Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research

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EISSN : 2456-6276
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 308
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, Masihuzzaman Ansari
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 30-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430295

Abstract:
People have always felt the need to seek the knowledge from time immemorial. Be it the knowledge of religion or science or philosophy or astronomy. The knowledge of medicine was confined to cultures till 4th century AD. Every subcontinent and every civilization was having its own traditions to treat the diseases, e.g. Ayurved in India, Egyptian traditional medicine in Egypt, Chinese traditional medicine in China, Iranian Traditional medicine in Iran etc etc. It was during the 5th century AD when Roman Empire cracked down on its seminaries and the intellectuals were forced to leave the country. Those intellectuals were given refuge by Persian Empire where in a city was established with ultimate autonomy under Khusro, Jundi-Shapur became a prosperous metropolis, refuge, and melting pot for intellectuals from many regions. Shapur II (309-379 A.D.) is credited for conceiving and establishing the nucleus of the university in the latter part of the fourth century. The closing of the Athenian school by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (AD 539) also drove many leaned Greek physicians to Jundi-Shapur. This was the start of the integration of different traditional medicine of different civilizations. This formed the basis of what we see today as modern medicine. In this way JundiShapur has important role in the development of Medical knowledge and it remained in the leading role until 9th Century AD.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 38-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330293

Abstract:
Background: Petroleum exploitation and production have resulted in various environmental, socio-economic, political and health problems. This study is part of ongoing research to evaluate sustainability development goal in host communities of gas flaring operations. Objective: The research purposes to generate thematic opinions of the community regarding the risks associated with gas flaring and evaluate the mitigation and adaptation programs of government and oil and gas companies in the Delta region, Nigeria. Methods: This was qualitative with a quantitative component utilizing a survey of 8 open-ended and 2 semi-quantitative questions. Sample size was N = 488 and participants were over 18 years old. Thematic analysis adopted word cloud, followed by thematic aggregation and quantification. Results: The response rates were 99.2%, 76.2%, 75.4% and 70.1% for Sections B, C, D, and F, respectively. Over 66% reported negative impacts of gas flaring including specifications of some health problems and stress and respiratory problems were most common. Lack of opinion e.g. on how oil and gas companies liaise with the community (47%) and on how government liaises with companies (63%) were observed. Conclusion: While the majority of respondents had opinions, they however lacked knowledge regarding what the government and/or oil and gas companies could do on mitigation and adaptation on negative impacts of gas flaring. This therefore calls for awareness campaign and health promotion in the affected communities.
, J. B. Oso, J. O. Fatoki, A. L. Adedeji, G. E. Adeleke
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430294

Abstract:
Tramadol is a popular drug of abuse among adolescent and young adults in many developing African countries due to the opioid agonist properties. We investigated the health implications of the sub-chronic concurrent abuse of tramadol, caffeinated drink and alcohol in adult male Wistar rats. Tramadol was administered at 40 and 20 mg/kg BW respectively, caffeinated drink at 10 ml/kg BW and alcohol at 2 ml/kg BW. The rats were handled such that: group A received distilled water; groups B and C received tramadol and distilled water; groups D and E received tramadol and caffeinated drink; groups F and Greceived tramadol and alcohol; and groups H and I received caffeinated drink and alcohol respectively. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),protein carbonyl (PC),protein thiol (PT), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDLC), and activities of paraoxonase (PON-1) and acetylcholine esterase (ACE) were determined. Histo-pathological analysis was performed on the liver, kidney, brain and small intestine. The concentrations of blood nitric oxide, GSH and MDA increased (p0.05). Inconsistent alterations were obtained in blood PON-1 activities across the groups. Decreases were recorded in the GSH and TPT in the liver and brain with increases in PC and MDA (p<0.05). Inconsistent increases were obtained in the concentrations ox-LDLC, VCAM-1, IL-1β and MCP-1, and ACE activities. Consistent alterations were observed in the photomicrographs of the brain, kidney, intestine and liver of rats co-administered 40 mg/kg BW of tramadol withcaffeinated drink or alcohol. The overall findings indicated that the use of tramadol singly at 40 mg/kg BW or co-administered at both doses with caffeinated drink and alcohol precipitated various dysfunctions to health that could reduce the quality of life.
, Adewale Adetutu, Adijat Funke Ogundola
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 24-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330292

