Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-4115 / 2327-4107
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 97
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Youssoupha Kassé, Géraud Léra Akpo, Ibrahima Niang, Khadidiatou Diouf Ka, Rokhaya Diagne, Ndèye Bigué Mar, Khaoulah Talhaoui, Aminata Mbaye, Papa Malick Dibor Diouf, Mame Coumba Fall, et al.
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 10, pp 44-49; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2022.102005

Abstract:
Basilar artery fenestration is a rare anatomical variation resulting from the failed fusion of the two vertebral arteries during embryonic life. In order of frequency, it is the second most common location of vascular fenestrations after the anterior communicating artery. Vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms are uncommon but often associated with basilar artery fenestration. We report the case of a fenestrated vertebrobasilar junction saccular aneurysm in a 57-year-old woman. The diagnosis was incidentally made on CT angiography which found the anatomical variant and the aneurysm. The radiological features illustrating this association are detailed here and a brief discussion of its pathogenesis and management was made. Vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms are rare and their presence should suggest an associated basilar fenestration.
Weihua Xu, Nie Yao, Xiaojuan Li, Zhichao Ma, Hongtao Zhou, Shengmiao Fu, Xinping Chen
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 10, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2022.101001

Abstract:
[Objective] To analyze the mutation signature and regularity of STR locus on 23 autosomes in paternity testing cases in Hainan. [Methods] A total of 2715 paternity testing cases accepted by the Forensic Medical Identification Centre of our hospital from 2017 to 2020 derived from counties and cities in Hainan Province were collected, the cases containing gene mutations were selected, the mutation rate and details of each locus were counted, and the mutation regu-larity of 23 STR loci was analyzed. [Results] Of the 2715 cases identified as “support”, 1487 were triplet cases and 1640 were dyad cases, totaling 4614 meioses; There were 50 gene mutation events (including 17 triplet mutations and 33 dyad mutations), with an average mutation rate of 0.0047% and a cumulative mutation rate of 1.0837%. A total of 19 of the 23 STR loci were mutated, with a mutation rate of 0.1301% at the D12S391 locus and 0.0217% at five loci, TPOX, D1S1656, D2S441, D22S1045, and PentaD, while no muta-tion events were found at four loci, D19S433, TH01, D13S317, and D7S820. Of the 50 mutation events, 47 were one-step mutations, 1 was two-step, and 2 were three-step. There were 35 paternal mutations (13 triplets and 22 dyads), 6 maternal mutations (4 triplets and 2 dyads), and 9 indeterminate pater-nal/maternal mutations, with a paternal to maternal mutation ratio of 5.83:1. [Conclusion] The mutation rate of D12S391 locus is the highest, and the muta-tion rate of TPOX, D1S1656, D2S441, D22S1045 and PentaD loci is the lowest in Hainan population, and paternal mutations are more than maternal muta-tions. In the paternity test, if 1 - 3 STR loci do not conform to the genetic law, especially when the mutant locus is homozygous or the next of kin is identi-fied, it is necessary to use other kits to review and increase the number of loci or use the second-generation sequencing technology to confirm, carefully de-termine the mutation and ensure the accuracy of the identification conclusion.
Sanaa Al-Shaarawy, Essam Eldin Abdelhady Salama
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 10, pp 7-12; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2022.101002

Abstract:
The right hepatic artery is an important arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. And the knowledge of the normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery is essential to perfume, and will minimize morbidity, and also help to decrease the number of complications of hepatobiliary surgery. This study was conducted on eleven human cadavers, which were obtained from the routine autopsies at the dissection room of the Anatomy Department. During dissection of the eleven cadaveric livers, we found a case with an ex-ceptional anatomic variation; a replaced right hepatic artery (RRHA) coming off the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), directly to the hepatic right lobe passing through the Calot’s triangle, crossing behind the common hepatic duct (CHD). Our objective is to draw much attention to this particularly anatomic variation of the origin of the RRHA as well as its clinical importance in order to ensure that no damage will be made during gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery.
Ghadeer M. M. Abdelaal, Eman A. A. Abdallah, Asmaa A. Alshamy, Elham Elshawadfy Megahed
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 10, pp 27-43; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2022.102004

