Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law

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ISSN : 1994-2540
Published by: Saratov State University (10.18500)
Total articles ≅ 564
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, Ural State University of Economics, Alexandr A. Zlygostev
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-271-287

Abstract:
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of stakeholder risks and the possibilities of their assessment. The methodological framework of the study was formed on the basis of the corporate governance theory and its stakeholder model. Theoretical analysis. On the basis of the the Russian-language and English-language publications’ general review, carried out by the authors, it is concluded that there is no clear generally accepted toolkit for assessing stakeholder risk. Assessment of stakeholder risks was most developed in project approaches. Methods. The authors propose an approach for assessing the stakeholder risks of an organization as a whole based on the search for a balance of interests through modeling the contributions and benefits of stakeholders and the gaps between contributions and benefits. The empirical base of the study was made up of data on flour-grinding and bakery enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region for 2010–2019. The unbalanced dashboard for analysis included 130 observations across 28 companies. Results. The methodology has been tested on the example of a comparative analysis of “more successful” and “less successful” companies in terms of revenue. Econometric models of the stakeholder contribution to revenue have been built. Stakeholder risk maps were built, which made it possible to identify the most influential stakeholders in terms of their contribution to revenue and the most risky ones in terms of the gap level. Conclusions. When assessing stakeholder risks, a broad outlook and a system of various methods for assessing stakeholder risks are required, as well as a willingness to take into account factors that may go beyond the framework of the models. The results and conclusions of the article can become a theoretical platform for further research. Further research on this topic can be related to expanding the understanding of the imbalance of interests by taking into account the subjective assessments of stakeholders and experts. For these purposes, it is necessary to adapt existing corporate surveys to accounting for stakeholder value and stakeholder risks.
, Stolypin Volga Region Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-348-354

Abstract:
Introduction. The article examines public associations as collective subjects of constitutional relations in the context of the legal development of the current legislation and the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Public associations, as collective subjects of constitutional relations, are important participants in the socio-political process of implementing the constitutional amendments adopted at the all-Russian vote in 2020. Theoretical analysis. The article considers the concept and significance of public associations as collective subjects of constitutional relations. The importance of public associations is noted, namely, as collective subjects of constitutional relations. Empirical analysis. The author investigated the normative legal acts regulating public relations related to the activities of public associations and revealed that the legislator is constantly improving legal support in this part. The quantitative indicators of the number of public associations in the period from 1991 to 2020, registered on the territory of the Russian Federation, have been studied. Results. Summing up the work, it is concluded that public associations, as collective subjects of constitutional relations, are the most important tool necessary to meet the social needs of citizens. Effective interaction of public associations, as collective subjects of constitutional relations, with state structures would make it possible to better implement constitutional interests and ensure human and civil rights and freedoms.
, Saratov State University
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-243-254

Abstract:
Introduction. It is proposed to pose the question of the original understanding of fundamental economic science as a political economy, presented by Gunnar Myrdal in the book “Against the Stream. Critical Essays on Economics”, which can be regarded from a certain point of view as a modern Scandinavian «Saga about political economy». Hermeneutic analysis. G. Myrdal’s paradigm concept, based on the concept of “establishment economics” was more meaningful than the modern use of the term “mainstream” to characterize the dominant flow of economic thought. The theoretical and methodological substantiation of the scientific hypothesis about the periodic emergence of crises and the formation of the economic science evolution cycles made it possible to explain the chronology of the Keynesian paradigm ascent and decline cycle by changes in economy and society. The arguments in favor of the institutional approach prompted a fundamental conclusion about the advisability of returning economic science to the original name of political economy and restoring its spiritual, moral, value dimension. G. Myrdal questioned and refuted the traditional abstract assumption about the conflict between economic growth and egalitarian reforms, for which one must pay a high price such as the national economy productivity decline, proposed the concept of “created harmony” to characterize the modern welfare state. Conclusion. The interpretation of the scientific monograph “Against the Stream. Critical Essays on Economics” in the style of Scandinavian “Saga about political economy” added a lot of very interesting details, judgments, explanations that substantively complemented the theoretical and methodological approach, showed the opportunity to study, research and present the history of economic thought in an attractive literary style without sacrificing depth and completeness of acquired knowledge.
, UMMC Technical University, Liudmila A. Ramenskaya, , Ural State University of Economics
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-295-303

