Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-4115 / 2327-4107
Current Publisher: Hans Publishers (10.4236)
Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 90
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

Kyialbek Sakibaev, Kanykei Zhanybek Kyzy, Nazgul Tashmatova, Svetlana Klochkova, Ibragim Atabaev, Dmitrii Nikityuk, Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Lazokatkhan Dzhumaeva, Nataliya Alexeeva, Ishenbek Satylganov
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/fmar.2021.91001

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the thickness of skin and fat folds in Kyrgyz women of various ages, taking into account their somatotypological profile. Using the method of complex anthropometry, including the determination of the values of 21 anthropometric parameters, the physical status of 1028 Kyrgyz women of different age groups was studied youth (16 - 20 years old 310 girls), mature age (1st period, 21 - 35 years old 308 women; 2nd period, 36 - 55 years 410 women) living in Osh, Kyrgyzstan. For somatotyping, we used the scheme of constitutional diagnostics. Seven somatotypes distinguished within three constitutional groups. The subcutaneous fat was measured by caliperometry. Statistical processing carried out using the statistical programs Microsoft Excel and the STATISTICA package (v. 6.0). To determine the reliability of the differences between the indicators, the Student’s test was used (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate that within each somatotype there are broad changes in the studied anthropometric indicator. Thus, the thickness of the skin and fat folds is the smallest in women of asthenic, athletic and stenoplastic (p < 0.05), and the largest in representatives of the euriplastic and pycnic somatotypes (p < 0.05). Thus, indicators of physical status in adolescence and adulthood in women have a pronounced somatotypological specificity. These materials on the physical development and constitutional and typological characteristics of the studied population of women applicable for a personalized approach in the context of a relative norm.
Abhinav Sood, Varsha Dogra, Gayatri Pathmanathan
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 11-23; doi:10.4236/fmar.2021.92002

Abstract:
This comprehensive review participates in the use of three different non-invasive surface scanning techniques directed in scientific research of medical, anthropology, archaeology forensic science, and product designing. 3D surface examining tools speak to a promising technique to provide reproducible data such as map the facial soft or hard tissues of a subject document skeletal remains, and trauma, generating 3D imitations of the components for documented and illustrative purposes while simultaneously holding exactness and unwavering quality. Three-dimensional imaging is rapidly turning into a vital tool for reconstruction and examination in scientific research. The final 3D mesh can be 3D printed or the digital version can be shared online with scientific researchers. This review manuscript highlights several studies utilizing non-invasive scanning techniques, depicts the pro and cons of the 3D scanning techniques, and different features of the scanners irrespective of the cost which would be helpful for future research work. A resourceful review was conducted using 7 databases; PubMed, CENTRAL, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, Research Gate, and IEEE Xplore from 2002 to 2020. Search terms were; “3D Laser scanning”, “Photogrammetry”, “Skeleton preservation”, “Documentation”, “Surface Scanning”, etc. Papers with quality work and related to the field of forensic science, anthropometry, 3D facial scanning, and product development were selected. From all the studies, 71 studies met the eligibility criteria, and other articles were excluded which were non-relevant, had duplicate records, and did not meet search criteria. This review provides in-depth understanding and discussions into methods, restrictions, and inferences from respective research publications.
Linda Rubinstein
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 09, pp 24-30; doi:10.4236/fmar.2021.92003

