Open Journal of Circuits and Systems
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-0853 / 2327-0861
Published by: Hans Publishers (10.12677)
Total articles ≅ 95
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 10, pp 15-23; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2021.103003
加法器作为重要的算术模块，在决定运算速度和功耗方面起着关键作用。对运算速度和效率的需求以及一些应用的容错特性促进了近似加法器的发展。传统加法器一般采用精确加法运算，电路面积、功耗均较大。近年出现了一种新兴的电路设计方法——近似加法计算，通过简化电路适当降低计算精度，最终实现面积、功耗、延时与精度的折中。本文比较了目前国内外主流的近似加法器设计，并在误差和电路特性方面进行了比较评估。仿真结果表明，LOA由于完全利用逻辑或门进行低位运算，面积最小，功耗也最小，但未考虑精度的问题，错误率最高；ETAII和ACA面积比LOA稍大，功耗也相应增加，并且设计时考虑了精度，使得错误率降低；ACA在延时方面优势最突出；SCSA配置了窗口加法器，面积与功耗更大，这也使其精度得到了更大的提升。 As an important arithmetic module, the adder plays a key role in determining the operation speed and power consumption. The demand for computing speed and efficiency and the fault tolerance of some applications have promoted the development of approximate adders. Traditional adders generally use precise addition operations, and the circuit area and power consumption are relatively large. In recent years, a new circuit design method—approximate addition calculation, has appeared. By simplifying the circuit, the calculation accuracy is appropriately reduced, and finally the area, power consumption, delay and accuracy are compromised. This article compares the current mainstream approximate adder designs at home and abroad, and compares and evaluates the errors and circuit characteristics. The simulation results show that the LOA has the smallest area and the lowest power consumption due to the full use of logic or gates for low-bit operations, but the accuracy is not considered, and the error rate is the highest; ETAII and ACA have a slightly larger area than LOA, and the power consumption increases accordingly, and accuracy is considered in the design, which reduces the error rate; ACA has the most prominent advantage in terms of delay; SCSA is equipped with a window adder, which has a larger area and power consumption, which also improves its accuracy.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 10, pp 7-13; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2021.102002
一直以来，传统的红绿灯是采用固定时长方式进行路面交通控制，是成熟有效的系统，具有通行效率不高的缺点。为优化路口的车辆通行，本文设计了一种自动感知的交通光控制器系统(ATLC)，对道路交通流进行了研究。该方法利用通行高峰和低谷不同数据，可以有效地减少非高峰时段的等待时间，包括紧急情况和VIP车辆通行以及行人的安全也都可考虑在内。本文设计的低成本自动交通灯控制系统，为地面通行提供了稳定的交通流量。该系统利用VHDL语言进行开发，使用时序仿真进行测试。该系统能够检测不同时刻车辆通过率，调节相对应的交通灯时间长度随之变化，实现对红绿灯的智能调节。利用此智能调节控制路面交通，可使主支干道协调配合，从而提高路口的通行效率。 For all the times, the traditional method of fixed length of traffic light for road traffic control has long been a proven and effective system, but it has the disadvantage of low traffic efficiency. In or-der to optimize traffic at intersections, a traffic light controller (ATLC) system based on flow sensing is studied, and the traffic flow is discussed. This method takes advantage of peak and slump trough traffic slots to effectively reduce waiting times during off-peak hours, including emergencies and VIP vehicle passes and pedestrian safety. The low-cost automatic traffic light control system de-signed in this paper provides a stable traffic flow for ground traffic. The system is developed with VHDL and tested by time series simulation. The system can realize the intelligent regulation of the traffic light, detect the arrival rate of vehicles at different times, so that the corresponding length of the traffic light configuration time changes accordingly, so as to intelligently regulate and control the road traffic, so that the main and branch roads coordinate, thus improving the efficiency of the intersection.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 10, pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2021.104004
