International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2602-4810 / 2602-4535
Published by: Pen Academic Publishing (10.29329)
Total articles ≅ 52
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Savaş Gürdal, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Savaş Gürdal & Muzaffer Yasar, Istanbul Unıversıty-Cerrahpasa
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 123-138; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.379.2

Abstract:
Bu çalışmada, sentez gazından doğrudan dimetileter (DME) eldesi kapsamında ülkemizde bulunan klinoptilolit doğal zeolitinden yola çıkılarak D-Klinoptilolit (DK) isimli yeni katalizör sentezlenmiştir. Sentezlenen bu katalizör CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 (CZA) katalizörü ile 1/3 ve 2/1 oranında modifiye edilerek yeni katalizör bileşimleri elde edilmiştir. DME eldesi için sisteme besleme yapılacak olan gazların bileşimi % hacimce sırasıyla H2/CO/CO2/N2 = 36/18/10/36 olacak şekilde sisteme beslenmiştir. Gaz bileşimi oranları ile 2 farklı katalizör bileşimi, sabit yataklı, yüksek basınçlı ve sürekli akışlı reaksiyon sisteminde 250 °C, 275 °C ve 300 °C sıcaklıklarda, 30 ve 40 bar basınç altında ve 30,60,90 ve 120 dakikalarda aktivite testlerine tabi tutulmuştur. Katalizörlerin ve doğal zeolitin karakterizasyonu amacıyla X-işini difraktometresi (XRD), Yüzey Alanı Ölçüm Cihazı (BET), Termogravimetrik Analiz (TGA), Fourier Dönüşümlü Kizilötesi (FTIR) analizleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmalarda 2 farklı oranda hazırlanan katalizör bileşimlerinin, farklı reaksiyon süreleri, reaksiyon basıncı ve reaksiyon sıcaklıklarında dimetileter seçiciliği (SDME) ve toplam karbon dönüşümüne (XC) etkileri incelenmiştir. DK+CZA (ağırlıkça 3/1) katalizör bileşimi 30 bar basınçta en yüksek % 69,5 olarak DME seçiciliğinde ürünler 250 °C’ de gerçekleşmiş olup, aynı sıcaklıkta zaman geçtikçe azalmıştır. Sıcaklık 275 ve 300 °C’ye çıktığında da başlangıçta DME seçiciliği tekrar artarken, aynı sıcaklıkta zaman ilerledikçe tekrar DME seçicilik oranında düşüş görünmüştür. DK+CZA (1/2) katalizör bileşimi 3 farklı sıcaklık ve sürelerde %10’un biraz üzerinde % DME seçiciliği sonuçlarını vermiştir. 40 bar basınçta ise DK+CZA (3/1) ve DK+CZA (1/2) oranındaki katalizör bileşimlerinin 250 °C ’de DME seçicikleri % 80’in üzerindedir. Çalışmalar sonucunda, katalizörlerin DME seçicilikleri karşılaştırıldığında DK+CZA (3/1) katalizör bileşiminin DME seçiciliğinin DK+CZA (1/2) katalizör bileşiminden daha fazla olduğu görülmüştür.
Mustafa Eray Bozyel, Elif Merdamert-Bozyel, Atakan Benek, Dilay Turu, Mustafa Ali Yakan, Kerem Canlı
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 163-174; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.379.4

Abstract:
The relationship between plants and humans is as old as human history. The branch of science that studies this relationship between humans and plants is called ethnobotany. People have been used plants in various ways, including food, medicine, clothing, goods, and firewood. Geophyte is a name given to herbaceous plants with special subsoil stems, such as bulbs, rhizomes, and tubers. In the Flora of Turkey, monocotyl geophytes are represented by 688 species, of which 244 are endemic. The rate of endemism is 35.5%. They belong mostly to the families Liliaceae s.l., Amaryllidaceae, Iridaceae, Araceae, and Orchidaceae. There are many reports on the ethnomedicinal effects of Liliaceae s.s. and Colchicaceae families. This review reports on the findings of an ethnobotanical survey of Liliaceae and Colchicaceae families used in Turkey. As a result of the study, we listed that four Gagea, four Tulipa, three Fritillaria, and two Lilium taxa from the Liliaceae s.s., and three Colchicum taxa from the Colchicaceae were used ethnobotanically by local people in Turkey. It was also apparent from the results of the study, Liliaceae s.s. and Colchicaceae families are mostly used by local people for ornamental plant. The genus Tulipa has the greatest number of ethnobotanical uses. The most commonly used plant parts are whole plants, bulbs, and flowers.
Fatma Uysal Bayar, Batı Akdeniz Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü, Fatma Uysal Bayar & Kenan Turgut
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 104-122; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.379.1

