Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1040-8428 / 1879-0461
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 4,422
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Mohsen Karami Fath, Mahsa Akbari Oryani, Arefeh Ramezani, Fatemeh Barjoie Mojarad, Bahman Khalesi, Sina Delazar, Mehran Anjomrooz, Arvin Taghizadeh, Shahin Taghizadeh, , et al.
Published: 14 September 2021
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103477

Abstract:
Cancer can be caused by various factors, including the malfunction of tumor suppressor genes and the hyper-activation of proto-oncogenes. Tumor-associated extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) has been shown to adversely affect human health and accelerate malignant actions. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on different cancer types suggested that the amplification of ecDNA has increased the oncogene copy number in various cancers. The unique structure and function of ecDNA, its profound significance in cancer, and its help in the comprehension of current cancer genome maps, renders it as a hotspot to explore the tumor pathogenesis and evolution. Illumination of the basic mechanisms of ecDNA may provide more insights into cancer therapeutics. Despite the recent advances, different features of ecDNA require further elucidation. In the present review, we primarily discussed the characteristics, biogenesis, genesis, and origin of ecDNA and later highlighted its functions in both tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance of different cancers.
, Jun Liu, Xu-Wei Cai, Hong-Xuan Li, Yan- Cheng, Xiao-Huan Dong, ,
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103466

Abstract:
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery has been established as the standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer. For patients with complete regression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, active surveillance rather than planned surgery has been proposed as an organ preservation strategy. Reliable biomarkers to predict chemoradiation response is needed. We first summarized the previous reports of biomarkers with the potential to predict the treatment response of esophageal cancer neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. These traditional biomarkers are classified into three groups: genetic biomarkers, RNA biomarkers, and protein biomarkers. We then summarized some special types of biomarkers, including metabolites biomarkers, immune and tumor microenvironment biomarkers, and microbiome biomarkers.
, Meiling Gao, Hong Zhao, Jiaxin Zhao,
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, Volume 166; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103464

Abstract:
Avelumab can kill cancer cells through immune checkpoint inhibition and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, we analyzed the clinical efficacy and adverse events (AEs) in 3935 cancer patients from 21 trials. Compared with conventional treatment, avelumab monotherapy was associated with more tumor responses and less AEs. The pooled objective response rate was 14.18 % (95 % CI, 10.68 %–18.08 %). More PD-L1 positive patients responded to avelumab monotherapy compared to PD-L1 negative patients. The overall incidence was 73.78 % for all-grade treatment-related AE (TRAE), 14.44 % for high-grade TRAE, 6.07 % for serious adverse event, 0.44 % for fatal adverse event, 17.86 % for all-grade immune-related AE (irAE), and 3.22 % for high-grade irAE. In summary, avelumab monotherapy presents an active anti-tumor activity, shows no sign of increased toxicity due to the ADCC. These characteristics provide rational for further application of avelumab in cancer treatment.
Sasimol Udomruk, Santhasiri Orrapin, ,
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, Volume 166; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103455

Abstract:
Tumor-specific, circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in liquid biopsy test is a novel promising biomarker in the advancement of cancer management, including early diagnosis, screening, prognosis, identification of actionable targets, and serial tumor monitoring. The specific size pattern of DNA fragments derived from cancer cells is observed to differ from that of cfDNA fragments shed by non-cancer cells. Research into the physiological and biological properties of cfDNA reveals the molecular signature carried by each cfDNA fragments, which can reflect their tissue origins, as well as the mutational profiles with significant genetic alterations. Understanding the fragmentation and size distribution of cfDNA might be a valuable hotspot in liquid biopsy research, with the potential to drive innovation in oncology.
Santiago Moragón, , Begoña Bermejo, Cristina Hernando, Ernesto Olcina, Isabel Chirivella, , ,
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, Volume 166; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103461

Abstract:
Fertility preservation is an important issue in breast cancer patients undergoing oncological treatment. Fertility counseling is a crucial need given the physical and psychological stress experienced by patients.
Roberto Grigolato, , Giorgio Lombardo, Giovanni Corrocher, Umberto Garagiola, Federico Massari, Stefano Nicoli, Sabrina Rossi, Luca Calabrese
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, Volume 166; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103458

Abstract:
During the last decades there has been a progressive increase in proportion of incidence of oral cancer not related to a known etiologic factor, such as the so-called “oral cancer in young”, a relevant tumor in non-smoker non-drinker (NSND) patients. The topic is matter of long standing debate, and adequate study models to analyze this entity are lacking.
, , Zakariya Alam, Katherine E. Berger, Rajshekhar Chakraborty
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, Volume 166; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103453

Abstract:
B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has become a key target for antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies, and other immunotherapies in multiple myeloma. Some of these agents such as belantamab mafodotin and idecabtagene vicleucel have already received regulatory approval in the United States. Although BCMA has generally been considered to be expressed almost exclusively in plasma cells with a low likelihood of on-target off-tumor toxicity, there has been a range of unusual neurotoxicity observed across the spectrum of BCMA immunotherapies. In certain cases, these unusual neurotoxicity presentations have led to patient death or withdrawal of agents from further development. Our review summarizes the literature in this field and highlights the possibility of on-target toxicities due to neural expression of BCMA. We draw attention to the need for further investigation of these toxicities. This risk becomes increasingly important as BCMA targeted therapies are brought to earlier lines of treatment.
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