#### World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics

Journal Information

ISSN / EISSN :
2160-6919 / 2160-6927

Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)

Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 248

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SHERPA/ROMEO

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#### Latest articles in this journal

Published: 1 January 2021

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 11, pp 13-27; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2021.112002

**Abstract:**

The Sun comprises 99.9% of the solar system mass so it is expected that Sun terrestrial planet interactions can influence the motion as well as the rotation of the terrestrial planets. Gravity affects the planet orbital motions while the changing magnetic fields of the Sun can influence the planet rotations. Planets that manifest a magnetic field dominate any weaker magnetic fields from the Sun, but the rotation of terrestrial planets without a magnetic field interacts with the changing Sun’s field dependent on the electrical conductivity of the core region. It is determined that the average planet density becomes a useful quantity to describe the magnetic state of a terrestrial planet. An average density of 5350 ± 50 kg/m3 is hypothesized to separate planets that develop magnetospheres from those that do not. Planets with higher average densities, Mercury and Earth, developed magnetospheres. While those with lower average densities, Venus and Mars never developed magnetospheres. Terrestrial planets with magnetospheres are the ones to also exhibit plate tectonics. The small size of Mercury led to Mercury only exhibiting a frozen in magnetization of potentially magnetic regions. The lack of magnetospheres as well as lack of plate tectonics prevented the continual transfer of core heat to the surface that limited the surface vulcanism to an initial phase. For Venus, it meant that the surface regions would only sporadically convulse. In this picture, the apparent anomalous axial rotation of Venus is a natural consequence of the rotation of the Sun. For Mars with relatively low surface temperatures, it meant that there was little heat exchange through the crust that would allow the lower crust to retain large amounts of water. For Mars to have initially had flowing liquid water required that the atmosphere at that time contained high concentrations of infrared absorbing gases at least as compared to the present level of infrared absorbing gases on the Earth. The terrestrial planets have iron based cores because iron has the highest binding energy per nucleon that can be made in the steady state lives of massive stars no matter how massive. This suggests that many of the conclusions reached here may also be applicable to exoplanets.

Published: 1 January 2021

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2021.111001

**Abstract:**

The behavior of liquids undergoing phase transition in the gravitational field is studied by considering the generalized Van der Waals equation. Considering the two simple models for liquid-vapor boundary of a pure classical fluid, the generalized Van der Waals equation shows how the three critical parameters (critical temperature, critical volume and critical pressure), suffice to describe the reduced state parameters (reduced temperature, reduced volume and reduced pressure), the concentration profile and the liquid-vapor boundary position, which can be used to observe transition phenomenon. This model shows how the form of the equation can influence the vertical phase separation induced by the stationary gravitational field, and on the gas condensation effects.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 88-103; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.102006

**Abstract:**

The start of the Earth-Moon system has been studied to show that this was an exceptionally violent event. One result was that Earth became the terrestrial planet with the highest average density. Another result was that Earth acquired enough mass and radioactive elements that it is expected to maintain a molten core region and magnetic field for the expected life of the Earth. Earth alone of the terrestrial planets was then able to develop plate tectonics as a long term energy release mechanism. The dipole magnetic field of the Sun reverses periodically, currently at the rate of about every 11 years, so that there was a magnetic braking action acting on the core of Venus that accounts for the slow rotation of that planet. A key result is that the impact event that resulted in the Earth-Moon system led to long term stability on Earth that allowed the eventual development of complex life forms on the Earth.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 12-25; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.101002

**Abstract:**

Acoustoelectric effect (AE) in a non-degenerate fluorinated single walled carbon nanotube (FSWCNT) semiconductor was carried out using a tractable analytical approach in the hypersound regime , where q is the acoustic wavenumber and is the electron mean-free path. In the presence of an external electric field, a strong nonlinear dependence of the normalized AE current density , on ( is the electron drift velocity and is the speed of sound in the medium) was observed and depends on the acoustic wave frequency, , wavenumber q, temperature T and the electron-phonon interactions parameter, . When , decreases to a resonance minimum and increases again, where the FSWCNT is said to be amplifying the current. Conversely, when , rises to a maximum and starts to decrease, similar to the observed behaviour in negative differential conductivity which is a consequence of Bragg’s reflection at the band edges at T=300K. However, FSWCNT will offer the potential for room temperature application as an acoustic switch or transistor and also as a material for ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) and AE hydrophone devices in biomedical engineering. Moreover, our results prove the feasibility of implementing chip-scale non-reciprocal acoustic devices in an FSWCNT platform through acoustoelectric amplification.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 53-70; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.102004

**Abstract:**

It is well known that the critical current density of a superconductor depends on its size, shape, nature of doping and the manner of preparation. It is suggested here that the collective effect of such differences for different samples of the same superconductor is to endow them with different values of the Fermi energy—a single property to which may be attributed the observed variation in their critical current densities. The study reported here extends our earlier work concerned with the generalized BCS equations [Malik, G.P. (2010) Physica B, 405, 3475-3481; Malik, G.P. (2013) WJCMP, 3,103-110]. We develop here for the first time a framework of microscopic equations that incorporates all of the following parameters of a superconductor: temperature, momentum of Cooper pairs, Fermi energy, applied magnetic field and critical current density. As an application of this framework, we address the different values of critical current densities of Bi-2212 for non-zero values of temperature and applied magnetic field that have been reported in the literature.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.101001

