Open Journal of Leadership

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2167-7743 / 2167-7751
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 137
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Latest articles in this journal

Liron Hoch
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 19-33; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.111003

Abstract:
This paper compares and contrasts the leadership styles learned from the worldviews of Maimonides’s and Spinoza’s thinking. The paper seeks to unearth the similarities and differences between these two models for the purpose of proposing suitable leadership styles for different environmental conditions and desired relationships between leaders and followers, thus, ensuring a connection between the leadership style and the nature of its audience. The paper claims that Maimonides’s concept is similar to that of the flexible leadership style, while Spinoza’s concept is similar to an affective leadership style. The similarities between these models are that they can operate in a complex, challenging environment through the use of ideal communication, persuasion, awareness, and activism. Both models believe in the political structure as necessary for human life and also where one needs a political framework to fulfil his/her destiny. Further, these models acknowledge that an individual is part of society and is shaped by it. Therefore, the individual is compelled to give of him/herself to society. However, the paper outlines several differences between these two models of leadership styles. The basis of these divergent views lies in the conception of God and how the two worldviews view the functions of prophets and prophecy. The differences also emanate from how each worldview views issues to do with society and human ideals. For example, Maimonides’s flexible leadership is characterized by a hierarchical mode of leadership headed by a single leader, and it demands obedience and does not put emphasis on the enjoyment of things. These characteristics are reflected by the way God rules the earth as the exclusive sovereign from the top and embody the hierarchical order which requires obedience to the commandments of religion, including obedience in beliefs and opinions. On the contrary, Spinoza’s affective leadership is characterized by non-hierarchical leadership, obedience is not a requirement, and emphasis is placed on the enjoyment by both leaders and followers. There is also no difference between God and nature; in fact, the fundamental conceptions of monotheistic religions are criticized. The paper further outlines the benefits and limitations of each leadership model and concludes by recommending that the research may provide a basis by which to match an audience, with its unique conceptual or operational structure, to the appropriate leadership style.
Gerasimos Vlassopoulos, George Albert Karikas, Efstathia Papageorgiou, Giannis Psaromiligos, Niki Giannouli, Petros Karkalousos
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 92-110; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.111007

Abstract:
Apprenticeship in Greek vocational high schools started as a pilot program in 2017. The number of apprentices is gradually increasing, Greece followed the dual German apprenticeship system, when the students complete successfully their studies obtaining a degree of level 5, according to the European Qualifications Framework. The purpose of the project was to capture the views and experience of apprentices and employers regarding their involvement with the above apprenticeship program, during the period 2020-2021. Structured questionnaires were appropriately used and were completed by 622 apprentices and 265 employers. Factor analysis reduced the variables and was followed by further investigation with chi-square. To test the linear relationship between the variables of the research queries, the Pearson correlation coefficient was applied. Finally, by using the Mann-Whitney (U-test), a significant difference between the apprentices’ and the employers’ responses was found. Main Results: 89% of the apprentices and 78.9% of employers were very satisfied with their participation in the apprenticeship program. 71% of apprentices and 81.5% of employers were very satisfied with the overall quality of the apprenticeship program. Conclusions: The majority of apprentices and employers seemed satisfied regarding the apprenticeship program quality. The knowledge and skills were acquired by the students during the apprenticeship which help them to gain a place in the labor market. Hosting companies provided the appropriate equipment; all safety regulations and the employees who trained the apprentices had the necessary qualifications in the same or related subject.
Jeff Brown
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 140-145; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.112009

Abstract:
This research was conducted through daily survey of all on site associates numbering from 200 - 250, and managers totaling from 4 to 14, the following data was reported. Safety Leadership is determined by a measurement of un-favorable perceptions reported by associates on a 1 - 5 scale, with 1 being most unfavorable and 5 being most favorable. Any score at or below 3 would be considered unfavorable, with 4 and 5 being favorable. Following peak season (Christmas) 2021 average Safety-Score (leaders) in the outbound departments ranged between 25% and 36% unfavorable as reported by the 600 surveyed associates on January 30th, 2022. The department being 34%, meant that more than one third of associates viewed safety conditions as unfavorable on a 1 to 5 scale. While between 64% and 75% of associates maintained a positive view of safety, this was not in line with the desired benchmark of 89% favorable (11% unfavorable) on the same scale. For Safety leaders (Manager perspective) the average unfavourability in outbound departments ranged between 30% and 35% unfavorable (See Raw Data), compared to the desired 8% unfavorable.
Mohammed Issah, Awaisu Imurana Braimah
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 82-91; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.111006