Abstract:
Introduction. Russian mining companies need to implement large-scale investment projects due to a variety of internal and external reasons. Projects are aimed at the development of new deposits, technical equipment and the modernization of existing ones. To make substantiated management decisions, a toolkit for analyzing the risks of investment projects is required. Theoretical analysis. The section contains the need to apply quantitative methods for assessing investment risks based on cash flow modeling. We have analyzed the possibility of the use of sensitivity analysis techniques, real options and Monte Carlo methods for the quantitative assessment of the mining industry investment projects risks. The result includes a justification of the feasibility of applying the sensitivity analysis method at the early stages of an investment project. Empirical analysis. The sensitivity analysis tested metrics such as production volumes, commodity prices, capital and operating costs on two mining projects. It was found out that the projects under consideration are the most sensitive to changes in the price of commercial products. Results. Sensitivity analysis is a useful tool for risk analysis of investment projects. The application of this method to an investment project in the mining industry should be carried out taking into account the industry specifics.
, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, Evgeniy S. Inozemtsev, Maria V. Golovko
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-255-262

Abstract:
Introduction. Agriculture affects the food, economic and social security of the country. The unevenness of agricultural production is due to natural, climatic and economic factors, for example, the enlargement of enterprises, the introduction of efficient means and production technologies. The increase in territorial unevenness can lead to a shortage of food, its rise in price due to transport markup. Unevenness in the size of organizations also has socio-economic implications. The efficiency of agricultural production is growing, but competition and entrepreneurial activity are decreasing. An increase in social tension is possible in case of a single enterprise bankruptcy. Theoretical analysis. To assess the territorial unevenness of agricultural production, the Gini coefficient and the Lorenz curve were used. The unevenness of organizations in terms of revenue was estimated basing on the ABC analysis and the Pareto curve. Еmpirical analysis. Subjects of the Russian Federation with a predominance of forestry, hunting, fishing and fish farming were excluded from the analysis. The Gini coefficient for the GVA of the regions of the Russian Federation in 2018 was 0.45, and in 2008 – 0.48. The territorial unevenness of agricultural production in 2009–2018 has slightly decreased. The Russian Federation regions typology made it possible to identify favorable, risky and unfavorable regions for agriculture and animal husbandry. Results. A significant unevenness of agricultural production both in the territorial context and in the size of organizations was revealed. For 2009–2018, territorial unevenness has decreased. The ABC analysis showed that 80% of revenue from the type of agricultural activity accounted for only 10.9% of active enterprises.
Tatyana V. Troitskaya, Saratov State Law Academy
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-317-322

Abstract:
Introduction. The socio-political sphere of the state is the foundation of its democratic development and a prerequisite for longterm state-building. The history of the development of the Russian state testifies to the absence of traditions of the formation of democratic institutions and their development. Social movements in the modern state are the mainstay of the development of the country’s political system and the prerequisite for the formation of new political parties. In accordance with the Federal Law “On Public Associations”, a public movement is a type of public association that has a mass character and pursues social, political and other socially useful goals. Taking into account the peculiarities of the current stage of constitutional and legal regulation of the activities of political parties, it is necessary to consider the issue of expanding the participation of social movements in the socio-political life and in the electoral process. Theoretical analysis. Today, Russia stands on the path of democratic transformation of all state institutions. The institutions of the socio-political sphere of civil society also need this transformation. The activities of political parties in a country with a stable constitutional framework are the basis for the exercise of state power. The functioning party system of modern Russia is not characterized by elements of completeness. Social movements, taking into account the Russian reality, could become a platform for the formation of competitive political parties in the future. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the content of the Federal Law “On the basic guarantees of electoral rights and the right to participate in the referendum of citizens of the Russian Federation” indicates the legal consolidation of such a concept as “electoral association”. This concept is introduced to define the subject of electoral actions in the process of holding elections at various territorial levels. Its content indicates that in the framework of federal and regional elections, these are primarily political parties. In elections to local self-government bodies, such an electoral association may be a public movement, provided that the purpose of participation in the elections is fixed in the statutory documents. Results. The natural process of forming political parties is related to their grassroots level of formation. Today’s Russian party system is in crisis, and small political parties do not enjoy electoral support. It is necessary to create legal conditions for the development of socio-political movements – as an organizational basis for the formation of political parties with stable political programs. The conclusion is formulated that among all the variety of social movements functioning in Russia, one can distinguish such a variety as socio-political movements and provide for their right to nominate candidates for deputies in single-mandate and multi-mandate electoral districts, as well as their participation in the implementation of public control in Russia.
Ekaterina N. Toguzaeva, Saratov State University
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-312-316

