Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2213-7467 / 2213-7467
Total articles ≅ 196
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Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-33; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00200-w

Abstract:
The present work proposes an approach for fluid–solid and contact interaction problems including thermo-mechanical coupling and reversible phase transitions. The solid field is assumed to consist of several arbitrarily-shaped, undeformable but mobile rigid bodies, that are evolved in time individually and allowed to get into mechanical contact with each other. The fluid field generally consists of multiple liquid or gas phases. All fields are spatially discretized using the method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). This approach is especially suitable in the context of continually changing interface topologies and dynamic phase transitions without the need for additional methodological and computational effort for interface tracking as compared to mesh- or grid-based methods. Proposing a concept for the parallelization of the computational framework, in particular concerning a computationally efficient evaluation of rigid body motion, is an essential part of this work. Finally, the accuracy and robustness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by several numerical examples in two and three dimensions, involving multiple rigid bodies, two-phase flow, and reversible phase transitions, with a focus on two potential application scenarios in the fields of engineering and biomechanics: powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (PBFAM) and disintegration of food boluses in the human stomach. The efficiency of the parallel computational framework is demonstrated by a strong scaling analysis.
Maialen Areitioaurtena, Unai Segurajauregi, Ville Akujärvi, Martin Fisk, Iker Urresti, Eneko Ukar
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-19; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00199-0

Abstract:
The numerical simulation of the induction heating process can be computationally expensive, especially if ferromagnetic materials are studied. There are several analytical models that describe the electromagnetic phenomena. However, these are very limited by the geometry of the coil and the workpiece. Thus, the usual method for computing more complex systems is to use the finite element method to solve the set of equations in the multiphysical system, but this easily becomes very time consuming. This paper deals with the problem of solving a coupled electromagnetic - thermal problem with higher computational efficiency. For this purpose, a semi-analytical modeling strategy is proposed, that is based on an initial finite element computation, followed by the use of analytical electromagnetic equations to solve the coupled electromagnetic-thermal problem. The usage of the simplified model is restricted to simple geometrical features such as flat or curved surfaces with great curvature to skin depth ratio. Numerical and experimental validation of the model show an average error between 0.9% and 4.1% in the prediction of the temperature evolution, reaching a greater accuracy than other analyzed commercial softwares. A 3D case of a double-row large size ball bearing is also presented, fully validating the proposed approach in terms of computational time and accuracy for complex industrial cases.
, P. Kerfriden, F. Moshfeghifar, S. Darkner, K. Erleben, C. Wong
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-23; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00197-2

Abstract:
This paper presents a robust digital pipeline from CT images to the simulation of contact between multiple bodies. The proposed strategy relies on a recently developed immersed finite element algorithm that is capable of simulating unilateral contact between solids without meshing (Claus and Kerfriden in Int J Numer Methods Eng 113(6):938–966, 2018). It was shown that such an approach reduces the difficulties associated with the digital flow of information from analytically defined geometries to mechanical simulations. We now propose to extend our approach to include geometries, which are not defined mathematically but instead are obtained from images, and encoded in 3D arrays of voxels. This paper introduces two novel elements. Firstly, we reformulate our contact algorithm into an extension of an augmented Lagrangian CutFEM algorithm. Secondly, we develop an efficient algorithm to convert the surface data generated by standard segmentation tools used in medical imaging into level-set functions. These two elements give rise to a robust digital pipeline with minimum user intervention. We demonstrate the capabilities of our algorithm on a hip joint geometry with contact between the femur and the hip bone.
, Ramezan A. Izadifard
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-17; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00198-1

Abstract:
The danger of fire is present always and everywhere. The imminent danger depends upon the actual type and length of fire exposure. Reinforced concrete structural members are loadbearing components in buildup structures and are therefore at high risk, since the entire structure might potentially collapse upon their failure. Thus, it is imperative to comprehend the behavior of reinforced concrete members at high temperatures in case of fire. In this study, the mechanical properties of concrete exposed to high temperatures were experimentally determined through the testing of 27 concrete cylinder starting at room temperature and increasing up to 260 °C. The concrete material behavior was implemented into the ABAQUS software and a finite simulation of reinforced concrete beams exposed to actual fire conditions were conducted. The finite element models compared favorably with the available experimental results. Thus, providing a valuable tool that allows for the prediction of failure in case of a fire event.
, Tomas Berglund, Samuel Nystedt
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-35; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00196-3

