Ukrainian Peasant

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ISSN : 2413-8142
Total articles ≅ 153
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Inna M. Shugalyova, Roman L. Moldavskij
Abstract:
Метою статті є аналіз соціально-побутових умов дітей, що перебували в роки Голодомору у сиротинцях; ми прагнемо з’ясувати причини зростання дитячої безпритульності, охарактеризувати стан та умови дитячих притулків; на основі усноісторичних джерел ми прагнемо описати психологічний стан малят, які усвідомлювали, що батьки вимушені від них відмовитися. Наші рефлексії обґрунтовуються архівними документами та усноісторичними джерелами. Висновки. У 1931 р. дитячі заклади було знято з державного постачання, що значно вплинуло на соціально-побутові умови, в яких перебували діти. Автори дослідили причини виникнення численної категорії безпритульних дітей у 1930-х рр., виявили причини занедбаності дитячих будинків та встановили, що у дитячих будинках спостерігалися високий рівень захворюваності та дитяча смертність. Під час Голодомору стрімко зросла динаміка смертності в дитячих будинках. Тільки в запорізькому будинку дитини за 17 місяців померло 788 дітей віком до 8 років. Така ситуація була по всій Україні, про що свідчать очевидці та архівні документи. Проте в умовах тоталітарної держави, всі факти дитячої смертності від голоду ретельно приховувалися. Автори прийшли до висновку, що специфікою ювенальної політики 1930-х рр. став прихований характер дитячої безпритульності. У період Голодомору дитячі притулки перетворилися на конвеєри дитячої смертності. Унаслідок нестачі іжі, неналежного медичного забезпечення, діти масово ставали жертвами Голодомору, спричиненого комуністичним тоталітарним режимом.
Abstract:
Introduction. The experience of the events of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921 is especially relevant for modern Ukraine. Modern geopolitical transformations, radical changes in the domestic political life of Ukraine, ambitious plans of the government are a chance for our state to restore its full-fl edged subjectivity in the international arena, in the domestic life of the country. An effective mechanism of external and internal subjectivization of Ukraine, given the longevity of agricultural culture (in a broad sense), can be agrarian policy, its effective implementation. This implies not only a clear understanding on the part of the state of the essence of agrarian policy, its purpose, stages and mechanisms of implementation. The author of the article aims, taking into account the experience of agrarianist transformations of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921, to propose a possible ideological model of the latest agrarian transformations, which should concern the peasant-owner with the optimal amount of land tenure/land use for profi table high-tech use. Results. The basic ideology of agrarianist by its content agrarian policy is the creation and effective functioning of the State Land Bank. At one time, such an institution was the bank «Ukraine». Its main functions were: 1) valuation of land to be sold; 2) distribution of lands that will be transferred to the bank’s land fund; 3) determination of the maximum and minimum sizes of plots that peasants can buy from a bank, etc. Conclusion. Thus, the basic principles of Ukrainian agrarianism of the period of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917 - 1921 are quite suitable for modern agrarian policy. Their implementation in the 21st century will contribute to the internal subjectivity of Ukraine, the formation of a high-tech national agricultural producer
Abstract:
Introduction. Agrarianism, as ideology and political doctrine, was formulated and expanded in Europe in the end of the 19th – the fi rst third of the 20th century. Europe has formulated a new ideology and political doctrine, an alternative to liberalism and socialism – agrarianism. Theorists of agrarianism have thrown peasantry into the foundation of the stability of the state and the basis of national identity, and farming is a priority type of activity both from the economic and from the moral point of view. For a great intelligence to the phenomenon of agrarianism, unique to the 1917 rural republics, which have become the most common form of suspension-political and economic self-organization of the rural protest and insurgent movement in Ukraine. At that hour, since the Western and Central Europe lost the basic postulates of agrarianism in the treatises of these ideologists and in the program documents of the agrarian political parties, in the Ukrainian peasantry we have been actively promoting the creation of a new mode in postulates. Purpose is to analyze the circumstances and peculiarities of the formation of peasant republics in the Ukraine in 1905 – 1906, on the basis of the methodology of «case study» of the Sorochynska, Vysunska, Rokytnianska, Sumska peasant republics to fi nd out the peculiarities of solving the «agrarian issue» in the context of practical implementation of the