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of the present study is to discriminate functions for sex determination in a subjected sample of the Egyptian population using the morphology of metacarpals and phalanges for gender comparison. Furthermore, the measurements discussed in this study will aid in predicting the differentiation independently and guaranteeing sex determination in the subjected population individually. Methods: Forty measurements were taken from the right metacarpals and phalangeal bones of 100 subjects, whose ages ranged from 19 to 60. Moreover, the measurements of nine metacarpals and four phalangeal bones were used for sex discrimination in each sample population. Results: Males had significantly greater mean values (P The cut-off value and the accuracy percentage for precise sex classification of males and females using individual and grouped bones showed that a value higher than the marking point classified an individual as male and that a lower value suggested female. Besides, the multiple stepwise discriminant functional analysis of the most predictable internal variables of the metacarpals revealed a cross-validated sex classification accuracy of 100%. In contrast, the most predictable internal variables of the phalanges showed a cross-validated sex classification accuracy of 93%. Conclusion: The results revealed a new forensic suggestion for the determination of sex based on the measurements of the metacarpals and the phalanges. Moreover, various discriminant equations were applied for the declaration of this conceivable recommendation.
Abdoulaye Kanté, Jean François Uhl, Mariam Daou, Babou Ba, Tata Touré, Ousmane Touré, Yatera Demba, Moumouna Koné, Drissa Traoré, Ouhoum Ongoïba, et al.
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 10, pp 13-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2022.101003

Abstract:
Objective: To carry out a 3D vector reconstruction of the muscles of the ventral region of the neck from anatomical sections of the “Korean Visible Human” for educational purposes. Materials and Methods: The anatomical subject was a 33-year-old Korean man who died of leukemia. He was 164 cm tall and weighed 55 kgs. The anatomical sections were made in 2010 after an MRI and a CT scan. A special saw (cryomacrotome) made it possible to make cuts 0.2 mm thick on the frozen body, i.e. 5960 cuts. Sections numbered 1500 to 2000 (or 500 cuts covering the neck) were used for our study. A segmentation by manual contouring of each anatomical element of the anterior neck region was done using Winsurf version 3.5 software on a laptop PC running Windows 7 equipped with an 8 gigabyte RAM. Results: We modeled the sternocleidomastoid muscles, the supra-hyoid muscles, the infra-hyoid muscles and the muscle structures of the anterior neck region, the aero-digestive axis of the anterior neck region and the vasculo-nervous axis of the neck. This model is easily manipulated using the Acrobat 3Dpdf interface. Each item accessible in a menu can be displayed, hidden or made transparent, and 3D labels are available as well as educational menus for learning anatomy. This vector model has been integrated into the Diva3d virtual dissection table, a new educational tool used by universities and medical schools to learn anatomy. This model was also uploaded to the Sketchfab? website and 3D printed using an ENDER? pro 3 printer. Conclusion: This original work constitutes a remarkable educational tool for the anatomical study of the anterior neck region and can also be used as a 3D atlas for simulation purposes for training in therapeutic gestures.
Kyialbek Sakibaev, Kanykei Zhanybek Kyzy, Nazgul Tashmatova, Svetlana Klochkova, Ibragim Atabaev, Dmitrii Nikityuk, Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Lazokatkhan Dzhumaeva, Nataliya Alexeeva, Ishenbek Satylganov
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2021.91001

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the thickness of skin and fat folds in Kyrgyz women of various ages, taking into account their somatotypological profile. Using the method of complex anthropometry, including the determination of the values of 21 anthropometric parameters, the physical status of 1028 Kyrgyz women of different age groups was studied youth (16 - 20 years old 310 girls), mature age (1st period, 21 - 35 years old 308 women; 2nd period, 36 - 55 years 410 women) living in Osh, Kyrgyzstan. For somatotyping, we used the scheme of constitutional diagnostics. Seven somatotypes distinguished within three constitutional groups. The subcutaneous fat was measured by caliperometry. Statistical processing carried out using the statistical programs Microsoft Excel and the STATISTICA package (v. 6.0). To determine the reliability of the differences between the indicators, the Student’s test was used (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate that within each somatotype there are broad changes in the studied anthropometric indicator. Thus, the thickness of the skin and fat folds is the smallest in women of asthenic, athletic and stenoplastic (p < 0.05), and the largest in representatives of the euriplastic and pycnic somatotypes (p < 0.05). Thus, indicators of physical status in adolescence and adulthood in women have a pronounced somatotypological specificity. These materials on the physical development and constitutional and typological characteristics of the studied population of women applicable for a personalized approach in the context of a relative norm.
Abhinav Sood, Varsha Dogra, Gayatri Pathmanathan
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 11-23; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2021.92002

