ISSN / EISSN : 2088-4559 / 2477-0256
Current Publisher: Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (10.12928)
Total articles ≅ 264
Latest articles in this journal
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 365-370; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.16690
Roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) contains many anthocyanins. The purpose of this study was to determine the anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of rosella calyx extract and rosella calyx fortified in yogurt. Roselle calyx extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) was obtained by the infundation method using water at 90 ° C for 15 minutes. Rosella calyx extract was made into yogurt with a concentration of 0%, 2%, 4% and 8%, full cream liquid milk 13% (100 ml), and a 5% bacterial starter combination concentration (1: 1 b/v). The yogurt evaluation included a stability test with storage at 4°C and antioxidant activity using the DPPH method on 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The data was statistically analyzed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The anthocyanin stability of the three samples, namely roselle extracts of 2%, 4%, and 8%, significantly different (p <0.05) for each concentration of roselle calyx extract and the antioxidant activity of roselle calyx yogurt in the three samples 2% 4% and 8% were significantly different for each concentration of rosella calyx extract added to yogurt. During storage, anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of rosella calyx yogurt extract on day 0 to 7 did not differ significantly, while 14 to 28 were significantly different. The 4% and 8% concentrations of rosella calyx yogurt produce optimal yogurt formula
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 239-248; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.16951
Red yeast rice (RYR), commonly known as angkak, is a functional food fermented by rice using Monascus mushrooms. It has a pigment and flavonoid content that is useful as an antioxidant and plays a role in preventing cancer or tumors. This analysis aims to test the antiproliferation activity of commercial RYR fractions of water and ethyl acetate against Miyazaki Canine Mammary Gland Tumor-Bambang 2 (MCM-B2) breast tumor cells. Research on RYR antiproliferation of cancer-sustaining MCM-B2 cells has not been previously released. In the preliminary study, the antiproliferation bioactivity was measured using the brine shrimp lethality test. The outcome of the brine shrimp lethality test showed that ethyl acetate and water fraction cytotoxicity were more than 1000 ppm and 337.07 ppm, respectively, at a lethal concentration of 50. Antiproliferative activity analyses were performed using direct hemocytometer counting. The antiproliferation activity data collected were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan continuous testing. The outcome showed that the water and ethyl acetate RYR antiproliferation activity against MCM B2 cancer cells correlated positively with the increasing concentration of each fraction. Ethyl acetate and water fractions at concentrations of 350 ppm may inhibit the growth of MCM-B2 cancer cells in vitro, reaching 42.63 percent and 39.84 percent, respectively, not significantly different (P < 0.05) with a positive doxorubicin control of 41.24 percent. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate and water fraction of RYR have potent antiproliferation activity against MCM-B2 breast tumor cells.
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 297-304; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.16540
In a pathological condition such as diabetes, the increase of oxidative stress may decrease endogenous antioxidant activities, so the body cannot detoxify free radicals and prevent cell damage. The yellow velvet leaf is one of the natural antioxidant sources. This research investigates anti-hyperglycemic activities of ethanol extracts from yellow velvet leaves and SOD and GPx activities, the antioxidant enzymes. This experimental laboratory research used a posttest only group design. This research subjects were 25 alloxan-induced white male rats of Wistar strains conditioned as the type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The rats were clustered into five groups: the group I was the no-treatment control group, the group II was the positive control group given glibenclamide 0.45 mg/kg BW(rat's body weight) as the treatment, and group III, IV, and V were the experimental groups treated with yellow velvet leaf ethanol extracts with the doses of 32.5 mg/kg BW, 65 mg/kg BW and 130 mg/kg BW respectively. The activity tests of SOD and GPx, furthermore, were conducted. The results revealed that the dose of 130 mg was the most effective in increasing SOD and GPx activities. The increase of SOD and GPx levels also influenced the blood glucose level, which decreased significantly on 130mg. When the blood sugar level decreases, the stress oxidative itself can be reduced, increasing the endogenous antioxidant activities. It was concluded that the ethanol extract of yellow velvet leaf (Limnocharis flava) on the dose of 130mg/kg BW has a significant influence on SOD and GPx activities in alloxan-induced diabetic RA, and not significantly different from glibenclamide
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 353-364; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.16523
The natural dyes from beet (Beta vulgaris Linn) (BV) roots can be used as coloring agents in lipsticks. However, the dye has low stability in high temperature and light and can be oxidized by air. The dye was encapsulated into a microparticle (MP) using maltodextrin (MD) as a matrix to improve color stability. The research's objective was to evaluate the effect of various MD concentrations in encapsulated BV root extract towards physical characterizations of MP and lipsticks, including pH, lipstick hardness, melting point, and color stability. The BV roots water extract was obtained by grinding BV root into a juice and then dried using a freeze dryer. The encapsulation of the BV root extract was using MD as a matrix with a ratio of 1:5 BV dried extract to MD. The MD solution concentrations used in this experiment were 25%, 50%, and 75% (w/v). The result showed that the morphology of MPs resulting from the encapsulation is amorphous. Lipsticks were characterized by pink color and had shape according to the lipstick mold. The lipstick color changed to brown on the seventh day and faded on the 28th day. The variation of MD concentrations during MP preparation did not significantly influence the lipstick's pH value, hardness and melting point.