**Abstract:**

Acoustoelectric effect (AE) in a non-degenerate Fluorine modified single walled carbon nanotube (FSWCNT) semiconductor is studied theoretically using the Boltzmann’s transport equation. The study is done in the hypersound regime i.e. , where q is the acoustic phonon wavenumber and is the electron mean free path. The results obtained are compared with that of undoped single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The AE current density for FSWCNT is observed to be four orders of magnitude smaller than that of undoped SWCNT with increasing temperature, that is . This is because the electron-phonon interactions in SWCNT are stronger than FSWCNT. Thus, there are more intra-mini-band electrons interacting with the acoustic phonons to generate a higher AE current in SWCNT than in FSWCNT. This has been observed experimentally, where the electrical resistance of FSWCNT is higher than pristine SWCNT i.e. . The study shows the potential for FSWCNT as an ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) and AE hydrophone material. However, FSWCNT offers the potential for room temperature applications of acoustoelectric device but other techniques are needed to reduce the resistance.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 105-117; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.103007

**Abstract:**

Context and Background: The product of the electromagnetic (EM) wave’s power P times its period τ, i.e. Pτ, is the amount of energy conserved in EM wave’s absorption in matter. Whether Pτ is the amount of energy conserved in the emission of EM waves from matter is not assessed. Motivation: In this research, we perform a computational study to explore the ability of Pτ to represent the amount of energy conserved in EM wave’s emission from matter. Hypothesis: Since the magnitude of the power P of emitted EM waves computed through Larmor’s formula for a rotating dipole is excessively small, we alternatively hypothesize that Pτ and the law of conservation of energy can lead to a realistic estimation of P. Methods: We estimate the power PAME of the anomalous microwave emission (AME), a well-characterized radiation generated in the interstellar medium (ISM) by spinning dust grains, and one possible source of contamination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). For our estimation of PAME, we assume the AME to be generated in a molecular cloud mostly populated by spinning silicate nanoparticles (SSNs) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) spinning dust grains. Indeed, SSNs and PAHs are listed among the most probable sources of AME, and their characteristics are well-known. We discriminate between realistic and non-realistic values of PAME based upon the magnitude of two parameters that depend on PAME: the significant distance z, and the time of photon production T. The parameter z is the space interval from the spinning dust grain within which the spinning dust grain’s electric field is effective. Results: Using the information available for AME, SSNs and PAHs, we estimate the power PAME using both Larmor’s formula and Pτ. We compare and comment the results obtained for z and T. Conclusions: Our study highlights the effectiveness of Pτ over Larmor’s formula in providing a realistic value of PAME. This finding might have consequences in quantum technology of single photon detection and production.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 159-177; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.104010

**Abstract:**

Context and Background: In this research, we investigate the interaction of X-rays with a capacitor by studying the voltage established in the capacitor during the illumination. Motivation: We aim at verifying that the total energy conserved in the interaction is Pτ, i.e. the product of the average power P times the period τ of the X-rays. Hypothesis: Our investigation relies on the hypothesis that the voltage responsivity πV of the capacitor should be small, according to previous research. The parameter πV is the ratio between the voltage produced and the average power P of the X-rays, and measures the performance of the capacitor in response to the X-rays. Method: We measure the voltage produced by the capacitor in response to the X-rays, and then determine the average power P of the X-rays according to a procedure already assessed with infrared and visible light. Results: In our experiments, P turns out to be in the range between 10-3 W to 100 W. Our procedure enables us to unveil the relationship between the average power P and the effective dose, an important operating parameter used to measure the delivery of X-rays in practical applications, such as standard X-ray medical imaging machines. Conclusions: We believe that our procedure paves the way for designing a possible X-ray power-meter, a tool presently missing in the market of X-ray characterization tools.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 118-134; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.103008

**Abstract:**

The technology of fabrication of polymer nanocomposites on basis of carbon nanoparticles doped with cobalt clusters, synthesized by original Chemical Vapore Deposition (CVD) technology developed by authors, was elaborated. Carbon shells provide both the protection of ferromagnetic impurities from aggressive environment and new unique properties to the hybride nanostructures. The self-assembling of magnetic clusters coated by carbon shells presents just such example which could be used in the contemporary materials, for example, in strong magnets, analytic instruments (nuclear magnetic resonance tomographs) and nanosensors. Their good conductivity, self-healing and adhesion properties were demonstrated by applying the combined action of temperature, pressure, steady and alternating magnetic fields to stimulate diffusion of magnetic nanoparticles in direction to defect sites. Due to these properties fabricated magnetic polymer nanocomposites could have perspective for potential.

Published: 1 January 2020

World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 10, pp 27-52; doi:10.4236/wjcmp.2020.102003

**Abstract:**

There are some concepts that are accepted in our daily life but are not trivial in physics. One of them is the cluster property that means there exist no relations between two events which are sufficiently separated. In the works recently published by the author, the extensive and quantitative examination has been made about the violation of cluster property in the correlation function of the spin operator for the quantum spin system. These works have shown that, when we include the symmetry breaking interaction, the effect by the violation is proportional to the inverse of the system size. Therefore this effect is tinny since the system size is quite large. In order to find the effect due to the violation even when the size is large, we propose a new system where additional spins couple with the spin system on the square lattice, where the coupling constant between these systems being assumed to be small. Applying the perturbation theory, we obtain the effective Hamiltonian for the additional system. This Hamiltonian includes Curie-Weiss model that is induced by the violation of the cluster property. Then we find that this effective Hamiltonian has the factor which is the inverse of the system size. Since Curie-Weiss model, which is known to be exactly soluble, has to contain this factor so that the thermodynamical properties are well-defined, the essential factor for the Hamiltonian is determined by the coupling and the strength of the symmetry breaking interaction. Our conclusion is, therefore, that it is possible to observe the effect by the violation of the cluster property at the inverse temperature whose order is given by these parameters.