Cell Motility

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ISSN : 0271-6585
Published by: Wiley-Blackwell (10.1002)
Total articles ≅ 288
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Jean Cachon, Monique Cachon
Published: 1 January 1985
Cell Motility, Volume 5, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.970050102

The motility and fine structure of the marine planktonic dinoflagellate Kofoidinium and members of other related genera have been investigated. Several types of shape change were found to occur: slow morphogenetic changes (which also occurred as restitution movements in response to injury), movements associated with the ingestion of food and the evacuation of wastes, and more rapid movements concerned with the capture of prey. All these movements seemed to be brought about by the contraction of refractile tracts within the cytoplasm, which were found to contain 2.3-nm filaments, some with a complex striated appearance. This and other evidence suggests that these filaments, which have counterparts in many other protists, are not actin filaments.
Robert Hard, Robert D. Allen
Published: 1 January 1985
Cell Motility, Volume 5, pp 31-51; https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.970050104

Understanding the molecular basis of mitotic movements in living cells will require correlative experiments on intact cells, cell models, purified tubulin, and perhaps other biopolymers. Birefringence is one assay that is useful in all of these experimental situations. Heretofore, studies of birefringence changes during mitosis have lacked a quantitiative basis for interpretation in terms of microtubule number and packing density. One of the aims of this work was to establish that relationship. Purified calf brain tubulin was polymerized to equilibrium and oriented in the hydrodynamic field of a microcapillary flow birefringence apparatus. The relationship between birefringence and microtubule packing density was determined by a combination of optical, electron microscopic, and biochemical methods. The data correlate surprisingly well with those obtained by others from in vitro measurements on isolated mitotic spindles. Using the flow birefringence data, the sensitivity of polarizing microscopes for detecting microtubules was examined and found to depend on microtubule packing density, object thickness, and instrumental factors that limit both the detection and measurement of weakly birefringent objects. Because of the dependence of measurement sensitivity on object thickness, a method of measuring the thickness of microtubule bundles using the dispersion of birefringence was developed. This method is capable of measuring thickness to within two or three Airy diffraction units and does not require any assumptions regarding object symmetry.
Robert D. Allen
Published: 1 January 1985
Cell Motility, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.970050202

Alice Weaver, Robert Hard
Published: 1 January 1985
Cell Motility, Volume 5, pp 355-375; https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.970050502

Demembranated ciliated cell models are useful for studying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of ciliary coordination and waveform. This paper describes procedures for isolating ciliated cells from the newt, Taricha granulosa, by trypsin dissociation, their subsequent demembranation by Triton X-100, and their reactivation with MgATP to produce highly motile, coordinated, ciliated cell models. Reactivation of cell models with a high degree of mechanochemical coupling depended on avoiding mechanical damage and maintaining optimal conditions during all stages of isolation and reactivation. Highly motile models were prepared from cells incubated in trypsin, treated briefly with EDTA, separated by gentle agitation, and concentrated by centrifugation at low gravitational forces. Optimal demembranation and reactivation conditions were similar to those described previously for isolated newt lung axonemes. Under these conditions, nearly 100% of the models were reactivated when provided with MgATP and 90–95% beat with coordinated waves. The ciliary tufts beat at frequencies within the range measured in living cells and their reactivated motility was stable for at least 30 min at constant MgATP. These highly coupled models were used to show (1) that development of coordination in the ciliary tuft occurs at a higher substrate concentration range (10–25 μM) than that required to initiate motility per se (2–10 μM); (2) that outer dynein arms may not contribute to beat frequency at substrate concentrations below 35 μM; and (3) that vanadate has effects both on beat frequency and coordination of the tufts.
J. J. Blum, M. C. Reed
Published: 1 January 1985
Cell Motility, Volume 5, pp 507-527; https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.970050607

A model for fast axonal transport is developed in which the essential features are that organelles may interact with mechanochemical cross-bridges that in turn interact with microtubules, forming an organelle-engine-microtubule complex which is transported along the microtubules. Computer analysis of the equations derived to describe such a system show that most of the experimental observations on fast axonal transport can be simulated by the model, indicating that the model is useful for the interpretation and design of experiments aimed at clarifying the mechanism of fast axonal transport.
Susan S. Brown
Published: 1 January 1985
Cell Motility, Volume 5, pp 529-543; https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.970050608

We have isolated a 30,000‐dalton protein from Dictyostelium which cosedimented with and affected the low shear viscosity of actin. At low concentrations, this protein increased the low shear viscosity to greater than that of the actin control, whereas higher concentrations decreased viscosity. The viscosity decrease correlated with the formation of actin filament bundles, as seen electron microscopically. This protein resembled a previously reported actin‐binding protein from Dictyostelium [Fechheimer and Taylor, 84, J Biol Chem 259:4514] in electrophoretic mobility, Stokes radius, and ability to crosslink filaments, but was shown to be different by peptide mapping, lack of immunologic crossreactivity, and lack of sensitivity to calcium.
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