Journal of Engineering for Industry
ISSN : 0022-0817
Published by: ASME International (10.1115)
Total articles ≅ 4,698
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 111-116; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803631
This paper presents the analytical modeling of chip load and chip volume distribution in milling processes in the presence of cutter runout. The understanding of chip load kinematics has a strong bearing on the prediction of milling forces, on the assessment of resulting surface finish and tool vibration, and on the identification of runout for multi-toothed machining process monitoring and control. In this study a chip thickness expression is analytically established in terms of the number of flutes, the cutter offset location and the ratio of offset magnitude to feed per tooth. The effects of runout geometry, feed rate, and depths of cut on the overall chip generating action is discussed through the illustration of cutting regions and chip load maps. Explicit solutions for the entry and exit angles are formulated in the context of milling parameters and configuration. Experimental measurement of the resulting chip volumes from machining with an offset cutter is compared to an analytical model formulated from the chip thickness expression. Additionally, an average chip thickness prediction, based on the chip volume model in combination with the entry/exit angle solutions, is compared to data reported in the literature for validity assessment.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 117-122; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803632
A new method to measure the temperature distribution in cutting tools is reported. In this method, a thin PVD (physically vapor deposited) film deposited on a cutting tool is used as a thermal sensor. Various films of different materials are deposited to determine the location of a multiplicity of isotherms at different temperatures. Cemented carbide tools and alumina ceramic tools are used for tests. It is confirmed that the boundary between the melted film zone and the unmelted film zone shows the isotherm directly and clearly. The method is also found to be very sensitive and applicable to any tool material as well as to a very small area.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 150-154; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803636
Increasingly higher speeds of modern electrophotographic printing force examination of the problem of retaining sufficient fixing strength without deterioration of print quality. In the nip region between the two rollers where fixing occurs, the significant parameters are temperature, heat flux, and pressure changes. Their optimization is necessary to maintain both speed and print quality. Difficulty in analyzing the relationship among these parameters occurs because of the complexity of two-dimensional phenomena in a rotating field and the rapidity of changes. Experimental equipment to measure relative heat flux in the nip region during rapid temperature changes was designed. Two sensors are installed in the heat roller. An adiabatic piece is buried under sensor 1. Sensor 2, without an adiabatic piece, detects temperature. Sensor 1 is electrically heated and always at the same temperature as sensor 2. Heat flux changes are obtained by noting the electric power supplied to sensor 1. The equipment was fabricated and measurements were made. They indicate an intermittent two-dimensional heat flux. Because of this, temperature decreases rapidly before the entrance to the nip region. Estimates of two-dimensional effects are made and modified for a one-dimensional case. From them, the temperature field in the nip region for actual fixing conditions is calculated.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 169-172; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803640
This paper presents a steady-state heat transfer model for a rotary kiln used for drying and preheating of wet solids with application to the non-reacting zone of a cement rotary kiln. A detailed parametric study indicates that the influence of the controlling parameters such as percent water content (with respect to dry solids), solids flow rate, gas flow rate, kiln inclination angle and the rotational speed of the kiln on the axial solids and gas temperature profiles and the total predicted kiln length is appreciable.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 20-28; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803642
This paper presents an analytical method for planning an efficient tool-path in machining free-form surfaces on 3-axis milling machines. This new approach uses a nonconstant offset of the previous tool-path, which guarantees the cutter moving in an unmachined area of the part surface and without redundant machining. The method comprises three steps: (1) the calculation of the tool-path interval, (2) the conversion from the path interval to the parametric interval, and (3) the synthesis of efficient tool-path planning.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803644
The present paper reviews some fundamental aspects related to the understanding of the high rate anodic dissolution processes and their influence on thin film patterning by electrochemical micromachining. The role of convective mass transport and current distribution on the surface finish and shape evolution is discussed. Several examples of the applications of maskless and through-mask electrochemical micromachining are presented.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 55-66; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803648
In this paper, a fault diagnostic method is proposed for autobody assembly fixtures. This method uses measurement data to detect and isolate dimensional faults of part caused by fixture. The proposed method includes a predetermined variation pattern model and a fault mapping procedure. The variation pattern model is based on CAD information about the fixture geometry and location of the measurement points. This fault mapping procedure combines Principal Component Analysis with pattern recognition approach. Simulations and one case study illustrate the proposed method.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 67-76; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803649
An integrated lattice filter adaptive control system is developed for the control of time-varying CMM structural vibrations. An efficient algorithm is developed to provide a link between the adaptive lattice filter and the minimum variance control by directly utilizing the lattice filter parameters at time t − 1 for control. The approach avoids the conversion to system parameters and is therefore computationally efficient for applications of real time control. To fully utilize the benefit of the lattice filter, a heuristic criterion for on-line order determination is developed using the lattice filter parameters. With a linear computational cost, the developed algorithm will perform on-line system order determination, parameter tracking, and control calculation at each sampling instance. The simulation result shows that the approximation of output prediction is reasonable and the integrated lattice filter adaptive control can reduce the system settling time by 82 percent as compared with no control.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 77-87; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803650
The integrated fast lattice filter adaptive control algorithm developed in Part 1 of this paper will be implemented for the control of the structural vibration of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The structural vibration of a CMM exhibits time-varying dynamic characteristics. For auxiliary control, the probe head acceleration was measured to compute the voltage input to the servo motor of the CMM. The developed algorithm uses directly the lattice filter parameters to track and control the CMM structural dynamics and is implemented on a Sheffield horizontal arm Coordinate Measuring Machine using a floating point Digital Signal Processor TMS320C30. Through experiments, significant reduction of the CMM settling time has been achieved by suppressing the structural vibration. In certain configurations, the reduction was 95 percent.
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Volume 118, pp 104-110; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2803629
An experimental study has been conducted to study the crack growth phenomenon that occurs while drilling fiber-reinforced composite materials (FRCM), specifically unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber/epoxy resin. It uses an experimental setup that exploits the technology of video to understand the complete crack growth phenomenon as the drill emerges from the exit side of the workpiece. Significant damage mechanisms are observed and defined, and correlations between the average exit drill forces and the crack tip position are shown. Instantaneous forces as they vary along the orientation of the cutting edges are identified in terms of their contribution to the crack propagation.