Abstract:
A multiscale model for real-time simulation of terrain dynamics is explored. To represent the dynamics on different scales the model combines the description of soil as a continuous solid, as distinct particles and as rigid multibodies. The models are dynamically coupled to each other and to the earthmoving equipment. Agitated soil is represented by a hybrid of contacting particles and continuum solid, with the moving equipment and resting soil as geometric boundaries. Each zone of active soil is aggregated into distinct bodies, with the proper mass, momentum and frictional-cohesive properties, which constrain the equipment’s multibody dynamics. The particle model parameters are pre-calibrated to the bulk mechanical parameters for a wide range of different soils. The result is a computationally efficient model for earthmoving operations that resolve the motion of the soil, using a fast iterative solver, and provide realistic forces and dynamic for the equipment, using a direct solver for high numerical precision. Numerical simulations of excavation and bulldozing operations are performed to test the model and measure the computational performance. Reference data is produced using coupled discrete element and multibody dynamics simulations at relatively high resolution. The digging resistance and soil displacements with the real-time multiscale model agree with the reference model up to 10–25%, and run more than three orders of magnitude faster.
, Altuğ Emiroğlu, Shahrokh Shayegan, Fabien Péan, Kai-Uwe Bletzinger, Roland Wüchner
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-55; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00190-9

Abstract:
In this study the isogeometric B-Rep mortar-based mapping method for geometry models stemming directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is systematically augmented and applied to partitioned Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations. Thus, the newly proposed methodology is applied to geometries described by their Boundary Representation (B-Rep) in terms of trimmed multipatch Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) discretizations as standard in modern CAD. The proposed isogeometric B-Rep mortar-based mapping method is herein extended for the transformation of fields between a B-Rep model and a low order discrete surface representation of the geometry which typically results when the Finite Volume Method (FVM) or the Finite Element Method (FEM) are employed. This enables the transformation of such fields as tractions and displacements along the FSI interface when Isogeometric B-Rep Analysis (IBRA) is used for the structural discretization and the FVM is used for the fluid discretization. The latter allows for diverse discretization schemes between the structural and the fluid Boundary Value Problem (BVP), taking into consideration the special properties of each BVP separately while the constraints along the FSI interface are satisfied in an iterative manner within partitioned FSI. The proposed methodology can be exploited in FSI problems with an IBRA structural discretization or to FSI problems with a standard FEM structural discretization in the frame of the Exact Coupling Layer (ECL) where the interface fields are smoothed using the underlying B-Rep parametrization, thus taking advantage of the smoothness that the NURBS basis functions offer. All new developments are systematically investigated and demonstrated by FSI problems with lightweight structures whereby the underlying geometric parametrizations are directly taken from real-world CAD models, thus extending IBRA into coupled problems of the FSI type.
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-23; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00195-4

Abstract:
In this work we investigate the Brinkman volume penalization technique in the context of a high-order Discontinous Galerkin method to model moving wall boundaries for compressible fluid flow simulations. High-order approximations are especially of interest as they require few degrees of freedom to represent smooth solutions accurately. This reduced memory consumption is attractive on modern computing systems where the memory bandwidth is a limiting factor. Due to their low dissipation and dispersion they are also of particular interest for aeroacoustic problems. However, a major problem for the high-order discretization is the appropriate representation of wall geometries. In this work we look at the Brinkman penalization technique, which addresses this problem and allows the representation of geometries without modifying the computational mesh. The geometry is modelled as an artificial porous medium and embedded in the equations. As the mesh is independent of the geometry with this method, it is not only well suited for high-order discretizations but also for problems where the obstacles are moving. We look into the deployment of this strategy by briefly discussing the Brinkman penalization technique and its application in our solver and investigate its behavior in fundamental one-dimensional setups, such as shock reflection at a moving wall and the formation of a shock in front of a piston. This is followed by the application to setups with two and three dimensions, illustrating the method in the presence of curved surfaces.
Tristan Maquart, Thomas Elguedj, Anthony Gravouil, Michel Rochette
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-28; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00194-5

