Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

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ISSN / EISSN : 0148-0731 / 1528-8951
Published by: ASME International (10.1115)
Total articles ≅ 4,912
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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052368

Abstract:
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. One of the hypothesized mechanisms of ischemia in these patients is the lateral compression of the anomalous artery with an intramural or interarterial course. The presence of a narrowing in the anomalous artery will cause physiologic changes in downstream resistance that should be included for computational assessment of possible clinical ramifications. In the current study, we created different compression levels, i.e., proximal narrowing, in the intramural course of a representative patient model and calculated virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR). Models also included the effect of the distal hyperemic microvascular resistance (HMR) on vFFR. Our results were in agreement with similar FFR studies indicating that FFR was increased with increasing HMR, and that different compression levels could have similar FFR depending on the HMR. For example, vFFR at HSR:1.0-1.3 and HMR: 2.30 mmHg/cm/s is 0.68 and close to vFFR at HSR:0.6-0.7 and HMR: 1.6 mmHg/cm/s, which is 0.7. The current findings suggest that functional assessment of anomalous coronary arteries through FFR should consider the vascular resistance distal to the narrowing in addition to the impact of a proximal narrowing and provides computational approaches for implementation of these important considerations.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052381

Abstract:
Characterization of material parameters from experimental data remains challenging, especially on biological structures. One of such techniques allowing for the inverse determination of material parameters from measurement data is the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). However, application of the VFM on general structures of complicated shape has not yet been extensively investigated. In this paper, we extend the framework of the VFM method to thin curved solids in 3D, commonly denoted shells. Our method is then used to estimate theYoung's modulus and hysteretic damping of the human eardrum. By utilizing Kirchhoff plate theory, we assume that the behavior of the shell varies linearly through the thickness. The total strain of the shell can then be separated in a bending and membrane strain. This in turn allowed for an application of the VFM based only on data of the outer surface of the shell. We validated our method on simulated and experimental data of a human eardrum made to vibrate at certain frequencies. It was shown that the identified material properties were accurately determined based only on data from the outer surface and are in agreement with literature. Additionally, we observed that neither the bending nor the membrane strain in an human eardrum can be neglected and both contribute significantly to the total strain found experimentally.
Rayanne Pinto Costa, Blaise Simplice Talla Nwotchouang, Junyao Yao, , , , ,
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052370

Abstract:
Blood, a multiphase fluid comprised of plasma, blood cells, and platelets, is known to exhibit a shear-thinning behavior at low shear rates and near-Newtonian behavior at higher shear rates. However, less is known about the impact of its multiphase nature on the transition to turbulence. In this study, we experimentally determined the critical Reynolds number at which the flow began to transition to turbulence downstream of an eccentric stenosis for whole porcine blood and a Newtonian blood analog (water-glycerin mixture). Velocity profiles for both fluids were measured under steady-state flow conditions using an ultrasound Doppler probe placed 12 diameters downstream of an eccentric stenosis. Velocity was recorded at 21 locations along the diameter at 11 different flow rates. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy was used to determine the critical Reynolds number for each fluid. Blood rheology was measured before and after each experiment. Tests were conducted on five samples of each fluid inside a temperature-controlled in-vitro flow system. The viscosity at shear rate 1000 s 1 was used to define the Reynolds number for each fluid. The mean critical Reynolds numbers for blood and water-glycerin were 470 ± 27.5 and 395 ± 10, respectively, indicating a ~19% delay in transition to turbulence for whole blood compared to the Newtonian fluid. This finding is consistent with a previous report for steady flow in a straight pipe, suggesting some aspect of blood rheology may serve to suppress, or at least delay, the onset of turbulence in vivo.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052372

