Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1064-1297 / 1936-2293
Total articles ≅ 2,205
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, Katelyn F. Romm, Nicholas A. Turiano, Ashley Douglas, Geri Dino, Linda Alexander, Melissa D. Blank
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Volume 29, pp 429-439; https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000476

Abstract:
Traditional tobacco product (cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) and polytobacco use rates are significantly higher among rural adolescents and adults compared to their nonrural counterparts. Such disparities are due to several factors that promote tobacco use initiation and continuation, including individual-level psychopharmacological factors and structural-level factors such as fewer tobacco control efforts (e.g., fewer smoke-free policies and lower tobacco excise taxes), targeted tobacco marketing, less access to health-relevant resources, and more positive cultural norms surrounding tobacco use in rural communities. In this review, we use cumulative disadvantage theory as a framework for understanding how psychopharmacological and structural-level factors serve as drivers of tobacco use in rural areas. We start by describing how structural-level differences between rural-nonrural communities impact psychopharmacological influences and, when available, how these factors influence tobacco use. We conclude by discussing the interplay between factors, providing suggestions for ways to assess our application of cumulative disadvantage theory empirically and making recommendations for research and policy implementation in rural areas. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
, Brenda Straka, Monica Desjardins, Harry Scott Swartzwelder, Sarah Gaither
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Volume 29, pp 487-500; https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000475

Abstract:
Native American/American Indian (NA/AI) and Multiracial people (those who claim multiple racial identities) report notably high alcohol use compared to other racial groups in the United States. Nearly half of the NA/AI population is also Multiracial, yet NA/AI and Multiracial college students report different motivations for drinking alcohol. Therefore, it remains unclear if NA/AI individuals who are also Multiracial are at different risk for alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, and if there are distinct patterns of risk factors in these understudied populations. Because college-aged students are at risk for high levels of alcohol use, this exploratory study used the AlcoholEdu for College™ survey to compare the association between initial drinking age, college location (urban vs. rural), and alcohol use motivations and consequences between monoracial NA/AI (N = 2,363) and Multiracial NA/AI college-aged students (N = 6,172). Monoracial NA/AI students reported higher incidences of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems such as blacking out and missing class, compared to Multiracial NA/AI students. Risk factors like earlier age of drinking onset were more strongly associated with negative consequences for monoracial NA/AI students compared to Multiracial NA/AI students. Despite similar levels of Internal Coping motivations for drinking (e.g., to feel more confident or sure of yourself), monoracial NA/AI students reported drinking more than Multiracial students and experienced more negative drinking-related outcomes. These results suggest Multiracial NA/AI students may draw on protective factors not accessible to monoracial NA/AI students, highlighting the need for interventions tailored to students at highest risk. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
, Nichea S. Spillane, Melissa R. Schick, Lisa L. Weyandt
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Volume 29, pp 524-538; https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000510

Abstract:
Pharmacological treatments for opioid use disorders (OUDs) may have mixed efficacy across diverse groups, i.e., sex/gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). The present systematic review aims to examine how diverse groups have been included in U.S. randomized clinical trials examining pharmacological treatments (i.e., methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone) for OUDs. PubMed was systematically searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The initial search yielded 567 articles. After exclusion of ineligible articles, 50 remained for the present review. Of the included articles, 14.0% (n = 7) reported both full (i.e., accounting for all participants) sex/gender and race/ethnicity information; only two of those articles also included information about any SES indicators. Moreover, only 22.0% (n = 11) reported full sex/gender information, and 42.0% (n = 21) reported full racial/ethnic information. Furthermore, only 10.0% (n = 5) reported that their lack of subgroup analyses or diverse samples was a limitation to their studies. Particularly underrepresented were American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN), Asian, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NH/OPI), and multiracial individuals. These results also varied by medication type; Black individuals were underrepresented in buprenorphine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) but were well represented in RCTs for methadone and/or naltrexone. In conclusion, it is critical that all people receive efficacious pharmacological care for OUDs given the ongoing opioid epidemic. Findings from the present review, however, support that participants from diverse or marginalized backgrounds are underrepresented in treatment trials, despite being at increased risk for disparities related to OUDs. Suggestions for future research are advanced. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
, Anita S. Kablinger, , Elisa M. Crill
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Volume 29, pp 555-565; https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000503

Abstract:
The delivery of monetary incentives contingent on verified abstinence is an effective treatment for alcohol use disorder. However, incentive cost has often been cited as a barrier to delivering this type of treatment. In the present randomized parallel groups trial, we systematically replicated a previous trial we conducted that employed remote alcohol monitoring and incentive delivery to promote abstinence from alcohol, but with the additional requirement for participants to partially self-fund their abstinence incentives. Treatment-seeking participants with alcohol use disorder (n = 92) who met inclusion criteria (n = 36) were randomized to either a Contingent or Noncontingent group (n = 18 each). Those not meeting inclusion criteria included 15 participants who agreed to the deposit requirement but failed to make the deposit payment. The Contingent group received nearly immediate monetary incentives each day they remotely provided negative breathalyzer samples. The Noncontingent group received matched incentives each day they successfully provided samples independent of alcohol content. Days abstinent in the Contingent group were 86%, which was significantly higher than the 44% recorded in the Noncontingent group, corresponding to an odds ratio of 8.2. Exploratory analyses revealed that the deposit requirement prevented participation in those with lower incomes and those with greater alcohol use. These results support the efficacy of this remotely deliverable alcohol abstinence reinforcement incentive intervention with a deposit requirement. However, the requirement to provide a monetary deposit to self-fund abstinence incentives may prevent those with greater alcohol use and/or those experiencing extreme poverty from participating in the intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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