Abstract:
This research was conducted with the purpose of obtaining high quality plants by selection breeding of Anatolian sage (Salvi afruticosa Mill.) in different locations of Antalya province. In this research, clonal individual plants belong to Salvia fruticosa Mill. species, were collected from 15 different populations in the flora of Antalya. The clonal selection method was used in the breeding of this species, which is propagated clonally. Dry herbage yield was between 748.34 and 1135.15 kg/da for A clones, while it was between 748.34 and 1135.15 kg/da for B clones in terms of the population mean. The highest dry leaf yield was determined 534.36 and 605.867 kg/da for A and B clones respectively. Furthermore, 1.8-cineole, camphor and caryophyllene were determined as the main components of essential oils. The proportion of 1.8-cineole was determined between 34.51-73.49%. In this research, it was observed that there was a large variation between clonal lines, and some of them were determined as important in terms of morphological characteristics, yield and quality.
Emine Barsal, Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Emine Barsal & Ahmet Naci Onus, Akdeniz University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 139-162; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.379.3

Abstract:
Kavun tüm Dünyada ve Türkiye’de de yetiştiriciliği yapılan en önemli sebze türlerinden biridir. Türkiye’de yetiştirilen en önemli 2 kavun tipi Galia ve Kırkağaç’tır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, her iki tip için ıslah amaçlı gen havuzu (popülasyon) oluşturma ve bu oluşturulan popülasyonlardan kendileme ve seleksiyon metodları ile kaliteli yarıyol ıslah materyali (F3 ve F4 hatları) seçimi ve karekterizasyonunun yapılmasıdır. Bu çalışma piyasada yetiştirilen/popüler 5 adet Galia F1 ve 8 adet Kırkağaç F1 çeşiti ile yürütülmüştür. Ayrıca bu hibritler arasında yeni melezler yapılmıştır. Popülasyonlardan seçilmiş F3 ve F4 hatların bitki ve meyve gözlemleri yapılmış ve sera koşullarında doğal inokülasyonla külleme dayanımları kontrol edilmiştir. Yapılan ölçüm ve gözlemler UPOV Kavun Tanımlama Listesi kriterlerinin modifiye edilmesiyle yapılmıştır.Daha sonra seçilmiş yarıyol ıslah materyallerinin en önemli özellikleri TBA ve Kümeleme analizleri ile istatistiki olarak test edilmiştir. Yapılan istatistiki analize göre, hatlara yapılan gözlemler arasındaki korelasyonlar belirlenmiş, ayrıca analiz edilen hatlar için dendogram oluşturulmuş ve bununla hatlar arası akrabalık dereceleri gözlenmiştir. Istatistiki analizi yapılan seçilmiş kaliteli 55 Galia F3 ve 46 Galia F4 hatları arasında oldukça yüksek genetik çeşitlilik bulunduğu görülmüştür. Erkencilik genetik çeşitliliğe etkisi en etkin olan özellik olarak bulunmuştur. 128 adet Kırkağaç F3 ve 122 adet Kırkağaç F4 hatların istatistik analizi sonucunda yine genetik çeşitliliğin oldukça yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. F3 hatlarda meyvede pütürlülük, F4 hatlarda ise TSS özelliğinin genetik çeşitliliğe etkisi en yüksek bulunmuştur. Oluşturulan dendogramlarda Galia F3 hatlarının 2 ana ve 6 alt küme oluşturduğu, Galia F4, Kırkağaç F3 ve Kırkağaç F4 hatları için 2 ana ve 7 alt küme oluştuğu görülmektedir. Ayrıca hatların şema üzerindeki dağılımına göre F1 ıslahında kullanılmak üzere birbirinden uzak olan hatlar belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak F1 ıslahında kullanılmak üzere bitki ve meyve özellikleri tanımlanmış ve yerel PM ırkı için dayanıklılığı belirlenmiş kaliteli 101 adet Galia ve 250 adet Kırkağaç yarıyol ıslah materyalleri elde edilmiştir.
Aksantı Lwango, Instıtut Superıeur de Technıques Medıcales de Bukavu
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 72-83; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.4