Abstract:
Introduction. Confirmation of the importance of legal education, the need to overcome legal nihilism and increase the level of legal culture was reflected at the official level in regulatory legal acts, primarily in the Fundamentals of State Policy of the Russian Federation in the development of legal literacy and legal awareness of citizens. Currently, cooperation with non-governmental organizations in this direction is actively developing, which opens up new facets. So, for example, the Association of Lawyers of Russia has initiated the All-Russian Legal Dictation since 2017, the scale of which increases significantly every year. Theoretical analysis. The following problems that hinder the high efficiency of educational activities in legal domain are identified: 1) lack of consistency and proper methodological support; 2) risks of social, organizational, financial, economic and regulatory nature; 3) the absence of maps of obstacles to legal education, indicating all possible risks and ways to minimize and overcome them. Results. The main obstacles to legal education, the associated risks, that can be minimized to increase the efficiency of legal education and the level of legal literacy of the population, are highlighted. Recommendations are given to improve such an action as the All-Russian Legal Dictation, as well as to conduct such actions separately by professional communities. One should not neglect the optional objectives, which can also be achieved when carrying out activities of a law-enlightening nature. For example, tasks of the formation and development of the information and communication culture of citizens, which are now at the initial stage of formation, are no less important.
Natalia V. Kocherygina, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-236-242

Abstract:
Introduction. For a more accurate assessment of dynamics and achievement of set goals in the social sphere, research on methodological issues of social security and the development of indicators system for its assessment and monitoring are relevant. Theoretical analysis. The article examines theoretical aspects of the “social security” definition, identifies approaches to the definition of this concept and methodological difficulties in interpreting the assessment of the regional systems’ socio-economic security. Empirical analysis. To analyze the dynamics of the Russian regions’ social security level, an integral index was compiled on the basis of statistical indicators and a social security rating of 82 Russian regions was built. It includes 16 indicators in 5 groups, characterizing the main sphere of social security. Results. The revealed polarization of the Social Security Index values indicates the uneven social development of Russian regions, which is a significant threat to the economic security of the national economy as a whole and economic development in particular. Conclusions. The analysis made it possible to assess the level of Russian regions’ social security, to compile a rating and grouping of Russian regions according to the level of social security.
Anna S. Burdanova, Saratov State University
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-329-339

Abstract:
Introduction. Social rights belong to the second generation of human rights and freedoms, they ensure social security, all-round development of the individual. They are widely represented in the national legislation of the countries of the European Union, primarily in the relevant legislation. However, the same cannot be said about constitutional law, which is associated with different approaches of legal scholars and proven practices in the legal regulation of the implementation of social guarantees in a particular state. The methodological basis of the work was formed by general scientific and special legal research methods. Theoretical analysis. In the scientific European literature there is no single approach to the definition of basic social rights, their essence, types, legal consequences. Moreover, there are fundamentally opposite points of view about the need for their recognition and consolidation at the constitutional level. Thus, the discussion is on in individual states and the European Union as a whole. In the legal doctrine of a number of countries, for example Germany, broad and narrow approaches are used to define social rights. At the same time, at the pan-European level, a broad approach is mainly used, which draws attention to the presence of social guarantees in the Constitutions and, accordingly, state target programs of a social orientation. Empirical analysis. In general, the Constitutions of the EU countries enshrine certain social rights, which may differ in the actual form of their expression in constitutional acts. This form depends on legal approaches, traditions, historical path, economic and political experience of the state. Meanwhile, the point of view about the need to recognize social rights at the highest level, despite the existing criticism, became decisive during their subsequent inclusion in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Results. The working document of the European Parliament distinguishes between three systems for integrating social rights into the Basic Law: liberal (for example, Austria), moderate (for example, Germany) and southern European (typical of Spain, Italy, Portugal, Greece). At the same time, the comparison shows that for the realization of the rights of the second and third generations, constitutional consolidation is not enough; a socio-political consensus is needed, reflected through the normative legal acts adopted by the legislative body. In the European Union, attempts are being made to expand social guarantees, which face the rejection of the concept of unification of social rights by individual member states.
Elena V. Berdnikova, Saratov State University
Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series Economics. Management. Law, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.18500/1994-2540-2021-21-3-323-328

Abstract:
Introduction. The controversial nature of most of the aspects related to the content and essence of people’s control, the assessment of its historical role and significance in the system of state administration of the Soviet period, the effectiveness of legal regulation and the political problems of its implementation still arouses a genuine interest of the scientific community in the study of this phenomenon. Theoretical analysis. People’s control in the USSR was both a developed ideological and political concept and a real political and legal institution. The founder of the concept of people’s control was V. I. Lenin, who, in his numerous works, described a clear justification of its relevance in the conditions of socialist democracy. Empirical analysis. It was revealed that the process of development of the institution of people’s control in Soviet Russia was largely influenced by the worldview of the country’s top leadership, which demonstrated polymorphism of opinions on the role and significance of popular control in the system of socialist governance. There are three stages of formation and functioning of the system of people’s control in Soviet Russia, which had their organizational and institutional features. Results. The study of the ideological, political and historical and legal prerequisites for formation of popular control led to the conclusion that popular control was a specific institution characteristic of the socialist type of government. It passed a rather difficult historical path: from workers’ control in the first years of Soviet power to a very complex organizational and institutional system of state and public control in the last decades of the existence of the USSR.
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