Scientific Journal of Zoology
EISSN : 2322-293X
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 8
Articles in this journal
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 7, pp 88-96; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v7i1.2479
A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gedeb Asasa district of West Arsi zone, Ethiopia from November 2016 to April 2017 to identify and determine prevalence of small ruminant lungworm species and assess potential risk factors. A total of 400 fecal samples were randomly collected from 288 sheep and 112 goats in the study area and collected samples were cultured and first stage larvae (L1) were isolated using modified Baerman technique. Isolated first stage larvae (L1) were examined and identified morphologically using microscope. The present study recorded an overall prevalence of 44.8%. The prevalence of lungworm infection by animal species was determined to be (45.5%) and (42.9%) for sheep and goat, respectively. The study identified three lungworm nematode species of small ruminants: Dictyocaulus filaria, Muelleris capillaris, Protostronylus rufescens along with mixed infectionby coprological larval morphology identification system with respective prevalence of 17%, 14.5%, 5.3% and 8% applying descriptive statistics. Statistically, higher lungworm infection rate in female (48.8%) recorded compared to male (37.5%), in young (53.3%) compared to adult (36.3%) in animals with poor body condition (66.9%) followed by medium (37.5%) and good body condition (31.9%) animals and non- dewormed animals (49.2%) compared to dewormed ones (37.2%). To determine the existence of association between the disease and risk factors (sex, animal origin, animal species, age, body condition, anthelmintic treatment), Chi-Square statistics was employed and only four (sex, age, body condition, anthelmintic treatment) were found to have association with the disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the existence of statistically significant impact (P<0.005) of the four factors (sex, age, body condition, anthelmintic treatment) on small ruminants lungworm infection dynamics.
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 7, pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v7i1.2464
Pre-weaning mortality is one of the dominant aspect that impact negatively on productive and reproductive components in a commercial rabbit enterprise. This review article looks at some animal-related factors such as litter size and birth weight in influencing pre-weaning mortality in rabbits. There are several factors that influence pre-weaning mortality in rabbit production. Therefore, understanding of these factors may reduce production losses and maximize profits. Pre-weaning mortality restrict the output of any rabbit enterprise culminating in reduced income earned from rabbit production. A complicated interconnection between the doe, the kit and the environment influence pre-weaning mortality. A negative association between birth weight and litter size has been demonstrated in rabbits which implied that large litter resulted in individual low birth weight consequently increased pre-weaning mortality. Birth weight and litter size can be manipulated to the producers’ advantage and improve rabbits’ performance in the long run. A positive association of litter size and mortality has been reported in rabbits. The larger the litter the greater the mortality rate. The smaller the weight at birth of kits the less the chances of survivability. Mothers should be selected for good maternal attributes and reasonable litter size in order to curtail pre-weaning mortality. The present discussion will focus on litter size and birth weight as some of the major factors that influence pre-weaning mortality.
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 7, pp 82-87; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v7i1.2476
Developments in biotechnology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer. However, at present it is an inefficient process in farm animal and small number of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient mother result in healthy, long-term surviving clones. Recent cloning research also reveals high failure rates, premature deaths, and dysfunctioning of internal organs. Food products from healthy clones, i.e. meat or milk, did not differ from products from healthy conventionally bred animals. Even though the food products of cloned animals showed no differences with conventional offspring or products, throughout the world, there is significant public opposition to the introduction of meat and milk from cloned animals and their progeny into the food supply. Cloning also threatens the welfare of surrogate mothers, the underlying health of the animals and the next generation, the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer acceptance. Data on clones of farmed species for food production other than cattle and pigs have remained limited and do not allow for assessment of food safety or animal health and welfare aspects.
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 6, pp 64-67; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v6i11.2451
The article investigates the impact of dilution depressive semen sires, frozen in ASIL TҮLІK and French technology, its quality indicators. It was established that the increase in the degree of dilution increases the permeability depressive sperm cytoplasm sperm membranes, significantly reducing their mobility, and absolute figure, regardless of the cryopreservation technology, diluents and formulation components used anti-shock.
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 6, pp 60-63; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v6i11.2452
The differences of sperm performance parameters of sires related to their age and determined, regression analysis between the main quantitative and qualitative indicators of sperm performance of bulls of high producing dairy breeds and indicators of sperm was carried out. Analysis of indicators of sperm performance of sires of Holstein breed showed that with age the average volume of semen increased by 19 %, sperm motility by 1.3 %, concentration of sex cells by 8.7 %, amount of semen doses obtained 25 %, and the number of rejected semen doses decreased by 8.0 %. Also with the age parameters of bulls’ sex cells increased by 17 %, resistance by 4.7 %, survival of spermatozoa by 11.5 %.
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 6, pp 68-72; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v6i11.2455
There is a number of works in which it is reported about positive impact of physical factors on maturing of ova. The positive effect of stimulation of development of cages by the pulse of electric field, the helium neon laser is noted. Earlier positive influence of constant magnetic field on quality indicators of sperm at artificial insemination has been proved. Technology in vitro is most often used for thawing of cattle sperm. The freezing and subsequent thawing of spermatozoa induce adverse development of intracellular changes (increase in the level of reactive oxygen species, damage to membrane structures), reduces the survival and functional activity of cells. The plasma membrane of sperm contains a sufficiently large amount of unsaturated fatty acids undergoing peroxidation, which causes its destabilization of ionic homeostasis violation cells, and decreases the potential of the plasma membrane of mitochondria, DNA fragmentation, and without falling lower antioxidant protection. The aim of this work was to increase the efficiency of fertilizing capacity of sperm outside the body with the use of hormonal and biophysical methods of influence, establishing criteria for the metabolic viability of spermatozoa.
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 6, pp 55-59; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v6i11.2450
The differences of sperm productivity of bulls of Holstein breed are found, and correlation and regression analysis between the main quantitative and qualitative indicators of sperm productivity of bulls is done. The morphological, biochemical and physiological indicators of sperm and blood of bulls are studied and their connection with reproductive capacity of the bulls of Holstein breed is found. Biochemical studies of enzyme activity of succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphates in sperm of bulls are done and the relationship of enzyme activity with main indicators of sperm productivity is found. The morphological characteristics of sperm and blood of bulls of Holstein breed are studied, as well as their relationship with the main indicators of sperm production.
Scientific Journal of Zoology, Volume 6, pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjz.v6i9.2443
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2016 up to April 2017 in Bekoji district to determine the current status of calf coccidiosis. A total of 384 calves with the age of up to one year were subjected to coprological investigation. Based on the coprological investigation the overall prevalence of coccidiosis was 186 (48.4%). Coccidiosis was higher in calves above 6 months of age than calves with age less than 6 months (P<0.05). The present study showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of coccidiosis among the husbandry systems of calves with the highest prevalence in semi-intensive system (55.6%). There was also significant variation observed (P<0.05) between local breeds and cross breeds. The highest prevalence of coccidial infection was recorded in calves with poor hygienic condition (53.2%) than in good and medium hygienic status (36.9% and 47.3%) (P<0.05). Likewise, significant variation in prevalence was observed between poor body condition and good body condition calves (P<0.05). However, significant difference in prevalence was not observed between different sex, and PAs. The present study showed that calves coccidiosis was one of the important diseases in the study area. Hence, appropriate disease prevention and control measures and further molecular investigations to determine the circulating Eimeria species should be implanted.