Frontiers in Medicine

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ISSN / EISSN : 2296-858X / 2296-858X
Published by: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
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, Xiangyu Guo, Juan Du, Yanli Liu
Published: 26 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.693818

Abstract:
Background: Frailty is one of the most important global health challenges. We aimed to examine the associations between frequency of intellectual and social activities and frailty among community-dwelling older adults in China. Methods: This is a prospective analysis of older adults (aged ≥60 years) who had intellectual and social activity data and were free of frailty from the national representative China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). The exposure was frequency of intellectual and social activities. Frailty was measured by the frailty index (FI) and defined as FI ≥ 0.25. Frailty incidents were followed up for 2 years. We estimated the relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using log-linear binominal regression adjusting for potential confounders. Results: We documented 655 frailty cases over the past 2 years. Participants who had frequent intellectual activities had a lower frailty risk compared with participants who did not have intellectual activity (adjusted RR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.47–0.90). The adjusted RRs were 0.51 (95%CI = 0.33–0.77) for participants who did not have a slip or a fall accident and 1.06 (95%CI = 0.65–1.75) for participants who had experienced slip and fall accidents (P = 0.01 for interaction). Having frequent social activities was not associated with a significant decrease in frailty risk compared with participants who did not have social activity (adjusted RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.78–1.12). Conclusions: This observational study showed that having frequent intellectual activities was associated with a decreased frailty risk. The association was likely to be stronger in participants without a slip or a fall accident. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this observational finding.
, Marco Carlos Uchida
Published: 26 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.702436

Abstract:
Aim: The current study investigated the effects of low-speed resistance training (LSRT) and high-speed resistance training (HSRT) on frailty status, physical performance, cognitive function and blood pressure in pre-frail and frail older people. Material and Methods: Sixty older adults, 32 prefrail and 28 frail, were randomly allocated into LSRT, HSRT, and control group (CG). Before and after intervention periods frailty status, blood pressure, heart rate, and a set of physical performance capabilities and cognitive domains were assessed. Exercise interventions occurred over 16 weeks and included four resistance exercises with 4–8 sets of 4–10 repetitions at moderate intensity. Results: The prevalence of frailty criteria in prefrail and frail older adults were reduced after both LSRT and HSRT. In prefrail, LSRT significantly improved lower-limb muscle strength, while mobility was only improved after HSRT. Muscle power and dual-task performance were significantly increased in both LSRT and HSRT. In frail, LSRT and HSRT similarly improved lower-limb muscle strength and power. However, exclusive improvements in dual-task were observed after LSRT. Memory was significantly increased in prefrail and frail, regardless of the type of resistance training. No significant changes were observed in blood pressure and heart rate. Conclusion: Findings of the present study indicated that both LSRT and HSRT reversed frailty status and improved physical performance in prefrail and frail older adults. Notably, different patterns of improvement were observed among RT protocols. Regarding frailty status, LSRT seemed to be more effective in reverse prefrailty and frailty when compared to HSRT. Greater improvements in muscle strength and power were also observed after LSRT, while HSRT produced superior increases in mobility and dual-task performance. One-leg stand performance was significantly reduced in LSRT, but not HSRT and CG, after 16 weeks. In contrast, RT programs similarly improved verbal memory in prefrail. Finally, no changes in blood pressure and heart rate were observed, regardless of the type of RT. Trial Registration: The protocol was approved by the University of Campinas Human Research Ethics Committee (Protocol No. 20021919.7.0000.5404) and retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration and Results System: NCT04868071.
, Arthur E. Jr. Peabody, Derek Walton, Nephi Walton
Published: 26 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.663014