Abstract:
The main objective is to inventory the vectors of bilharziasis in the aquatic ecosystems of KABARE locally in Miti-Murhesa Health zone as well as other species of aquatic molluscs in order to activate the fight against this endemic disease of this region. A total of 2762 samples were collected during our investigation period in the aquatic ecosystems in Miti-Murhesa Health Zone. We carried out field work based on shellfish sampling using appropriate methods. This sampling was carried out in 12 different sites. After collect of samples, we identified the mollusc species using the indicated identification keys, counted them and compiled them in Excel software for statistical analyses using Past software. Thus, five species of aquatic molluscs were identified. These species are Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus globosus, Pisidium casernatum, B. forskalii and Lymnaea natalensis. The species Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bilinus globosus are intermediate hosts of intestinal schistosomiasis and urinary schistosomiasis respectively; while Lymnaea natalensis is the intermediate host of fasciolosis. Depending on the frequency of species, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis are constant species, Bulinus globosus and Psidium casernatum are accessory species and finally B. forskalii is an accidental species.Depending on the sites prospected, one species of aquatic mollusc was abundant in the aquatic ecosystems in this area: Biomphalaria pfeifferi; three species are moderately abundant: Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus globosus and Pisidium casernatum, and only one is rare: Tomichia ventricosa. All the prospected sites are diversified in aquatic mollusc species except the Kashekesheke site, but the 2nd tarmaque site, Mulungu River and Kamulonge sites are thus the richest sites in aquatic mollusc species of Miti-Murhesa Health zone. The presence of these species clearly shows the risk of contamination of the population of Miti-Murhesa Health zone. These intermediate hosts of bilharzia are proliferating in the aquatic ecosystems of Miti-Murhesa Health zone; it is therefore important to recommend ways to reduce this proliferation. This study provides the basis for future ecological studies of the intermediate bilharzia host molluscs in this entity.
Murat Şeker, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Mehmet Ali Gündoğdu, Neslihan Ekinci, Engin Gür
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 84-103; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.5

Abstract:
For fresh fruits to be consumed and relished, they have to stimulate the senses of taste and smell as well as have good visual properties. In terms of the consumption of a fruit, its aroma, which constitutes the taste and odor elements, is of major importance. Therefore, the wish of consumers to eat fresh fruits is largely due to their rich aroma. The components of aroma that are found in fruits, in very low concentrations, such as ppm or ppb, can easily be perceived sensorially. Flavor, usually composed of volatile compounds, is an important criterion that enhances the appeal of fresh fruits. The aroma in fruits is composed of dozens of compounds in different concentrations. Many researchers have reported that the components of fruit aroma are caused by aldehydes, esters, alcohols, lactones, ketones, terpenoids, and other chemical compounds. The features that make these volatile compounds significant and unite them at a common point are that, even in trace amounts, they are perceived by the senses, and play an extremely effective role on the quality of the fruit. Aroma formation and development takes place in fresh fruits under highly dynamic processes. In this review, aroma biochemistry in fresh fruits and the factors affecting this dynamic process are discussed.
Ömer Zaimoğlu & Kenan Turgut Menekşe Suzan Teker, Fine Arts, Ömer Zaimoğlu, Kenan Turgut
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 61-71; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.3

Abstract:
One of the most important problems of natural dyeing is lack of raw material. In the recent years, researchers are aimed to solve the deficiency of raw material. The pulp of plants which are obtained from the steam distillation, are used as a dyestuff. We assume that the dyestuff in pulp of oregano and sage after steam distillation remain stable. Wool yarns and silk fabrics have been dyed in previous works done as a master and a Proficiency in Art thesis. The results were showed that our assumption is correct. Based on these results further researches were done. The textile materials were dyed with %100 of pulp of oregano and sage. Mordant dyeing method was applied and three different mordant materials were applied with pre-mordant process. Alum [Kal(SO4)2.12H2O], ferrous (II) sulphate [FeSO4.7H2O] and potassium dichromate [K2Cr2O7] were used as a mordant and potassium bitartrate [KC4H5O6] as an auxiliary agent in alum mordanting. Rubbing (dry and wet) and washing fastness values were determined. Also the depths of shade were evaluated in terms of K/S and CIELAB colour difference values of the dyed fabric samples. According to the results obtained from the dyeing, the capability of pulp of plants is adequate and will supply the lack of the dyestuff. While the colors obtained from silk and wool fabrics are more vivid and dark, the colors of cotton fabrics are quite pale. This study will allow other pulp of plants to be evaluated in this way.
Mustafa Altın, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Nazli Gulriz Ceri, Ersen Ertekin, Engın Tastaban, Gizem Sakallı
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 45-60; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.2