Abstract:
Plate fractures after fixation of a Vancouver Type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) are difficult to treat and could lead to severe disability. However, due to the lack of direct measurement of in vivo performance of the PFF fixation construct, it is unknown whether current standardmechanical tests or previous experimental and computational studies have appropriately reproduced the in vivo mechanics of the plate. To provide a basis for the evaluation and development of appropriate mechanical tests for assessment of plate fracture risk, this study applied loads of common activities of daily living (ADLs) to implanted femur finite element (FE) models with PFF fixation constructs with an existing or a healed PFF. Based on FE simulated plate mechanics, the standard 4-point-bend test adequately matched the stress state and the resultant bending moment in the plate as compared with femur models with an existing PFF. In addition, the newly developed constrained 3-point-bend tests were able to reproduce plate stresses in models with a healed PFF. Furthermore, a combined bending and compression cadaveric test was appropriate for risk assessment including both plate fracture and screw loosening after the complete healing of PFF. The result of this study provides the means for combined experimental and computational pre-clinical evaluation of PFF fixation constructs.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052369

Abstract:
This paper describes the design of a simple and low cost compliant low profile prosthetic foot based on a cantilevered beam of uniform strength. The prosthetic foot is developed such that the maximum stress experienced by the beam is distributed approximately evenly across the length of the beam. Due to this stress distribution, the prosthetic foot exhibits compliant behavior not achievable through standard design approaches (e.g. designs based on simple cantilevered beams). Additionally, due to its simplicity and use of flat structural members, the foot can be manufactured at low cost. An analytical model of the compliant behavior of the beam is developed that facilitates rapid design changes to vary foot size and stiffness. A characteristic prototype was designed and constructed to be used in both a benchtop quasistatic loading test as well as a dynamic walking test for validation. The model predicted the rotational stiffness of the prototype with 5% error. Furthermore, the prototype foot was tested alongside two commercially available prosthetic feet (a low profile foot and an energy storage and release foot) in level walking experiments with a single study participant. The prototype foot displayed the lowest stiffness of the three feet (6.0, 7.1, and 10.4 Nm/deg for the prototype foot, the commercial low profile foot, and the energy storage and release foot, respectively). This foot design approach and accompanying model may allow for compliant feet to be developed for individuals with long residual limbs.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052371

Abstract:
Current clinical practice is often unable to identify the causes of conductive hearing loss in the middle ear with sufficient certainty without exploratory surgery. Besides the large uncertainties due to interindividual variances, only partially understood cause-effect principles are a major reason for the hesitant use of objective methods such as wideband tympanometry in diagnosis, despite their high sensitivity to pathological changes. For a better understanding of objective metrics of the middle ear, this study presents a model that can be used to reproduce characteristic changes in metrics of the middle ear by altering local physical model parameters linked to the anatomical causes of a pathology. A finite-element model is therefore fitted with an adaptive parameter identification algorithm to results of a temporal bone study with stepwise and systematically prepared pathologies. The fitted model is able to reproduce well the measured quantities reflectance, impedance, umbo and stapes transfer function for normal ears and ears with otosclerosis, malleus fixation and disarticulation. In addition to a good representation of the characteristic influences of the pathologies in the measured quantities, a clear assignment of identified model parameters and pathologies consistent with previous studies is achieved. The identification results highlight the importance of the local stiffness and damping values in the middle ear for correct mapping of pathological characteristics, and address the challenges of limited measurement data and wide parameter ranges from literature. The great sensitivity of the model with respect to pathologies indicates a high potential for application in model-based diagnosis.
, , Bikramjit Basu
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052373

Abstract:
The wear of acetabular liner is one of the key factors determining the longevity and osseointegration of Total Hip Replacement (THR) implants. The long-term experimental measurements of wear in THR components are time and cost-intensive. A finite element (FE) model of a 32 mm Ceramic on Polymer system consisting of ZTA (Zirconia-toughened Alumina) femoral head and UHMWPE (Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) liner was developed to predict the dynamic wear response of the liner. Archard-Lancaster equation, consisting of surface contact pressure, wear rate, and sliding distance, was employed to predict the wear in the liner. The contact pressure and wear at the articulating surface were found to decrease over time. A new computational method involving 3D point clouds from the FE analyzed results were used to construct wear maps. The model was able to predict the linear wear with relative errors ranging from 9% to 36% over 2 million cycles when compared to the published results. The increasing error percentage occurring primarily from the use of a constant wear rate was reduced to a maximum of 17% by introducing a correction factor. Volumetric wear rate was predicted with a maximum relative error of 7% with the implementation of the correction factor. When the model was implemented to study liners of diameters ranging from 28 mm to 36 mm, the linear wear was seen to decrease with an increase in femoral head diameter, which is in agreement with the clinical data.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052374