Abstract:
Precision medicine is increasingly incorporated into clinical practice via three primary data conduits: environmental, lifestyle, and genetic data. In this manuscript we take a closer look at the genetic tier of precision medicine. The volume and variety of data provides a more robust picture of health for individual patients and patient populations. However, this increased data may also have an adverse effect by muddling our understanding without the proper pedagogical tools. Patient genomic data can be challenging to work with. Physicians may encounter genetic results which are not fully understood. Genetic tests may also lead to the quandary of linking patients with diseases or disorders where there are no known treatments. Thus, physicians face a unique challenge of establishing the proper scope of their duty to patients when dealing with genomic data. Some of those scope of practice boundaries have been established as a result of litigation, while others remain an open question. In this paper, we map out some of the legal challenges facing the genomic component of precision medicine, both established and some questions requiring additional guidance. If physicians begin to perceive genomic data as falling short in overall benefit to their patients, it may detrimentally impact precision medicine as a whole. Helping to develop guidance for physicians working with patient genomic data can help avoid this fate of faltering confidence.
Ju Zou, Ying-Hao Wang, Ling Wang, Ruo-Chan Chen
Published: 26 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.702312

Abstract:
Background: Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare condition; its diagnosis is challenging owing to a wide spectrum of ATP7B genotypes and variable clinical phenotypes, along with environmental factors. Few cases of WD with presentation of skin lesions and acute neurovisceral symptoms have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of WD with an uncommon ATP7B gene mutation and rare symptoms of photosensitivity, sensation abnormality, and skin eruption occurring in a 19-year-old woman. Case presentation: We report the case of a 19-year-old woman with WD presenting with liver failure, skin manifestations, and acute neurovisceral symptoms.The rare mutation in intron 1 of ATP7B (c.51+2T > G) was further confirmed by gene sequencing. The patients' symptoms improved after administration of penicillamine and zinc therapy combined with plasma exchange. She received long-term penicillamine treatment, and her liver function was within the normal range at 1 year after discharge. However, she underwent liver transplantation at 1.5 years after discharge. Conclusions: We present a case of WD with a novel ATP7B gene mutation that may serve as a reference to generalists and specialists in hepatology or neurology of the rare clinical characteristics of WD, to prevent misdiagnosis and aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of the condition.
Xianlin Zhu, Hongbai Wang, Su Yuan, Yinan Li, Yuan Jia, Zhe Zhang, , Zaiping Wang
Published: 26 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.655042

Abstract:
Background: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy and safety of remimazolam in clinical endoscopic procedure sedation. Methods: The authors searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library for studies published until January 2, 2021, that reported remimazolam sedation for endoscopic procedures. The sedative efficiency and the incidence of adverse events were assessed as outcomes. Cochrane Review Manager Software 5.3 was used to perform the statistical analyses. Results: Seven relevant studies involving a total of 1,996 patients were identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of the different controls used in the studies, that is, the placebo, midazolam, and propofol. The results demonstrated that remimazolam had a strong sedative effect, and its sedative efficiency was significantly higher than that of placebo [OR = 0.01, 95% CI: (0.00, 0.10), I 2 = 30%, p <0.00001]. The sedative efficiency of remimazolam was significantly higher than that of midazolam [OR = 0.12, 95% CI: (0.08, 0.21), I 2 = 0%, p < 0.00001] but lesser than that of propofol [OR = 12.22, 95% CI: (1.58, 94.47), I 2 = 0%, p = 0.02]. Regarding the adverse events, remimazolam is associated with a lower incidence of hypotension than placebo and midazolam. Similarly, remimazolam was associated with a lower incidence of hypotension and hypoxemia than propofol. Conclusions: Remimazolam is a safe and effective sedative for patients undergoing endoscopic procedures. The sedative efficiency of remimazolam was significantly higher than that of midazolam but slightly lower than that of propofol. However, the respiration and circulation inhibitory effects of remimazolam were weaker than those of midazolam and propofol.
Kai He, Mengyu Liao, Yun Zhu, Bohao Cui, Haoyu Chen, Ting Wang, Nan Wu, Zhenggao Xie, Jing Luo, Yong Wei, et al.
Published: 23 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.713599

