American Journal of Experimental Agriculture

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2231-0606 / 2231-0606
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 734
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Muhammad Usman, Waheed Ashraf, Ihsan Jamil, Muhammad Akhlaq Mansoor, Qamar Ali, Muhammad Waseem
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/19661

Abstract:
Like many other developing countries, Pakistan has lower agricultural productivity. It is due to the reason that the farming community is almost illiterate and, has traditional and conservative farming practices. Adoption and diffusion of new technology at farm level is hindered due to these factors. This study aimed at estimating; technical, allocative and economic efficiency. The determinants of inefficiency for the wheat farms in district Layyah were also quantified. Data of 120 farmers for the crop year 2010-11 were used for the analysis purpose. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to find out the efficiency scores. Separate regression was used for these inefficiency scores for socio-economic and farm specific variables by using a Tobit regression model. The results showed that mean technical, allocative and economic efficiency of farms in the sample area was 84, 81 and 68 percent, respectively. Results of Tobit regression models showed that impact of years of schooling, access to credit, number of contacts with extension agents, and distance of farm from main road were negative and significantly affecting technical inefficiency of wheat farms. The farm size variable sign was negative and had significant impact on the allocative inefficiency. The coefficient of access to credit dummy variable was positive and had significant impact on allocative inefficiency. The coefficient of distance from main road was negative and significant which implied that as the distance of farm from main road increased the economic inefficiency will decreases. Quantified results urged the need of improvement in the agri-extension services, timely and proper availability of inputs, and establishment of local level markets at lower administrative units (like, town or union council) for the improvement of existing farming system.
A. E. Salami
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21748

Abstract:
Weather condition prevailing during pollination could have some effect on seed set and yield in maize. A controlled pollination experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria during the early seasons of 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of daytime on the performance and seed yield of five maize genotypes viz. two open pollinated, two inbred lines and one hybrid. Hand-pollination was done on an hourly basis between 09.00 to 18.00 hours which constituted the treatments. The ten treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. In all the experimental units, five plants were bulk pollinated for each of the time treatment. Results indicated differential responses of the genotypes to time of pollination. When averaged across the five genotypes, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in cob length, weight of 100 seeds weight, and seed yield per cob for the two years whilst cob diameter and number of kernels per row were only significant in 2008. Hand-pollination of maize can be done between 09.00 and 18.00 hours, however, the optimum performance was obtained for cob and seed traits when pollination was done between 10.00 and 12.00 hours, There was 36.65% reduction in seed yield per cob when pollination was delayed till 16.00 hours compared with when done at 10.00 in 2007 and 32.94% reduction between 11.00 and 17.00 hours in 2008. The rate of decline can be minimized when pollination is delayed till 18.00 hours when temperatures are relatively low, which implies that perhaps the most determining factor that precludes pollination is temperature which is comparatively high between 13.00 and 17.00 hours. Furthermore, suboptimum performance was observed when pollination was done at 09.00 hours possibly due to the dampness of the pollen which may impair pollen shedding.
J. Sosnowski, , P. Domański
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22110

Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the effect of soil type on total protein content and the formation ratio of sugars to proteins in dry matter varieties of cocksfoot and tall fescue. The experiment was arranged and conducted according to Research Center for Cultivar Testing guidelines. The experimental plots were sown with varieties of Dactylis glomerata: Niva, Tukan, Amila, Crown Royale and with varieties of Festuca pratensis: Limosa, Pasja, Anturka, Amelka. The plots were randomly selected, 1.5 meters wide and 6.67 m long, with an area of 10 m2, grouped in blocks with four replications. They were separated by 1 meter pathways between blocks and with 0.5 meter pathways between sub-blocks. The pathways lay fallow. The experiment in Krzyżewo (organic soil) was set up on ploughed soil, with spring barley as the forecrop. In Uhnin (mineral soil) the experimental plots were located on peat meadow. The airy dry matter was shredded and ground. The obtained material was subjected to chemical analysis to determine dry matter (by determining moisture content), protein compounds and simple sugars. The method of determination was near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using a NIRFlex N-500 spectrometer and readytouse INGOT calibration applications. Regardless of variety, cut and years of research, higher total protein content occurred in dry matter of cocksfoot grown on mineral soil (165 g∙kg-1 DM) than organic (172 g∙kg-1 DM). Higher values of sugar-protein ratios characterized biomass of varieties of meadow fescue (0.50) than cocksfoot (0.85). Regardless of the examined grass species, better nutritional value had the plant varieties located on mineral soils than organic.
G Böhm, R Karsburg, C Heidrich, E Böhm, R Machado
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21730

Abstract:
Sewage sludge is a residue rich in organic matter and nutrients important for plant growth and soil fertility, but it may contain in its composition heavy metals that can result in toxicity to the plant, soil and humans when used as fertilizer. The objective was to assess microbial activity and heavy metal residues in soil and radish tubers grown with different concentrations of sewage sludge. Carbon microbial biomass, total organic carbon, soil basal respiration and zinc, copper, chromium and lead levels in soil and radish tubers were analyzed. According to the results, application of 30 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge promoted higher microbial activity and lower metabolic quotient, and resulted in 490 tili-1 of microbial carbon and 11.12% of soil organic carbon. Heavy metal contents in radish tubers were 266.15, 2.82 and 15.42 mg kg-1 of zinc, chromium and lead, respectively, with the lead content found in the samples were above the maximum extent permitted recommended by the Codex Alimentarius.
O Aderi
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20597

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate population densities and cultivars on the biomass and crop growth rate (CGR) of upland rice and their correlation with grain yield.
, Richard Onwonga, John Kimenju
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20209

Abstract:
Aims: Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) is one of the most important traditional vegetables in Kenya, albeit underutilized. Concurrently, scanty information is available on its potential for vegetable and seed production. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate spider plant germplasm for agronomic traits pertinent to seed and vegetable production.
L Fayeun, D Ojo, A Odiyi, A Adebisi, L Hammed, Oluwaseun Omikunle
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/15261

Abstract:
Apomixis is seed and embryo formation without fertilization. A study was carried out from August, 2012 to May, 2014 in order to investigate the possibility of occurrence of apomixis in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.) using emasculation method. Five genotypes of fluted pumpkin were used. Ten plants from each genotype were planted out in a screened environment at the department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure. The crop being dioecious, all the male plants were emasculated (by total removal from the site) as soon as they were noticed, leaving only the female plants. Seeds obtained from the fruits of isolated female plants were later subjected to viability test. After several weeks of flowering, flowers and developing ovaries abortion, they eventually set fruits. All the genotypes produced fruits (one or two) though at different times. Both apomictic and parthenocarpic fruits were produced. The seeds obtained from the apomictic fruits of all the genotypes had high seedling emergence percentage and good seedling vigour. Apomictic fruits, seeds and seedlings were similar to those of sexually produced fruits. The observed facultative apomixis could be as a result of natural selection. This study confirms that apomictic form of reproduction occurs naturally in fluted pumpkin. Facultative apomixis in the fluted pumpkin is being reported for the first time and its implication in the genetic improvement of the crop is discussed.
K Akande
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21980

Abstract:
Canavalia ensiformis; tryspin inhibitors; concanavalin A; canavanine; canaline; saponins; cyanogenic glycosides; poultry.
K. E. Akande
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22378

Abstract:
Starter diet; finisher diet; jack bean; soybean; performance; unconventional protein sources.
O. O. AdeOluwa, C. O. Aworuwa, O. E. Ogunsanya
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/19823

Abstract:
Solanum lycopersicon; human urine; fertilizer; soil fertility; wastes management.
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