basic ideological principles of agrarianism. Results. The author argues that the emergence of peasant republics, the formation and functioning of alternative authorities, the organization of peasant self-defense, the solution of agrarian and other issues relevant to the peasantry were the practical embodiment of the basic ideological principles of agrarianism. Conclusion. The history of the emergence and existence of the Sorochynska, Vysunska, Rokytnianska, Sumska peasant republics showed that almost immediately after the proclamation they tried to create, or at least imitate, their own authorities, legislation, state symbols and other attributes of statehood. At the fi rst stage (1902 – 1907) of the Agrarian Revolution, such measures did not gain much development due to the short existence of the republics and the lack of relevant experience. Thus, in the Vysunska Republic, power passed to a public committee; in Rokytnianska – to the village committees; in Sorochynska – to the Revolutionary Committee; in Sumska peasant republiс – to the local branches of the All-Russian Peasants’ Union. It is known that the Sorochynska Republic, in addition to its own authorities, had a fl ag in the form of a red banner with the inscription «Land and Freedom». Analysis of cases (cases) of peasant republics in 1905 – 1906 allows us to identify the following components of the solution of the «agrarian issue», which were initiated by the peasantry: 2) seizure and redistribution of landlord land, endowment of landless and landless peasants (Sorochynska and Komratska Republics); 3) pogroms of landowners’ estates, deforestation, etc. (Vysunska and Rokytnianska Republics); 4) abolition of redemption payments and debts (Sorochynska Republic); 5) establishing cooperation between the republics and the AllRussian Peasants’ Union (Sorochynska Republic); 6) the formation of armed units of self-defense (Vysunska, Sorochynska republics). In contrast to the peasant republics of 1917 – 1922, we did not fi nd any cases of special bodies or positions responsible for resolving the «agrarian issue» in the government of the republics at the fi rst stage of the «Agrarian Revolution» in Ukraine.
Abstract:
Introduction. The great role of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921 in national history, its impact on modernity, actualizes a comprehensive study of conscious factors that determined the behavior of the masses, namely political culture, the content of the Ukrainian peasantry in the period of major socio-political transformations and confl icts. Purpose. The aim of the article is to try to fi nd out how the revolutionary and state-building processes of the period 1917-1921 were determined by the dominants of the political culture of Ukrainian rural society. The main objectives of the article are to highlight and analyze the features of the political consciousness of the peasantry and the forms of social behavior of peasants and their struggle for the realization of their socio-political ideals. Methods. The methodological basis of the study is the socio-cultural approach, which allows us to explain how the political culture of the Ukrainian peasantry determined the socio-political processes in 1917-1921. Results. It is determined that the principles of political culture of the Ukrainian peasantry, concentrated in the socio-political formula «Land and Freedom», accumulated peasant ideals of ownership or lifelong use of land, freedom, democratic representation, equality, fair society, priority of labor. In the process of socio-political transformations, the peasants really felt that they could play a leading role in political life and embody their interests. This was demonstrated by examples of joint voting of peasants in various forums, and especially the practice of self-organization of numerous self-defense units and insurgent groups. However, along with the positive aspects of solving socio-political problems, the self-organization of the peasants was often directed not against the organization and support of the state and government, but against the government. Conclusion. The article notes that the political culture of the peasants was closely connected with the social and veche, Cossack in spirit ideas of the state and power, which were characterized by egalitarianism and democracy. However, it was a democracy of a traditional society with patriarchal veche elements, which was not focused on the reproduction of the entire state and social vertical of power, but focused mainly on the lower, rural level of administrative-territorial division. Democratic self-government was understood by the peasants as selfgovernment of the rural community in the form of the east, as the embodiment of democracy in the form of Soviets. The type of democracy seen by the peasants as a system of relations based on participation in decision-making by all members of the rural community or persons delegated to it can be described as agrarian democracy
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