Abstract:
Band keratopathy (BK) is a common complication in aphakic eyes with silicone oil tamponade for open-globe injury (OGI), characterized by the grayish-white opacities in the cornea, resulting in a significantly decreased vision when extending to the visual axis. To identify the risk factors for BK in aphakic eyes following vitreoretinal surgical treatment with silicone oil tamponade for OGIs, we performed a multicenter case-control study. The incidence of BK was 28% (28/100 eyes). The multivariate binary logistic regression revealed the silicone oil retention time (SORT) ≥6 months and zone III injury were significant risk factors for BK. From the hierarchical interaction, SORT ≥6 months had a significant risk for BK in eyes with rupture, aniridia, and zone III injury, while zone III injury had a significant risk for BK in eyes with rupture, incomplete/complete iris, and SORT ≥6 months. By using restricted cubic splines with three knots at the 25th, 50th, and 75th centiles to model the association of SORT with BK, we also found a marked increase in the risk for BK at ≥10 months and a slow increase after 6 months, but almost stable within 4–6 months.
Claudia Yaneth Rincón-Acevedo, Andrea Stella Parada-García, Mario Javier Olivera, Fernando Torres-Torres, Liliana Patricia Zuleta-Dueñas, Carolina Hernández,
Published: 23 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.681635

Abstract:
Background: Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is considered a public health problem in Latin America. In Colombia, it affects more than 437,000 inhabitants, mainly in Casanare, an endemic region with eco-epidemiological characteristics that favor its transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the cases of acute CD in Casanare, eastern Colombia, in the period 2012–2020. Methods: In the present study, 103 medical records of confirmed cases of acute CD were reviewed. The departmental/national incidence and fatality were compared by year; the climatological data of mean temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation per year were reviewed and plotted at IDEAM (Colombian Meteorology Institute) concerning the number of cases of acute CD per month, and it was compared with the frequency of triatomines collected in infested houses by community surveillance. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed, comparing symptoms and signs according to transmission routes, complications, and age groups. Results: The incidence was 3.16 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and the fatality rate was 20% in the study period. The most frequent symptoms included: fever 98.1%, myalgia 62.1%, arthralgia 60.2%, and headache 49.5%. There were significant differences in the frequency of myalgia, abdominal pain, and periorbital edema in oral transmission. The main complications were pericardial effusion, myocarditis, and heart failure in the group over 18 years of age. In Casanare, TcI Discrete Typing Unit (DTU) has mainly been identified in humans, triatomines, and reservoirs such as opossums and dogs and TcBat in bats. An increase in the number of acute CD cases was evidenced in March, a period when precipitation increases due to the beginning of the rainy season. Conclusions: The results corroborate the symptomatic heterogeneity of the acute phase of CD, which delays treatment, triggering possible clinical complications. In endemic regions, clinical suspicion, diagnostic capacity, detection, and surveillance programs should be strengthened, including intersectoral public health policies for their prevention and control.
Zhicheng Qian, Shuya Lu, Xufei Luo, , Ling Liu
Published: 23 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.635560

Abstract:
Objective: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to summarize the current existing evidence on the outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19 as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane library, Web of Science, the China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data from their inception to May 15, 2021. The search strings consisted of various search terms related to the concepts of mortality of critically ill patients and clinical interventions. Study Selection: After eliminating duplicates, two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts first, and then the full texts of potentially relevant articles were reviewed to identify cohort studies and case series that focus on the mortality of critically ill patients and clinical interventions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the mortality of critically ill patients with COVID-19. The secondary outcomes included all sorts of supportive care. Results: There were 27 cohort studies and six case series involving 42,219 participants that met our inclusion criteria. All-cause mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) was 35% and mortality in hospital was 32% in critically ill patients with COVID-19 for the year 2020, with very high between-study heterogeneity (I 2 = 97%; p < 0.01). In a subgroup analysis, the mortality during ICU hospitalization in China was 39%, in Asia—except for China—it was 48%, in Europe it was 34%, in America it was 15%, and in the Middle East it was 39%. Non-surviving patients who had an older age [−8.10, 95% CI (−9.31 to −6.90)], a higher APACHE II score [−4.90, 95% CI (−6.54 to −3.27)], a higher SOFA score [−2.27, 95% CI (−2.95 to −1.59)], and a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio [34.77, 95% CI (14.68 to 54.85)] than those who survived. Among clinical interventions, invasive mechanical ventilation [risk ratio (RR) 0.49, 95% CI (0.39–0.61)], kidney replacement therapy [RR 0.34, 95% CI (0.26–0.43)], and vasopressor [RR 0.54, 95% CI (0.34–0.88)] were used more in surviving patients. Conclusions: Mortality was high in critically ill patients with COVID-19 based on low-quality evidence and regional difference that existed. The early identification of critical characteristics and the use of support care help to indicate the outcome of critically ill patients.
Kingston Rajiah, , Hemawathi Ramaya, Wan Nur Asyiken Wan Ab Rahman
Published: 23 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.617147