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 257-268; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.16643
Turi (Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.) is a type of plant belonging to the Fabaceae family that is widespread in Indonesian territory and has the potential as a natural free radical scavenger. The study aims to compare the antioxidant activity from white Turi (Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.) leaf extracts in various extraction solvents. The determination of antioxidant activity was carried out using the DPPH method with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The turi plants used were originated from Mojosari, Mojokerto, East Java, Indonesia. Simplicia turi leaves were macerated in various extraction solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane for 24 hours. The extraction results are then subjected to phytochemical and antioxidant activity tests. The obtained result shows that the white turi extract has antioxidant activity with strong activity against DPPH radicals; with n-hexane > ethyl acetate extract > ethanol extract. The IC50 values of ethanol, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate extracts of white turi leaves were 33.09 ppm; 26.99 ppm; and 25.33 ppm. Based on these results, the white turi plant (leaves) can be one of the natural sources of antioxidants to prevent diseases caused by free radicals.
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 269-280; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.17409
The single-component CPM tablet mostly used sodium tartrazine as the yellow coloring agent. Sodium tartrazine is soluble in solvents used to extract CPM from tablet and suspected interference CPM determination especially after forced degradation for stability indication testing of CPM tablets. This study aimed to develop a selective, accurate and precise method for determination and stability testing of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the presence of tartrazine in the tablet. A µBondapak® C18 column (3.9 x 300 mm, 10 µm) with diode array detector was used for separation. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and 0.2% triethylamine (90:10) with a flow rate of 2 mL/minutes. The validated HPLC method was used for CPM determination in tablet samples that had been forced degraded using dry heat at 105oC, UV radiation of 254 nm, hydrolysis with 1N NaOH, 1N HCl and oxidation using 5% H2O2. The HPLC chromatogram showed that CPM split into chlorpheniramine (CP) and maleic acid (MA). Resolution (Rs) among CP and the other analytes especially with the products resulting from the forced degradation by heat, UV radiation, HCl, and H2O2 were good. The CPM hydrolysis using NaOH caused the CP not completely separated from the degradation product due to tailing or overlapping peaks. The proposed HPLC method was valid for the determination of CPM in tablets containing tartrazine. Even though the stability-indicating method was inadequate especially for the result of the CPM hydrolysis process using NaOH.
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 371-380; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.17780
Free radicals might cause harmful effects on the skin, such as skin irritation, change of skin color, and worst effect. Phenolics play a role as effective sunscreen and antioxidants to prevent UV radiation effects. Corn silk contains flavonoids, which are antioxidants that are potential as sunscreen. Phenolic compounds can be identified by phytochemical screening using the tube method. The study aims to know the antioxidant activity of purified extract of roasted corn silks (Zea Mays L. saccharata) and know the SPF level of the cream preparation. The study was conducted by collecting samples of roasted corn silks waste to make dried simplicial, then extracting it with 70% ethanol as solvent, evaporated till condensed extract is gotten. The obtained extract was then purified with n-hexane solvent. The antioxidant activity test was conducted by using the DPPH method. The cream of the purified extract was made in three formulations: 1%, 5%, and 10% concentration. Its SPF levels were then evaluated. The results showed the purified corn silks extract had an IC50 value of 256.66 µg/mL better compared to corn silks ethanol extract having an IC50 value of 356.17 µg/mL including the weak antioxidant category. Meanwhile, the SPF level test results for concentration of 1%, 5%, and 10% are 1.27 ; 2.41; and 5.94 respectively.