Abstract:
This comprehensive review participates in the use of three different non-invasive surface scanning techniques directed in scientific research of medical, anthropology, archaeology forensic science, and product designing. 3D surface examining tools speak to a promising technique to provide reproducible data such as map the facial soft or hard tissues of a subject document skeletal remains, and trauma, generating 3D imitations of the components for documented and illustrative purposes while simultaneously holding exactness and unwavering quality. Three-dimensional imaging is rapidly turning into a vital tool for reconstruction and examination in scientific research. The final 3D mesh can be 3D printed or the digital version can be shared online with scientific researchers. This review manuscript highlights several studies utilizing non-invasive scanning techniques, depicts the pro and cons of the 3D scanning techniques, and different features of the scanners irrespective of the cost which would be helpful for future research work. A resourceful review was conducted using 7 databases; PubMed, CENTRAL, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, Research Gate, and IEEE Xplore from 2002 to 2020. Search terms were; “3D Laser scanning”, “Photogrammetry”, “Skeleton preservation”, “Documentation”, “Surface Scanning”, etc. Papers with quality work and related to the field of forensic science, anthropometry, 3D facial scanning, and product development were selected. From all the studies, 71 studies met the eligibility criteria, and other articles were excluded which were non-relevant, had duplicate records, and did not meet search criteria. This review provides in-depth understanding and discussions into methods, restrictions, and inferences from respective research publications.
Géraud Léra Akpo, Ndeye Bigué Mar, Soukeyna Abouabdillah, Nfaly Badji, Hamidou Deme, Youssoupha Kasse, Ibrahima Niang, Mamadou Lamine Gueye, Marcel Mbarga, Ibrahima Faye, et al.
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2021.93004

Abstract:
We present a rare case associating inferior vena cava’s (IVC) complex variations. Anatomical, embryological and clinical aspects are discussed. Duplication’s discovery was fortuitous during an abdominal ultrasound and was confirmed by the CT scan. The latter also highlighted azygos continuation, retro aortic renal vein and an iliac venous anomaly. These variants are important to know in order to be able to differentiate them from lymphadenopathy, para-vertebral masses, and aortic pathologies. It is necessary to report them before any retroperitoneal surgery or interventional vascular procedure.
Abdoulaye Kanté, Mariam Daou, Jean François Uhl, Vincent Delmas, Babou Ba, Tata Touré, Ousmane Touré, Moumouna Koné, Demba Yatera, Youssouf Sidibé, et al.
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 41-53; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2021.94005

Abstract:
Aim: To perform a vector 3D reconstruction of the neck skeleton from the anatomical sections of the “Korean Visible Human” for educational purposes. Material and Methods: The anatomical subject was a 33-year-old Korean male who died of leukemia. It measured 164 cm and weighed 55 kgs. The anatomical cuts were made in 2010 after an MRI and a CT scan. A special saw (cryomacrotome) made it possible to make cuts on the frozen body of 0.2 mm thick or 5960 slices. Sections numbered 1500 to 2000 (500 neck sections) were used for this study. Manual contouring segmentation of each anatomical element of the anterior neck area was done using Winsurf software version 3.5 on a PC. Results: Our vector 3D neck model includes the following: cervical vertebrae, hyoid bone, sternum manubrium and clavicles. This vector model has been integrated into the virtual dissection table Diva3d, a new educational tool used by universities and medical schools to learn anatomy. This model was also put online on the Sketchfab website and printed in 3D using an ENDER 3 printer. Conclusion: This original work is a remarkable educational tool for the study of the skeleton of the neck and can also serve as a 3D atlas for simulation purposes for training therapeutic gestures.
Linda Rubinstein
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.4236/fmar.2021.92003

Abstract:
DNA extraction from degraded skeletal samples is often particularly challenging. The difficulty derives from the fact that variable environment has a significant effect on DNA preservation. During the years 2002-2015 unidentified degraded skeletal remains were accumulated at our institute, National Institute of Forensic Medicine (NIFM), most of them with none or partial DNA profile. As new methods rapidly emerge, we revisited these samples with partial DNA profiles in the hope to add additional alleles and eventually be able to identify these previously unidentifiable samples. We have chosen to use these samples to compare two automated methods: Prepfiler Express BTA (Applied Biosystems) and QIAcube (Quiagen), in hope of acquiring a more complete DNA profile and eventually make new identifications possibly comparing these profiles with missing person database. In both methods, a preparation step is required, after which the samples undergo automatic DNA extraction. The two protocols are based on different extraction methods. Fresh or non-problematic bone samples as the positive control gave the same results in both methods. In the degraded skeletal samples, the results were significantly better using the QIAcube method in our hands, but since degraded samples are highly variable the combination of both methods could be useful to receive better and more reliable profiles.
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