of effluents and surface water samples resulted in higher figures for most of the parameters and acidic pH in cassava effluent than the surface water sample. The mode of phytoremediation was also investigated. Data obtained suggested the plants could be used for phyto-extraction of these metals. Rhodanese, enzyme that detoxify cyanide was extracted and characterized from the liver of Clarias gariepinus of cassava effluents contaminated Odo-Oba River. The results show specific activities of 0.0526RUmg-1. The optimal temperature and pH of 30˚C and 7.0 were recorded for the enzyme respectively. The Vmax of 9.62RU/Ml and 6.33RU/Ml were obtained for the KCN and Na2S2O3 substrates while for the Km, higher figures of 49.4mM and 28.5mM were recorded respectively. However, the Km values of the fish liver Rhodanese of Clarias gariepinus indicated higher affinity for thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) than for potassium cyanide (KCN) as a substrate, although maximum activity was observed for KCN substrate. Inhibition studies on the enzyme with a number of chloride salts showed that the activity of the enzyme was not affected by Mg2+,, Mn2+,Ca2+ while Ba2+,Hg2+ and Cu2+ inhibited the enzyme considerably.
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