Abstract:
Various studies suggest that mortality due to liver disease in diabetic patients is very high; however, the recognition of DM as the primary cause of chronic liver disease is neglected in medical practice, we therefore evaluated the activities of Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf powder on the liver function of alloxan – induced diabetic rats. Forty-five healthy female albino rats were randomly assigned into 9 different groups; diabetes was induced intraperitonealy with 160 mg/kg of alloxan. Normal and diabetic rats were administered orally with 300, 600, 750 mg/kg/ b.w of S. latifolius. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histological studies. The body weight of the normal and diabetic rats increased significantly with S. latifolius treatment, the increase observed in the blood glucose was brought down upon treatment with S. latifolius leaf powder. The activity of ALT increased significantly with 750 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder, while low dose of the plant decreased it significantly in diabetic rats. GGT activity only decreased in the diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg of S. latifolius whereas albumin increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the groups administered S. latifolius powder relative to the untreated diabetic group. Bilirubin concentration only increased significantly (p<0.05) in the group administered 750 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder. Histological changes including infiltration of the sinusoids and focal area by inflammatory cells and mild portal congestion were observed in all the groups except the normal and diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder. The result of the study showed that S. latifolius could only be encouraged for diabetes management only at low dose and might be hepatotoxic at high dose.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi, Josiah O. Adjene,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330291

Abstract:
Background: Pollutants are released into the atmosphere by gas flaring, and these cause a range of health problems, including heart disease and respiratory disorders. This article assesses the opinion and perception of the community regarding association between gas flaring and prevalence of diseases. Methodology: This research followed a descriptive quantitative approach. Purposive survey using 2 Likert scale questionnaires was adopted, and the first questionnaire collected data on distance to gas flare site, health status and family health history, amongst others. The second collected data on perception and knowledge-based opinions regarding association and correlation. Summated Likert scale were collated and descriptive and correlation analysis between distance to gas flare site and number of diseases in respondents and their families were done. Results: In this purposive survey, there is no correlation between nearness to gas flare and prevalence of diseases. There appears no difference in communities proximal to flare sites compared to non-host communities farther from site. Multivariate analysis further shows that no statistically significant difference between groups, except in comparison of perceptions. Conclusion: This investigation shows a variation from previous observation in this series i.e. that distance to gas flare site is a potential factor influencing community members’ perception about their health impact, but the surveyed opinion of healthcare workers differs. This implies that nearness to gas flare sites mediate perception of negative health impact and this calls for further research to delineate perception from knowledge-based opinion.
, Sujatha Dinesh, Prashanth Shetty
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330290

Abstract:
Aims: Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis which commonly affects weight-bearing joints like the knee, hip, spine, and joints. Since the effectiveness of conventional medicine on severe types of osteoarthritis is surgical intervention, the patients are seeking alternative medicine. A warm Epsom salt pack is used commonly for pains over joints. Hence this study is undertaken. Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Naturopathy, SDM College of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences, between November 2019 and January2020. Methodology: From the inpatient department of Shri Dharmasthala Yoga and Nature cure Hospital Shanthivana, hundred subjects diagnosed with osteoarthritis belonging to the age groupof35to75yearswererecruitedandwererandomlyallocated to case (Warm Epsom salt pack) and control group. Subjects were assessed for Goniometry, Visual analog scale (VAS), Shortform-12(SF-12), Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index Scale (WOMAC) before and after the intervention of 20 minutes. Results: The study was done to evaluate the effect of Warm Epsom salt on Knee Osteoarthritis. There were 100 subjects in the sample. Shapiro-Wilk’s test/Quantile-Quantile (QQ) plot was used to check the normality of variables. In study group there was a significant decrease in Goniometry (p=<0.0001), SF 12 (p=<0.0001), WOMAC (P=<0.0001). In the control group, other than VAS there were no significant changes in other variables (Goniometry, WOMAC, SF-12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that a warm Epsom salt pack may reduce pain, stiffness, range of motion, and improves the quality of life. The study revealed that Warm Epsom salt reduced Range of motion from 172.94 to 134.5, WOMAC from 65.94 to 26.38, and Quality of life from 33.98 to 31.22. Results reveal with significant improvement (p<0.001) in pain, swelling, and quality of life.
, Ahmad Najmi
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330286

Abstract:
Adverse drug reporting of herbal drugs is less common as they are generally considered as safe. It is also very common to use self-medication by people in the case of herbal drugs. But many times, mild to severe events have been seen with the use of herbal or ayurvedic medicines. We have reported a case of post-covid patient, who was having complained of headache, body ache, lethargy, backache, generalized weakness and excessive sweating since one weak. Patient had past history of hospitalization due to COVID-19 moderate pneumonia one month back. Patient also had history of type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia and was taking anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications continuously. Ashwagandha powder (Withania somnifera), Maha yogaraj guggulu (herbal anti-inflammatory) and Syrup Amynity Plus (herbal immune-booster) were prescribed for these complain. Conversely, moderate severity adverse reaction like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps were noted after the intake of suspected drug i.e. ashwagandha powder. Nevertheless, symptoms were relieved after the de-challenge. This shows a temporal relation of the event with the suspected drug. One more possibility of drug-drug interaction in this case cannot be ruled out completely. Causality assessment was done for this adverse event and it was considered as the “probable” category of the adverse event in WHO causality classification.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 42-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230285