Abstract:
Introduction: Administration of psychotropic pro re nata (PRN) medications is influenced by diverse factors such as legal use of PRN medications, the attitude of patients, personal bias, and stigma toward such medication use. While PRN prescriptions increase the efficiency of care and encourage patients to participate in self-care, the use of psychotropic PRN medications by outpatients has raised concerns about its risks of harm, especially for the outpatients. This study explored the use of psychotropic PRN medications by patients attending the outpatient clinic in a hospital. Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted. Purposeful sampling was done to achieve cases with enriched information. Participants were chosen regardless of their ethnicity and were selected using the database and patient records in the clinic. Patients 18 years of age prescribed PRN psychotropic medications attending outpatient clinics in a hospital were included. Vulnerable patients (e.g., pregnant ladies, prisoners, cognitively impaired individual, AIDS/HIV subjects, and terminally ill subjects) were excluded. Results: This study revealed the patients' perspectives and experiences on self-management of psychotropic PRN medications. The themes that emerged were clustered as education and background, knowledge on psychotropic medications, frequency of medication intake, underuse of medication, the overdose of medication, side effects concern, source of information, and personal experience. Conclusions: Patients' understanding of medication, inappropriate medication use, cues to action, and use of alternatives are the factors that affected the self-management of psychotropic PRN medications by the patients.
Manuela Campisi, Filippo Liviero, Piero Maestrelli, Gabriella Guarnieri,
Published: 23 July 2021
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 8; doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.690312

Abstract:
Aging is the predominant risk factor for most degenerative diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This process is however very heterogeneous. Defining the biological aging of individual tissues may contribute to better assess this risky process. In this study, we examined the biological age of induced sputum (IS) cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes in the same subject, and compared these to assess whether biological aging of blood leukocytes mirrors that of IS cells. Biological aging was assessed in 18 COPD patients (72.4 ± 7.7 years; 50% males). We explored mitotic and non-mitotic aging pathways, using telomere length (TL) and DNA methylation-based age prediction (DNAmAge) and age acceleration (AgeAcc) (i.e., difference between DNAmAge and chronological age). Data on demographics, life style and occupational exposure, lung function, and clinical and blood parameters were collected. DNAmAge (67.4 ± 5.80 vs. 61.6 ± 5.40 years; p = 0.0003), AgeAcc (−4.5 ± 5.02 vs. −10.8 ± 3.50 years; p = 0.0003), and TL attrition (1.05 ± 0.35 vs. 1.48 ± 0.21 T/S; p = 0.0341) are higher in IS cells than in blood leukocytes in the same patients. Blood leukocytes DNAmAge (r = 0.927245; p = 0.0026) and AgeAcc (r = 0.916445; p = 0.0037), but not TL, highly correlate with that of IS cells. Multiple regression analysis shows that both blood leukocytes DNAmAge and AgeAcc decrease (i.e., younger) in patients with FEV1% enhancement (p = 0.0254 and p = 0.0296) and combined inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy (p = 0.0494 and p = 0.0553). In conclusion, new findings from our work reveal a differential aging in the context of COPD, by a direct quantitative comparison of cell aging in the airway with that in the more accessible peripheral blood leukocytes, providing additional knowledge which could offer a potential translation into the disease management.
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