Abstract:
DNA extraction from degraded skeletal samples is often particularly challenging. The difficulty derives from the fact that variable environment has a significant effect on DNA preservation. During the years 2002-2015 unidentified degraded skeletal remains were accumulated at our institute, National Institute of Forensic Medicine (NIFM), most of them with none or partial DNA profile. As new methods rapidly emerge, we revisited these samples with partial DNA profiles in the hope to add additional alleles and eventually be able to identify these previously unidentifiable samples. We have chosen to use these samples to compare two automated methods: Prepfiler Express BTA (Applied Biosystems) and QIAcube (Quiagen), in hope of acquiring a more complete DNA profile and eventually make new identifications possibly comparing these profiles with missing person database. In both methods, a preparation step is required, after which the samples undergo automatic DNA extraction. The two protocols are based on different extraction methods. Fresh or non-problematic bone samples as the positive control gave the same results in both methods. In the degraded skeletal samples, the results were significantly better using the QIAcube method in our hands, but since degraded samples are highly variable the combination of both methods could be useful to receive better and more reliable profiles.
Kyialbek Sakibaev, Dmitry Nikityuk, Nazgul Tashmatova, Mirlan Nuruev, Lazokatkhan Dzhumaeva, Zhanibek Muratov, Svetlana Klochkova, Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Kadyr Kozuev
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 08, pp 65-80; doi:10.4236/fmar.2020.84007

Abstract:
This article is investigating constitutional and age characteristics of the body length, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and the absolute fat mass of Kyrgyz women. The features of the BMI and fat body mass in females with different constitutional and age groups were studied. According to our study, the leptosomatic group of body constitution was determined in 20% of women, while the mesosomatic group noted in 32%, megalosomatic group recorded in 33%, and an indefinite group established in 15% among the studied women. Stenoplastic constitution was 66% - 77% in the leptosomal constitution; asthenic thin bone group was 18% - 24%; and broad bone group somatotypes were 5 - 10%. The proportion of the mesoplastic group was 31 - 66%, which is greater than picnic somatotype (34% - 69%). Results of our study revealed constitutional and age peculiarities are important for prescriptions in practical medicine.
Abdoulaye Kanté, Jean François Uhll, Mariam Daou, Vincent Delmas, J. S. Park, B. S. Chung, Babou Ba, Nouhoum Ongoïba
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 08, pp 55-63; doi:10.4236/fmar.2020.83006

Abstract:
Aim: To carry out a 3D vector reconstruction of the typical cervical vertebra from anatomical sections of the “Korean Visible Human” for educational purposes. Material and Methods: The anatomical subject was a 33-year-old Korean man who died of leukemia. He was 164 cm tall and weighed 55 kg. This man donated his body to science. Her body was frozen and cut into several anatomical sections after an MRI and CT scan. These anatomical sections were made using a special saw called a 0.2 mm thick cryomacrotome. Thus 8100 cuts were obtained. Only the sections numbered 940 to 1200 were used for our study. A segmentation by manual contouring of the different parts of the typical cervical vertebra was made using the software Winsurf version 3.5 on a laptop PC running Windows 7 equipped with a Ram of 8 gigas. Results: Our 3D vector model of the typical cervical vertebra is easily manipulated using the Acrobat 3DPDF interface. Each part of the vertebra accessible in a menu can be displayed, hidden or made transparent, and 3D labels are available as well as educational menus for learning anatomy. Conclusion: This original work constitutes a remarkable educational tool for the anatomical study of the typical cervical vertebra and can also be used as a 3D atlas for simulation purposes for training in therapeutic gestures.
Luiz Eugênio Nigro Mazzilli, Nelson Massanobu Sakaguti, Mário Marques Fernandes, Juan Antonio Cobo Plana, Fernanda Capurucho Horta Bouchardet, Rogério Nogueira de Oliveira
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 08, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/fmar.2020.81001