Abstract:
The study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and interest in leadership, moderating role of age, and gender among undergraduate political science students in a university in Ghana. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data was collected through an online survey from 165 undergraduate students at a university in Ghana. The data collection instrument consists of the Interest in Leadership Scale (ILS) and Emotional Intelligence measure (EI). The results revealed that emotional intelligence is significantly and positively correlated with interest in leadership. However, age and gender have no moderating effect on the relationship between emotional intelligence and interest in leadership in this study.
Frederick Ebot Ashu, Michel Auguste Tchoumbou Ngantchop, Richard Etongwe Motale, Christopher Fuaty Ntang
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 34-65; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.111004

Abstract:
The crisis of educational leadership has motivated so much debate and research in recent times in the field of educational administration. Most school leaders have not been trained in the art of educational management and leadership. It has been presumed that anyone who receives a bachelor’s degree in education or a postgraduate diploma in education through training can automatically become a head teacher or principal. That explains why in developing as well as developed countries, school managers and leaders face a lot of challenges. This article seeks to create a link between the career development of senior leadership and the different models proposed by scholars like Day and Bakioglu, Gronn, Wakins and Robbins. The researchers hope to develop strategies that can groom educational managers to assume senior leadership positions. The most influential agents of socialization by Lenka and Vandana, Gupta, Krishnan, Homan & Youngman and Ebot Ashu that enhance educational leadership development have been explored to give this work some serious focus. The primary agent of socialization considered here is the family which is the nucleus of society. The secondary agents of socialization include the schools, peer groups, the churches, work groups, communities, mass medium, social groups and the government. Focusing on Watkins’ seven seismic shifts that transit from specialist to generalist, analyst to the integrator, tactician to strategist, bricklayer to architect, problem solver to agenda setter, warrior to diplomat and supporting cast member to lead role, the researchers argue that school managers can transit to the level of senior leaders and continue to influence school administration in many positive ways. Educational leaders should take their ongoing career development seriously if they are to become relevant in contemporary society. The methodology used in this work is very apt. Based on the field experiences of school administrators, the researchers are able to arrive at findings that support the literature that has been gathered. They are able to explore the career life of educational leaders and identify factors which influence them to become senior leaders and move on as encompassed in the first three phases of Gronn’s and Ribbins’ models, with exceptional three new sub-phases within the accession phase. In all, the study agrees with the general principles of Ribbins’ model rather than the previous work of Day & Bakioglu’s and Gronn’s, who suggest disenchantment and divestiture as inevitable final phases in the career lives of senior leaders. Therefore, Ribbins’ theoretical frame-work of education leadership can be useful in interpreting the link between the career developments of contemporary senior leaders. This study concludes that socialization occurs throughout our life, but some of the most important socialization that occurs during that phase of our lives is the family, school, peers, church, mass media, community, workplace and social group. Therefore, Watkins’ contributions to administration, management and leadership can be used to educate contemporary educational managers and senior leaders in contemporary society.
Jörg Krauter
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 146-193; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.112010

Abstract:
This study identified a framework of team-based leadership facing the change of future requirements of agile organizations and new work and aims to clarify the underlying mechanisms and how they work together and under what conditions. Data were collected from leaders in three separate surveys characterized by various countries, first languages and different ethnicity. A total of 401 completed interviews were collected and the results were analyzed at the individual level. All variables were modeled in a path diagram and tested applying structural equation modeling. The results show that leadership self-efficacy is a key mechanism that let team-based leadership emerge. Leadership self-efficacy is related to personal power, collaboration, teamwork processes and team task performance, but there is no direct effect on team contextual performance. Personal power is correlated with team task performance. Positional power is interrelated with team contextual performance and personal power. Teamwork processes partially mediate the relation between leadership self-efficacy and team task performance as well as team contextual performance. The study findings identified that the leader role perception by teammates can affect personal power and that organizational politics, expressions of narcissists personal characteristics or cross-cultural context dependency can have an impact on positional power. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, together with limitations and recommendations for future research.
Musa Otieno Obuba
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 111-139; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.112008

Abstract:
This paper is research on leadership strategy and specifically scrutinizing the reasons why most organizations fail to successfully implement their strategic plans. To guarantee a successful organizational outcome, it is important to trace the paths others have walked, those who have succeeded as well as those that have not. And more important during this era and age of technology, could there be something new a leader needs to consider? Several literatures are on strategic leadership, but only very few looks at a strategy execution— leadership strategy. Leadership definition has been evolving, the need to a new approach to strategy implementation is therefore inevitable. A leader must therefore keenly take into consideration the different working environment that follows the dictates of modernism. Services like procurement, recruitment, performance evaluation are technologically driven in this age and era. Following these realities, a review of existing materials points to a new way of leadership strategy, one that seems to incline so much towards modern technology. It is evident that modern technology largely has a huge space in determining organizational outcomes. Leadership strategies are it for a new business or an existing one, for a large organization or small must therefore take into consideration these realities. This literature review has picked on critical aspects of what a leader does to plan and successfully execute the plan. While it could be considered as a new norm, the fact though is that using technology is age long only that the modern types are new inventions that have taken the centerstage. The COVID-19 pandemic has also not only brought about so much pain but has completely changed the way things are done. In a world where “lock-down”, working from home and social distances seem to be the order of the day, a leader must therefore have new innovative ideas. As William Pollard once said, “Learning and innovation go hand in hand. The arrogance of success is to think that what you did yesterday will be sufficient for tomorrow.” (Sinquefield, 2013).
Tonderai Mathende
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 66-81; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.111005