本论文利用超声检测流量的原理，结合改进的算法，采用基于自适应滤波器的噪声消除技术，从而将信噪比太低的微弱的有用信号从噪声干扰所淹没的环境中检测出来，达到提高接收信号信噪比质量的目的，为更好地测量受环境影响较大的气体和液体。超声波流量计是非接触式的，不受流体物理性质与化学性质的影响，在工业检测方面应用广泛，在天然气工业领域具有广阔的应用前景，超声流量计应用LMS算法提高了测量的精度和在恶劣环境下信号的检测能力。 In this paper, the principle of ultrasonic flow detection, combined with the improved algorithm, and the noise elimination technology based on the adaptive filter are used to detect the weak useful signal with too low a signal-to-noise ratio from the environment submerged by noise interference. The purpose of improving the signal-to-noise ratio quality of the received signal is to better measure the gases and liquids greatly affected by the environment. The ultrasonic flowmeter is non-contact and not affected by the physical and chemical properties of the fluid. It is widely used in industrial detection. It has a promising application prospect in the field of the natural gas industry. The application of LMS algorithm in ultrasonic flowmeter improves the measurement accuracy and signal detection ability in harsh environments.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 10, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2021.101001
随着社会经济的快速发展，众多机关、大型企业及安全管理单位，愈发重视实现人员定位及轨迹管理，管理者需要准确掌握人员的实际位置、出入及滞留时间等数据，以提高企业管理和应急管理效率。为了实现精细化人员管理这一问题，本文选择利用ZigBee技术，采用RSSI加权定位算法进行人员精准定位，为相关单位提供了一个有效的解决方案，帮助相关单位掌握生产区域现场人员的实时分布情况，实现对重大危险源区域的人员风险预警。 With the rapid development of social economy, agencies, large enterprises and safety management units are paying more attention to the realization of personnel positioning and trajectory manage-ment. Managers need to accurately grasp the actual location, entry and exit, and residence time of personnel to improve business management and emergency management efficiency. In order to achieve the problem of refined personnel management, this paper chooses to use ZigBee technology and RSSI weighted positioning algorithm for precise personnel positioning, providing an effective solution for relevant units to help relevant units grasp the real-time distribution of on-site person-nel in the production area and achieve early warning of personnel risks in areas with major haz-ards.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 09, pp 35-40; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2020.92005
输入电压为市电，应用Multisim 14仿真软件对简单倍压整流电路、半波倍压整流电路、对称倍压整流电路、信克尔倍压整流电路、全波倍压整流电路进行了4倍压电路的仿真，分析与对比电路结构特点、输出电压的有效值、纹波与稳定时长，总结出各自电路的优缺点以及适用场合，为高压电路的设计提供了一定的理论参考。 The input voltage is the mains supply. Multisim 14 simulation software is used to simulate the sim-ple voltage doubling rectifier circuit, half-wave voltage doubling rectifier circuit, symmetrical volt-age doubling rectifier circuit, Schenkel voltage doubling rectifier circuit and full-wave voltage dou-bling rectifier circuit. The circuit structure, the effective value of output voltage, ripple and stable time about various common several voltage doubling rectifier circuits have been analyzed and compared. Then, a summary is given about merits and drawbacks as well as different applicable occasions, providing a theoretical basis for the design of high voltage circuit.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 09, pp 18-27; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2020.92003
片上系统SoC (System on a Chip)的快速发展，对低压差线性稳压器LDO (Low Dropout Linear Regu-lator)芯片的性能要求更加苛刻。更低静态功耗、更少外围器件以及更高转换效率和电源抑制比、更快响应速度已经成为LDO芯片的研究热点和发展趋势。提出了一种带有摆率增强电路的快速负载瞬态响应无片外大电容LDO，用摆率增强技术及动态偏置技术来优化LDO的摆率，在负载发生跳变时能够快速响应。 Because of the rapid development of SoC (System on a Chip), the requirements to LDO (Low Dropout Linear Regulator) chip become more and more rigorous. Lower power consumption, fewer periph-eral devices, faster response speed, higher conversion efficiency and power supply rejection ratio have become hotspot of LDO chip. In this paper, a large capacitance free LDO is proposed, which us-es slew rate enhancement technology and dynamic bias techniques to optimize slew rate of the LDO, so the transient response of the output voltage becomes fast enough when the load current changes.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 09, pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2020.93006