Abstract:
Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) has proven to enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation of tumor. It has also been demonstrated that triggering droplets before HIFU exposure could be a potential way to control both the size and the shape of the thermal lesion. In this paper, a numerical model is proposed to predict the thermal lesion created in ADV enhanced HIFU treatment. Bubble oscillation was coupled into a viscoelastic medium in the model to more closely represent real applications in tissues. Several physical processes caused by continuous wave ultrasound and elevated temperature during the HIFU exposure were considered, including rectified diffusion, gas solubility variation with temperature in the medium, boiling, etc. Four droplet concentrations spanning two orders of magnitude were calculated. The bubble cloud formed from triggering of the droplets by the pulse wave ultrasound, along with the evolution of the shape and location of the bubble cloud and thermal lesion during the following continuous wave exposure were obtained. The increase of bubble void fraction caused by continuous wave exposure were found to be consistent with the experimental observation. With the increase of droplet concentration, the predicted bubble cloud shapes vary from tadpole to triangular and double triangular, while the thermal lesions move toward the transducer. The results show that the assumptions used in this model increased the accuracy of the results. This model may be used for parametrical study of ADV enhanced HIFU treatment and be further used for treatment planning and optimization in the future.
, Jeffrey McGuire, , , Raffaella De Vita, Kristin S. Miller
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052365

Abstract:
The vagina is a viscoelastic fibromuscular organ that provides support to the pelvic organs. The viscoelastic properties of the vagina are understudied but may be critical for pelvic stability. Most studies evaluate vaginal viscoelasticity under a single uniaxial load; however, the vagina is subjected to dynamic multiaxial loading in the body. It is unknown how varied multiaxial loading conditions affect vaginal viscoelastic behavior and which microstructural processes dictate this. Therefore, the primary objective was to develop methods using extension-inflation protocols to quantify vaginal viscoelastic creep under various circumferential and axial loads. The second objective was to quantify vaginal creep and collagen microstructure in the fibulin-5 wildtype and haploinsufficient vaginas. To evaluate pressure-dependent creep, the fibulin-5 wildtype and haploinsufficient vaginas (n=7/genotype) were subjected to various constant pressures at the physiologic length for 100 seconds. For axial length-dependent creep, the vaginas (n=7/genotype) were extended to various fixed axial lengths then subjected to the mean in vivo pressure for 100 seconds. Second harmonic generation imaging was performed to quantify collagen fiber organization and undulation (n=3/genotype). Increased pressure significantly increased creep strain in the wildtype, but not the haploinsufficient vagina. Axial length did not significantly affect the creep rate or strain in both genotypes. Collagen undulation varied through the depth of the subepithelium but not between genotypes. These findings suggest that the response to loading may vary with biological processes and pathologies, therefore, evaluating vaginal creep under various circumferential loads may be important.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Volume 144; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4051718

Abstract:
Hill-type models are frequently used in biomechanical simulations. They are attractive for their low computational cost and close relation to commonly measured musculotendon parameters. Still, more attention is needed to improve the activation dynamics of the model specifically because of the nonlinearity observed in the electromyography (EMG)–force relation. Moreover, one of the important and practical questions regarding the assessment of the model's performance is how adequately can the model simulate any fundamental type of human movement without modifying model parameters for different tasks? This paper tries to answer this question by proposing a simple physiologically based activation dynamics model. The model describes the kinetics of the calcium dynamics while activating and deactivating the muscle contraction process. Hence, it allowed simulating the recently discovered role of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) channels as immediate counterflux to calcium loss across the tubular system during excitation–contraction coupling. By comparing the ability to fit experimental data without readjusting the parameters, the proposed model has proven to have more steady performance than phenomenologically based models through different submaximal isometric contraction levels. This model indicates that more physiological insights are key for improving Hill-type model performance.
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