Abstract:
Apprenticeship being a practical-oriented training is one of the affected areas for the On-the-Job-Training in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Since apprenticeship training is time and competency-based, the lockdowns, stay at home and social distancing rules as pronounced by the Government due to COVID-19, temporarily suspended the continuation of the proficiency skills syllabi at colleges and competency acquisition in various companies. However, delay in the skills acquisition is unjust especially now as the industry faces collapse due to lack of appropriate skills and the skillfulness of personnel. Since competency acquisition is realized in terms of performance outcomes of trainees in industry, leadership plays a significant role in guiding, supporting, motivating and ensuring trainees acquire prerequisite competencies in such unprecedented situations. This paper presents the role of the Full Range Leadership style in competency acquisition for trainees doing apprenticeship training programs under the COVID-19 pandemic era in Zimbabwe. This is quantitative research which comprises a sample of 239 trainees which was established using an online survey that enabled rapid and effective distribution of an online questionnaire during the COVID-19 crisis. Then, data were analyzed using various statistical techniques. The results show distinctions among leadership styles in predicting competency acquisition by trainees and transformational leadership were found to be statistically significant to trainees’ competency acquisition under the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper recommends the adoption of transformational leadership and intensifying transformational leadership training to capacitate staff members at the training institutions in Zimbabwe now and in the post-pandemic era.
Barbara D. Holmes
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 13-18; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.111002

Abstract:
This qualitative study explores academic writing experiences of graduate students enrolled in a Master of Organizational Leadership Education program. Participatory action research method was employed to connect with students and gain insight into writing anxiety and barriers to the development of scholarly identity. Four emergent themes describe participant experiences associated with addressing writing concerns and anxieties: 1) Scholarly writing challenges are not delimited by age, gender, or professional experience, 2) The shift from informal writing to formal writing is cumbersome, 3) Academic writing negatively affected self-efficacy, and 4) Organizing the manuscript narrative presented the most difficult challenge. Feedback from graduate students tasked with academic writing indicates that academic writing instruction should start earlier in instructional programs and faculty should work as writing partners with emergent academic writers. Implications: Graduate preparation programs should emphasize the critical importance of academic writing development for successful matriculation in advanced study.
Faris Alsaedi
Open Journal of Leadership, Volume 11, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2022.111001

Abstract:
Many organizations have considered different leadership styles to ensure effective operations. The most pronounced style of these leadership styles involves collective leadership. This leadership style involves accentuation of power distribution among different entities within a firm. The leadership style aggregates individual talents, expertise, and strengths to impact change. Various forms of this leadership style exist, including decentralization and density, and concentration. Collective leadership involves leaders assuming several roles. These roles include mentoring, organizing, problem-solving and motivating. These responsibilities make collective leadership very popular in modern organizations because they often have an accentuated need for motivation and employee morale. Modern organizations have also embraced technology as a tool for growth and competition. Successful implementation and maintenance of new technologies require collaboration. This situation makes collective leadership the most suitable leadership style for keeping pace with emerging technologies. Organizations’ members should have social consciousness for modern organizations to remain relevant amid significant technological evolution that is taking place. Self-awareness and collective leadership have an intrinsic link that makes it vital for modern organizations to embrace it to keep pace with changing social consciousness. This change is also causing a considerable shift in customer expectations and requirements. Modern organizations have solved this complexity by promoting togetherness and accommodating varying viewpoints through collective leadership. The distributed influence in collective leadership is also leading to the pooling of unique skills and expertise, which is in turn, creating a more reliable framework for modern companies to engage with their customers. The changes in society mean that the workforce in modern firms is also evolving. This situation requires modern organizations to build the organizational culture that reflects the conscious nature of employees’ needs and respects the existing communication channels. Such culture emanates through collective leadership. External stakeholders are also members of the rapidly changing society. Modern firms have ensured harmony between internal stakeholders such as employees and external stakeholders such as investors through collective leadership. This process ensures that the company’s actions and decisions reflect the will of the internal and external stakeholders. Consequently, collective leadership ensures that each person affiliated with an organization is heard and their opinions considered in decision-making hence achieving equity and inclusivity.
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