Abstract:
Diz eklemi gibi kompleks ve yaralanmaya müsait olan bir eklemde yapıların birbiri ile uyumlu çalışması önemlidir. Meniskopati sonrası bu uyum bozulduğunda eklem biyomekaniği olumsuz etkilenecektir. Diz ekleminin stabilitesinde önemli olan ligamentum patella (LP)’yı meniskopati sonrası değerlendirmeyi amaçladık. Çalışmamızda 18-45 yaş arasında olan 36 kişinin, 62 dizi değerlendirilmiştir. Manyetik rezonans görüntüleme (MRG) sonuçlarına göre menisküs lezyonu olan ve olmayan iki grup oluşturuldu. LP’nin uzunluğunu MRG, kalınlığını ve ekojenitesini ultrasonografi (USG) ve elastisitesini de shear wave elastografi (SWE) ile değerlendirdik. Elde edilen verileri yaş, cinsiyet, vücut kitle indeksi (VKİ), egzersiz yapma, dominant taraf, sigara ve alkol kullanımı parametreleri ve Görsel analog skala (GAS), Western Ontario McMaster Üniversitesi osteoartrit indeksi (WOMAC) ve Pittsburgh uyku kalitesi indeksi (PUKİ) skorları açısından karşılaştırdık. Kontrol grubumuzda, LP’nin uzunluğu arttıkça elastisitesinin de artığını, dominant tarafı sağ olanlarda LP sertliğinin daha fazla ve LP’nin erkeklerde daha kalın olduğunu bulduk. Olgu grubumuzda, meniskopatinin görülme oranı erkeklerde daha yüksekti. Alkol kullananlarda LP’nin daha sert ve kalın olduğu görüldü. LP’nin kalınlığı arttıkça uyku esnasında ağrı skoru daha fazlaydı. Meniskopatili dize sahip kişilerde VKİ kontrol grubuna göre biraz daha yüksektir. LP uzunluğu ile elastisitesi arasında pozitif yönde bir ilişki vardır. Meniskopatili dizde LP’nin kalınlığı artarken uzunluğu ve elastisitesi anlamlı bir şekilde değişmemiştir. LP kalınlığındaki artış hareket ve uyku esnasında ağrıyı arttırmıştır. Yaptığımız çalışma meniskopatili dizde LP’yi SWE ile değerlendiren ön çalışma niteliğindedir.
Gözde Kibar & Mehmet Tekin Babaç Emel Uslu, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Gözde Kibar, Mehmet Tekin Babaç, Ataşehir İstanbul Ngbb Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 29-44; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.357.1

Abstract:
In the study, Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) method was used to identify and differentiate between twelve different white oaks to show their genetic diversity. On the other hand, interspecific hybridization is quite common among oak species. This situation makes the hybridization between closely related parents possible. Besides genetic diversity of some white oaks, the five putative hybrids which are morphologically indistinguishable were also studied. ISSR markers produced a total of 89.71 % polymorphism with Quercus taxa and a total of 175 bands were revealed by 11 ISSR primers. Statistical analysis software’s, Minitab, NTSYS-pc (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System) and POPGENE (Population Genetic Analysis) software’s were used to reveal variations between these white oaks. Effective allelic frequency, Shannon index, genetic distance was calculated by the POPGENE software. The most distance taxon was Q. pontica, then Q. vulcanica found to be genetically distant among the taxa. The results of the two analyses, cluster (CA) and principal component (PCA) are in correlation with each other and giving four groups among the studied oak taxa. Putative hybrids are usually located between their presumed parents in the dendrogram and graphs. Consequently, this preliminary study showed that ISSR markers can be used with confidence for genetic diversity of white oaks. It can also be helpful for putative hybrids to some extent.
Seyhun Yurdugül, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Seyhun Yurdugül & Hawnaz Othman Najmalddin, University of Sulaimani
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 14-28; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2021.338.2

Abstract:
Vegetable and fruit wastes (VFW) comprise a large portion of wastes that contribute to pollution in different ways. This is because there is a large demand for such perishable products by all countries. The Turkish economy was mostly depending on agriculture before 40 years ago but due to globalization this has been changed into industrialization. Even though the industrialization dominates, the consumption of fruits and vegetables has been in an increasing trend in Turkey and its environs. The usage of such resources can be regulated by governments and organizations to avoid overusing them. Also, there are many ways for treating such inevitable wastes. To mention a few, extracting pigment, antioxidants, pesticides, producing single-celled proteins, enzymes, biofertilizers, green energy, and many others from the wastes can be done.
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