Abstract:
Background: This is a 5th in the series on gas flaring in Niger Delta Nigeria and previous reports have highlighted health impact and comparison of communities, amongst others. Government have mitigation programs whose satisfaction in the communities of Niger Delta is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate government’s efforts at mitigation and adaptation whether there are age and/or gender differences Methods: This was a quantitative survey cross-sectional study that used Likert scale questionnaire to generate views of the community on the behavioural change wheel (BCW) as well as mitigation and adaptation efforts of the government. Respondents were stratified into age groups and dichotomized in female or male and analysis involved multivariate analysis (MANOVA) to evaluate age and gender differences. Chi-Square tests were performed to assess associations between BCW components mitigation versus adaptation. Results: A total of 435 respondents were included and the results show levels of inconsistent age and gender differences. Men tended to agree more on government’s BCW albeit not significance achieved, while women agreed more mitigation and adaptation (p < 0.02). On age, the silent generation (>70 years old) group agreed more on BCW, but contrarily disagreed on mitigation and adaptation while younger generation agreed on the latter (0.001). Chi-Square tests show significance for association. Conclusion: This report highlights divergent views of the community on the discourse of government’s efforts at mitigation and adaptation of gas flaring in Niger Delta Nigeria, thereby providing empirical evidence of generational gap on environmental issue.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 31-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230284

Abstract:
Background: Gas flaring, which occurs as part oil and gas operations results in release of gaseous toxins into the environment thus has a negative impact on the host communities including fauna, flora and humans. Previous studies focused mainly on the contribution of gas flaring to environmental pollution but not on human health. This article assesses disease prevention and treatment programs for ill-health associated with gas flaring. Methodology: This research followed a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Qualitative data comprised open-ended questions that sought the thematic views of community on how the companies liaise with either community and/or government, and what they would want the companies to provide to alleviate the health effects of gas flaring. Chi square and correlations were used on quantitative data to determine agreements and statistically significant differences of responses by participants from the questions that were set on Likert scales. Outcome: Chi-square showed statistically significant difference (X2 = z76, p < 0.017), when distribution of responses to Question-1 (Benefit of oil company to the community) and Question-4 (Oil companies awareness of potential health problems in the community) were compared. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected i.e. there is association between variables and awareness of prevalent ill-health due to gas flaring are responded to with preventive and treatment programs. Conclusion: This notes that there is a relationship between awareness of health problems and intervention and also a lack of capacity among the communities’ low-mid social class to appropriately dialogue with the government for change.
, Enemali M. Okey, Achimugu I. Isiah, Andafu T. Ali, Yusuf Z. Jimoh, Chibuzo C. Nweze
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230283

Abstract:
Malaria still remains an endemic disease especially in Sub-saharan Africa. The current study was aimed at evaluating liver function biomarkers and histology in albino mice following their infection with Plasmodium berghei and treated with Sodium Bicarbonate. Twenty mice were divided into five groups of four each. Groups 1; normal control, group 2; infected with P. berghei, untreated, groups 3, 4, 5; infected, treated 84mg/kg NaHCO3 once, twice and thrice respectively. Blood samples and liver were collected for analysis of liver function biomarkers and histopathology by standard procedures. AST was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group 5 (13.33±0.707) when compared to the control (11.33±0.707). ALP activity increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 (11.76±0.707) when compared to the control (10.29±0.707). Total protein increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups; 2 (4.29±0.007), 3 (4.09±0.007), 4 (4.46±0.007) and 5 (4.65±0.007) when compared to the control (4.05±0.007). Albumin increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups; 2 (3.58±0.007), 3 (3.76±0.007), 4 (3.61±0.007) and 5 (3.58±0.007) compared to the control (3.57±0.007). Total bilirubin concentration significantly (p<0.05) decreased in groups 3 (0.42±0.007), 4 (0.47±0.007) and 5 (0.48±0.007) compared to the control. Direct bilirubin concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in groups 4 (0.20±.007) and 5 (0.22±.007) compared to the control (0.15±.007). Photomicrograph images showed inflammation in group 2; infected, not treated. Sodium bicarbonate did not play ameliorative role against plasmodium berghei infected liver.
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