Abstract:
Forensic aesthetic facial damage—AFD expert’s valuation is a concerning matter in court as expressively vary in between experts. In fact, differences can be quite significant suggesting examiners age, sex and professional qualification may influence this valuation. Aiming to offer a systematic and more objective evaluation, some methods for assessing AFD had been proposed lately. Known as Aesthetic Impairment Impact Perception (AIPE), Cobo-Plana’s revised methodology (2010) was idealized to minimize the examiner’s subjectivity by means of answering an ordered sequence of questions related to the specific damage perception. This research aims to access AFD perception differences (simulated cases) in between Lawyers, Heath professionals (Physicians and Dental surgeons) and general professionals (laypeople) under AIPE methodology in order to allow a better comprehension of AFD when dealing with forensic expertise cases. Within Groups perceptions varied (p < 0.05) when evaluating lesions below “important” severity grade. Raters over 35 Years age scored higher AFD lesions, and rater’s sex (as an independent variable) did not express any significant difference in AFD scoring. The tendency of under-rating AFD lesions below very important severity grade was observed being a matter of major concern considered their prevalence and the effective consequences involved to the victim. These results recommend extra caution when performing AFD evaluation and consequently expertise reports, claiming a more judicious analysis based on consolidated standards and suggest, examiners to be more perceptive to physical damage evaluation in order to include social perceptions and reactions, mainly, victims feelings and constrains over their aesthetic loss.
Magaye Gaye, Papa Adama Dieng, Ainina Ndiaye, Racky Wade, Sidy Diop, Ndeye Fatou Sow, Papa Amath Diagne, Souleymane Diatta, Salmane Ba, Mourad Boufi, et al.
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 08, pp 45-53; doi:10.4236/fmar.2020.82005

Abstract:
Several theories point to the influence of the geometry of femoral arterial bifurcation in the formation and evolution of atherosclerosis plaques at the level of common, superficial and deep femoral arteries. The objective of this study is to correlate the degrees of calcifications of the femoral tripod with different morphological parameters, namely conicity, tortuosity, proximal and distal diameters of the arteries and angles between the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and the profound femoral artery (PFA) and the superficial femoral artery. The results showed that only the tortuosity of the common femoral artery influences the formation of atherosclerosis plaque. These results allow us to predict the degree of calcification of the femoral tripod based on the tortuosity of the common femoral artery.
Babou Ba, Siaka Diakité, Abdoulaye Kanté, Tata Touré, Moumouna Koné, Nouhoum Ongoïba, Abdel Karim Koumaré, Siaka Sidibé
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 08, pp 11-17; doi:10.4236/fmar.2020.82002

Abstract:
Roughly quadrangular, the chiasma presents many morphological variations. The optical chiasm, odd and symmetrical structure of the optical pathways, is a required passage of the axons of neurons for the visual pathways. Any modification of its morphology evokes a pathological process, generally tumoral. The quality of MRI images rivals that of anatomical slices. So the MRI is essential for the study of the chiasma. The aim of this work was to study the morphometry of the optic chiasm in patients addressed for cerebral MRI to the imaging department of the university hospital of the POINT-G, during the period from July 29, to November 30, 2016. All patients who had a normal examination of the optic chiasma, numbering 15, were included in this study. In 86.66% of cases the chiasma had a quadrilateral form. Its average length was 8.73 mm and its average width was 13 mm. The average thickness was 4.13 mm.
, William Buwembo
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, Volume 08, pp 18-37; doi:10.4236/fmar.2020.82003

Abstract:
Human cadaver dissection remains a core and preferred method of anatomical instruction at most low- and middle-income health professional training institutions. Dissection, which is both traumatic and stressful, sets the tone of the students’ responses to later and or similar stressful learning opportunities like the post-mortems or care for terminally ill patients. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to determine the effect of the students’: personality, perception of the learning environment, learning approach, and effect of the environment on the student, on undergraduate health professional student’s activity in the human cadaver dissection room. This was a secondary analysis of previously collected data from a cross sectional survey of undergraduate health professional students. We found that personality type and perception of the environment had a positive effect on dissection room activity. Approach to learning and being affected by the dissection room experience (impact), had a negative effect on dissection room activity. All the above effects on dissection room activity were not significant. This study showed that personality, perception of the learning environment, learning approach and effect of the environment on the student, had effects on undergraduate health professional student’s activity in the human cadaver dissection room. The modelled effects are opportunities for educational interventions aimed at increasing student activity in the dissection room.
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