在数字信号系统中，由于噪声和码间干扰的存在，信道的特性很不稳定，为了稳定信道的特性，有效地解决噪声和码间干扰存在的问题，让信息能够有效的传输，避免出现漏传现象。因此，设计了眼图观测系统，通过眼图观测系统观测到的特性参数来衡量传输基带系统性能的优劣。根据眼图观测系统设计进行数字信号光纤传输测试，依据测试观测得到关于眼图的特性参数，计算出眼皮的开度、厚度、定时抖动能力等，用此能够评价一个系统性能的优劣。 In the digital signal system, due to the existence of noise and intersymbol interference, the cha-racteristics of the channel are very unstable. In order to stabilize the characteristics of the channel, the problems of noise and intersymbol interference can be effectively solved to enable the infor-mation to be transmitted effectively and avoid the phenomenon of leakage. Therefore, an eye pat-tern observation system is designed to measure the performance of the transmission baseband system through the characteristic parameters observed by the eye pattern observation system. Optical fiber transmission test of digital signal was carried out according to the design of eye pat-tern observation system. The characteristic parameters of eye pattern were obtained according to the test observation, and the opening, thickness and timing jitter ability of eyelid were calculated, which could be used to evaluate the performance of a system.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 09, pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2020.92002
设计了一款根据外围应用电路的不同可以实现升压以及升降压型的宽输入电压范围的恒流LED驱动芯片，该芯片输入电压高达35 V，输出电压不限。驱动电流可由外接电阻设置，可以驱动高达48 W的大功率LED灯，工作的开关频率可由外部电阻设置，调节范围100 KHz~1 MHz。该款芯片具有丰富的调光功能，包括模拟，数字转模拟以及数字调光，内部自带软启动、过温保护、欠压，过压等保护功能。采用HHNEC PMU350，5V/40V工艺完成芯片的设计，转换效率可达85％以上，采用TSSOP-16的封装，外围应用电路简单，无需大电感，是目前推向市场的一款功能丰富的升降压型芯片。 A Boost/Buck-Boost Topology constant current LED driver IC was proposed, of which the input voltage is up to 35 V, and output voltage is unlimited. This IC regulates the LED current by setting the external resistor, and can drive up to 48 W high power LED lighting. The operating frequency also can be set up by external resistor, ranging from 100 KHz to 1 MHz. The IC has rich dimming functions, including analog, digital to analog and digital dimming, with built-in soft start, over-temperature protection, undervoltage, overvoltage and other protection functions. The IC is de-signed and fabricated in HHNEC PMU350, 5V/40V process, with a power conversion efficiency up to 85%, available in TSSOP-16 package, without large inductance, and has simple application circuit. This IC is a powerful DC-DC converter pushing to the market.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 09, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2020.91001
针对电力电子技术实物实验需要投入的硬件设备较多，对于初学者和研究人员，前期投入较大等问题，本文设计了电能转化功能电路辅助设计分析仿真平台。该仿真平台综合了交流电与直流电相互转化的四种变流电力电子电路设计功能，为电力电子技术初学者和相关电路研究人员提供了一种可以快速完成电路搭建的软件平台。设计了示例电路模块、控制信号自主设计模块、主电路自主设计模块、数据分析模块等四个功能模块。设计了开放的电路拓扑结构设计功能与参数调节功能，结合数据分析功能，可以辅助研究人员进行电路设计实验。 The physical experiment of power electronic technology needs more hardware and equipment. For beginners and researchers, the early investment is large. In this paper, a simulation platform for power conversion function circuit is designed. The simulation platform integrates the design func-tions of four kinds of convertor power electronic circuits which convert AC and DC into each other. It provides a software platform for power electronics beginners and related circuit researchers to quickly complete the circuit building. The vision circuit module, the control signal independent design module, the main circuit independent design module and the data analysis module are de-signed. An open circuit topology structure, design function and parameter adjustment function, combined with data analysis function, can assist researchers in circuit design experiments.
Open Journal of Circuits and Systems, Volume 09, pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojcs.2020.93007
在一些信号与系统教材中，负频率被说成是没有物理意义的，相位角的定义也不够严格。本文用旋转矢量方法描述负频率和相位角，从几何意义来看如果正频率是矢量的逆时针旋转的角频率，则负频率是顺时针旋转的角频率，从工程角度来看，可以对应发电机的反向旋转。因此负频率不仅有明确的物理意义，也有重要的工程应用价值。一般的相位角采用反正切的三角函数来定义，但这样的定义方式导致相位角取值范围为−π/2到π/2，而实际的相位角应该是−π到π，这个问题可以采用旋转矢量来严格定义。 In some teaching materials of signals and systems, negative frequency is said to have no physical meaning, and the definition of phase angle is not strict enough. In this paper, the negative fre-quency and phase angle are described by the method of rotation vector. From the geometric sense, if the positive frequency is the counter clockwise rotation angular velocity of the vector, then the negative frequency is the angular velocity of clockwise rotation. From the engineering point of view, it can correspond to the reverse rotation of the generator. Therefore, negative frequency not only has clear physical significance, but also has important engineering application values. In general, the phase angle is defined by the arctangent trigonometric function, but the range of the phase angle is −π/2 to π/2, the actual phase angle should be −π to π. This problem can be strictly defined by rotation vector.