Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21608792 / 21608806
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,227
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Latest articles in this journal

A. Koirokpi, G. R. D. L. Kogboma Wongo, N. R. Ngbale, S. Ouapou, S. Matoulou-Mbala-Wa-Ngogbe, W. H. Komaria Mballa, J. D. D. Longo, A. Sepou
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 886-891; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.1070083

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F. C. J. Emegoakor, P. C. Udealor, E. P. Ezenkwele, M. Nzegwu
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 815-819; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.1060076

Amal Al Mulla, Humma Habib, Ousama Jarrad
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 880-885; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.1070082

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Yusuf Abisowo Oshodi, Fatimat Motunrayo Akinlusi, Akaninyene Akan Uduosoro, Joy Onyinyechi Agbara, Kabiru Afolarin Kabiru, Oluwarotimi Ireti Akinola
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 836-854; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.1060078

Kabuyanga Kabuseba Richard, Balungwe Sifa Marcelline, Elongi Moyene Jean-Pierre, Lundimu Tugirimana Pierrot, Kalenga Muenze Kayamba Prosper, Kakoma Sakatolo Zambeze Jean-Baptiste
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 820-835; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.1060077

Vladimir Egorov, Todd Rosen, Heather Van Raalte, Viktors Kurtenoks
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 85-99; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.101008

Background: Premature cervical softening and shortening may be considered an early mechanical failure that predisposes to preterm birth. Preliminary clinical studies demonstrate that cervical elastography may be able to quantify this phenomenon and predict spontaneous preterm delivery. Objective: To explore a new approach for cervix elasticity and length measurements with tactile-ultrasound probe. Methods: Cervix probe has tactile array and ultrasound transducer designed to apply controllable load to cervix and acquire stress-strain data for calculation of cervical elasticity (Young’s modulus) and cervical length for four cervix sectors. Average values, standard deviations, intraclass correlation coefficients and the 95% limits of agreement (Bland-Altman plots) were estimated. Results: Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant women were examined with the probe. The study with non-pregnant women demonstrated a reliable acquisition of the tactile signals. The ultrasound signals had a prolonged appearance; identification of the internal os of the cervix in these signals was not reliable. The study with pregnant women with the gestational age of 25.4 ± 2.3 weeks demonstrated reliable data acquisition with real-time visualization of the ultrasound signals. Average values for cervical elasticity and standard deviations of 19.7 ± 15.4 kPa and length of 30.7 ± 6.6 mm were calculated based on two measurements per 4 sectors. Measurement repeatability calculated as intraclass correlation coefficients between two measurements at the same cervix sector on pregnant women was found to be 0.97 for cervical elasticity and 0.93 for the cervical length. The 95% limits of agreement of 1) cervical elasticity were from ?22.4% to +14.9%, and 2) cervical length from ?13.3% to +16.5%. Conclusions: This study demonstrated clinically acceptable measurement performance and reproducibility. The availability of stress-strain data allowed the computation of cervical elasticity and length. This approach has the potential to provide cervical markers to predict spontaneous preterm delivery.
Essome Henri, Engbang Jean Paul, Ekono Michel Roger, Nana Njamen Theophile, Mve Koh Valere, Boten Merlin, Tocki Toutou Grâce, Fewou Amadou, Engbang Jean Pierre
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 76-84; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.101007

Introduction: The early detection of precancerous lesions being very important for the preventive management of cervical cancer, we felt it was important to identify these lesions on potential backgrounds including HIV-positive (HIV+) women to suggest control strategies of cervical cancer in Cameroon. Objective: To determine the prevalence of precancerous lesions in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to investigate the determinants of the HIV and cervical cancer association, and to make recommendations regarding cervical cancer screening in these patients of the city of Douala. Methodology: Our study was a case-control cross-sectional study from July 2017 to December 2017 (6 months) including 108 women among which 34 HIV+ matched with 74 HIV?. HIV serology was done using the complete HIV enzygnost test. Cervical smears for cytological lesions were fixed to the cyto-fixator and then stained by the Papanicolaou technique and read under an optical microscope. The cervical smear slides for viral excretion were fixed with a methanol-acetone mixture of equal volume; HPV testing was done by the indirect immune-peroxidase technique using P16 protein. The excretion of HSV type 1 & 2 was investigated by the indirect immunofluorescence technique using the Simplex Virus type 1 & 2 Rabbit anti-Herpes from DAKO (France). Results: The two groups of women were compared with the chi square test with a significance threshold of P 0.05. The average age was 40.07 with extremes of 21 and 71 years and a standard deviation of 9.99. Of the 34 HIV+ patients, 23 had an abnormal cervix compared to 36 cases of abnormal cervix among HIV? with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.006649). 12 cases of dysplasia were observed in the 34 HIV+ women and distributed as follows: 0% of mild dysplasia, 18.92% of moderate dysplasia and 13.51% of severe dysplasia. In HIV? women we detected 6 cases of dysplasia including 1.35% of mild dysplasia, 4.05% of moderate dysplasia and 2.70% of severe dysplasia. Regarding HPV infection, we observed 21 cases of HPV among 34 HIV+ women (61.76%) against 23 cases in HIV? women (31.08%); we did not detect any cases of HSV. Conclusion: The prevalence of precancerous lesions remains high in HIV+ women, hence the need to include routine screening for precancerous lesions in all HIV+ women at all ages, as well as the routine search for HPV excretion in all those with cellular dysplasia.
A. S. Atiba, R. A. Akindele, N. O. Bello, O. O. Kolawole, A. O. Fasanu
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 108-117; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.1010010

Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological process that may be complicated by a number of clinical conditions. Gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia are known complications in pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia is a disease of hypothesis in which the pathogenesis is yet to be fully explained. The role of magnesium in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia has been suggested by studies and it is being investigated all over the world. The study aimed to compare serum magnesium levels in pre-eclampsia and control groups from second trimester of pregnancy and assessed maternofetal outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a nested case control study in which consenting three hundred and sixty (360) normal pregnant women were enrolled. These women were recruited in their second trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples for serum magnesium estimation were obtained from subjects and controls at recruitment and after development of pre-eclampsia. Results: Thirty seven pregnant women that developed pre-eclampsia were nested as cases and were matched with 37 controls (apparently healthy pregnant women). The mean serum magnesium at recruitment was 0.75 ± 0.028 mmol/l (cases) and 0.76 ± 0.036 mmol/l (controls) (P = 0.123); this became significant when diagnosis of pre-eclampsia were made with mean of 0.53 ± 0.06 mmol/l (cases) and 0.69 ± 0.08 mmol/l (controls), (P 0.001). There was significant statistical relationship between preterm delivery, low birth weight and need for special care baby unit (SCBU) admission in newborn of mothers with low serum magnesium level (P = 0.001, 0.002 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed that hypomagnesaemia appears to be a complication of pre-eclampsia. Serum levels of magnesium were normal until the development of the disease. Serum level of this biomarker affects maternofetal outcome significantly.
Mona Rabeea Ahmed, Manal Farouk Mostafa, Ghadah Abdelrahaman Mahmoud, Ahmed N. Fetih, Esraa Badran, Tarek A. Farghaly
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 118-134; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.1010011

Background: The response of ovaries during controlled ovarian stimulation is the most important factor for evaluating the pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive techniques. Aim: The study is to assess the role of a nurse in giving induction of ovulation medications at assisted reproduction university center versus home medications by private In Vitro Fertilization and infertility center on clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. Subjects and Methods: Case-control research design, conducted at two centers (Banon private center for IVF and Assisted Reproductive Unit at Women health hospital, Assiut University) during the period from February 2018 to November 2018. The sample size included 150 women undergoing IVF for each group. Results: There is no statistically significant difference between women given IVF medications by the nurse at the public IVF center and women take IVF medication in the home at Banon IVF center as regards the outcome of IVF. Majority of infertile patients are satisfied with the care, they received and nearly third of them are satisfied with outcome of IVF in both groups, and there is statistically significant difference between satisfaction in public IVF center and satisfaction in private center in relation to information provided about IVF procedure, staff willingness to listen carefully and help patients; regular progress update on condition is in place with p value (0.000, 0.005, 0.003) respectively. Conclusion: IVF outcome isn’t significantly related to where induction medication was taken either at IVF center or at the home because infertile couples are keen to comply with all instructions on how to take medications with correct route, correct dose and on time. Recommendations: Empower the role of nurse as a health educator for women undergoing IVF about importance of stage of induction and take medications with correct route, correct dose and on time on outcome of IVF; other studies should also be conducted in other centers to further investigate the issue.
Vladislav Dobrinov, Desislava Tacheva, Magdalena Rangelova, Milena Dobreva, Gergana Georgieva, Iavor Vladimirov, Dobrinov Vladislav, Tacheva Desislava, Rangelova Magdalena, Dobreva Milena, et al.
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 10, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/ojog.2020.101001

Background: With the accumulating evidence of semen difference between distinct populations we decided to conduct a population-based prospective study to assess the reproductive capabilities of the Bulgarian males. Objective: To evaluate the semen parameters in men from the general population of Bulgaria. To analyze the effects of BMI (Body mass index) and tobacco smoking on semen characteristics. Methods: 482 males without history of reproductive problems were included for the purpose of this study. The duration of our study was from April to May in 2016 and April in 2017. The volunteers were subdivided based on their smoking status and on their BMI. After semen collection, a conventional semen analysis was carried out manually by trained embryologists in an andrology laboratory according to WHO recommendations. The results were statistically analyzed and presented with their mean values. Result(s): After semen analysis we report a mean of 3.29 ml for semen volume, 40.68 × 106/ml for spermatozoa concentration, 128.38 × 106 for total sperm count, 52.54% of total motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate and a mean percentage of morphologically normal sperm standing at 9.6%. We did not find a negative effect of tobacco smoking on semen quality; however higher BMI is associated with lower sperm concentration per ml. Discussion and Conclusion(s): This is the first contemporary study, assessing semen quality in Bulgarians. The results obtained here show the lower quality of semen in Bulgaria, compared to other countries. No statistical differences were found between the semen quality of nonsmokers and smokers. Higher BMI was found to be associated with lower sperm concentration per milliliter.
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