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 249-256; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.18177
Arabian bidara leaves (Ziziphus spina-christi, L.) are known to have strong antimicrobial activity against microorganisms that cause infection in the female genital area, namely Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. They contain main secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponins. Christinin is a saponin glycoside derivative compound which consists of four types, namely christinin-A, B, C, and D. The role of computational studies in the discovery of new drugs is crucial and interesting nowadays because it is relatively cheap, effective, fast, and precise with a reliable level of accuracy. This computational study result will later be used to confirm in vitro test results which are carried out using experimental microbiological testing methods in the laboratory. This study identified, evaluated, and explored the interactions between christinin-A, B, C, and D compounds with Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP) from Staphylococcus aureus and Dihydrofolate Reductase from the fungus Candida albicans using computational study were carried out using the molecular docking. The christinin-A, B, C, and D compounds were modeled into 3D conformation using GaussView 5.0.8 and Gaussian09 software. The best conformation was selected for molecular interaction studies on Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP) from Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and Dihydrofolate Reductase from Candida albicans using MGLTools 1.5.6 software with AutoDock 4.2. The molecular interactions that occurred were further observed using the BIOVIA Discovery Studio 2020 software. Based on the molecular docking results, the christinin-B compound had the highest affinity for Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP) from Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, with a binding-free energy value of −7.67 kcal/mol. Meanwhile, the christinin-A compound has the highest affinity for Dihydrofolate Reductase from the fungus Candida albicans, with a binding-free energy value of −8.38 kcal/mol. Thus, it is predicted that christinin compounds can be chosen as the main component in feminine hygiene preparations to maintain the female genital area's health.
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 343-352; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.16406
Free radicals affect aging by unspecific lead breakdown to macromolecules, like DNA, lipids, and proteins. The degradation of the extracellular matrix affects skin aging and correlated with the hyaluronidase enzyme. Rose (Rosa damascena) petal extract and rose receptacle extract can scavenge free radicals, thus hindering the aging process. This study examines phenolic and flavonoid content, the antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase potential owned by rose petal extract (RPE), and rose receptacle extract (RRE) inhibiting skin aging. In this study, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity assay was done to analyze the antioxidant activity while the hyaluronidase inhibitory assay analyzed antiaging activity. The characteristic of RPE and RRE were measured the phenolics and flavonoids content. The phenolics content of RPE and RRE were 9.66 μg GAE/mg RPE and 4.31 μg GAE/mg RRE, respectively, while the flavonoids content of RPE and RRE respectively 1.22 μg QE/mg RPE and 0.59 μg QE/mg RRE. The median inhibitory (IC50) of H2O2 scavenging of RPE (207.99 µg/mL) was more active than RRE (348.24 µg/mL). RPE's anti-hyaluronidase (IC50: 51.68 µg/mL) is as effective as RRE (IC50: 51.98 µg/mL). Antioxidant and antiaging activities possessed by RPE and RRE are promising natural agents for aging therapy.
Pharmaciana, Volume 10, pp 335-342; doi:10.12928/pharmaciana.v10i3.16553
Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects most people. Almost every people have certain specific factors that can cause this disease to increase. One of which is inadequate physical activity so that cholesterol levels remain and tend to get higher, which is a risk factor for heart and blood vessel disorders. Patients with this disease and having dyslipidemia complications must treat with appropriate therapy until reaching success. The patient's adherence determines the success of the treatment. Therefore the purpose of this research is to assess the relationship. Its objects were hypertensive patients at the Government Hospital in Yogyakarta. The specialty of the hypertensive patient is having dyslipidemia complications.The study uses non-experimental with a cross-sectional study. The sample was selected based on the purposive sampling technique in December 2018-February 2019. The measurement of therapy adherence used MARS questionnaire and the achievement of therapy targets through secondary data on patient blood pressure. Chi-square test was chosen to determine the relationship between 2 variables, which are therapy adherence and achieving blood pressure targets. The sample in this study were 47 respondents, of which 53.2% of the patients were 0.05) was no relationship between adherence and target achievement. Therefore the results of this study concluded that there is no relationship between drug therapy adherence and blood pressure targets achievement.