Abstract:
This paper presents an effective framework to automatically construct 3D quadrilateral meshes of complicated geometry and arbitrary topology adapted for parametric studies. The input is a triangulation of the solid 3D model’s boundary provided from B-Rep CAD models or scanned geometry. The triangulated mesh is decomposed into a set of cuboids in two steps: pants decomposition and cuboid decomposition. This workflow includes an integration of a geometry-feature-aware pants-to-cuboids decomposition algorithm. This set of cuboids perfectly replicates the input surface topology. Using aligned global parameterization, patches are re-positioned on the surface in a way to achieve low overall distortion, and alignment to principal curvature directions and sharp features. Based on the cuboid decomposition and global parameterization, a 3D quadrilateral mesh is extracted. For different parametric instances with the same topology but different geometries, the MEG-IsoQuad method allows to have the same representation: isotopological meshes holding the same connectivity where each point on a mesh has an analogous one into all other meshes. Faithful 3D numerical charts of parametric geometries are then built using standard data-based techniques. Geometries are then evaluated in real-time. The efficiency and the robustness of the proposed approach are illustrated through a few parametric examples.
Vincent Magnoux,
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00192-7

Abstract:
Simulators for virtual surgery training need to perform complex calculations very quickly to provide realistic haptic and visual interactions with a user. The complexity is further increased by the addition of cuts to virtual organs, such as would be needed for performing tumor resection. A common method for achieving large performance improvements is to make use of the graphics hardware (GPU) available on most general-use computers. Programming GPUs requires data structures that are more rigid than on conventional processors (CPU), making that data more difficult to update. We propose a new method for structuring graph data, which is commonly used for physically based simulation of soft tissue during surgery, and deformable objects in general. Our method aligns all nodes of the graph in memory, independently from the number of edges they contain, allowing for local modifications that do not affect the rest of the structure. Our method also groups memory transfers so as to avoid updating the entire graph every time a small cut is introduced in a simulated organ. We implemented our data structure as part of a simulator based on a meshless method. Our tests show that the new GPU implementation, making use of the new graph structure, achieves a 10 times improvement in computation times compared to the previous CPU implementation. The grouping of data transfers into batches allows for a 80–90% reduction in the amount of data transferred for each graph update, but accounts only for a small improvement in performance. The data structure itself is simple to implement and allows simulating increasingly complex models that can be cut at interactive rates.
Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-23; doi:10.1186/s40323-021-00193-6

Abstract:
The main aim of this article is to develop a new boundary element method (BEM) algorithm to model and simulate the nonlinear thermal stresses problems in micropolar functionally graded anisotropic (FGA) composites with temperature-dependent properties. Some inside points are chosen to treat the nonlinear terms and domain integrals. An integral formulation which is based on the use of Kirchhoff transformation is firstly used to simplify the transient heat conduction governing equation. Then, the residual nonlinear terms are carried out within the current formulation. The domain integrals can be effectively treated by applying the Cartesian transformation method (CTM). In the proposed BEM technique, the nonlinear temperature is computed on the boundary and some inside domain integral. Then, nonlinear displacement can be calculated at each time step. With the calculated temperature and displacement distributions, we can obtain the values of nonlinear thermal stresses. The efficiency of our proposed methodology has been improved by using the communication-avoiding versions of the Arnoldi (CA-Arnoldi) preconditioner for solving the resulting linear systems arising from the BEM to reduce the iterations number and computation time. The numerical outcomes establish the influence of temperature-dependent properties on the nonlinear temperature distribution, and investigate the effect of the functionally graded parameter on the nonlinear displacements and thermal stresses, through the micropolar FGA composites with temperature-dependent properties. These numerical outcomes also confirm the validity, precision and effectiveness of the proposed modeling and simulation methodology.
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