Science & Technique
ISSN / EISSN : 2227-1031 / 2414-0392
Published by: Belarusian National Technical University (10.21122)
Total articles ≅ 344
Latest articles in this journal
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-195-206
Production of concrete and reinforced concrete products in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus and in the countries with similar climatic conditions requires heat treatment in heat-technological installations in order to achieve the desired strength of the products at the appointed time, which consumes a great amount of thermal energy. In this case, the purpose of equipment operating modes is associated with a number of difficulties when it comes to new products of complex spatial configuration and structure. The optimality criteria of such modes are, as a rule, the duration and temperature limits of processing, providing the required strength with minimal energy consumption. In the conditions of serial production in the case of structurally simple objects, the assignment of heat treatment modes is carried out empirically. As the analysis shows, the modes obtained in this way do not meet the above criteria, especially from the standpoint of energy saving. The paper, using a mathematical model previously developed by the authors, proposes dependencies for calculating the optimal modes of heat treatment of concrete products that are distinguished by a complex spatial shape and multi-component structure. The method is based on three-dimensional transfer equations, taking into account internal sources of heat release due to the ongoing hydration reaction of the active components of the cement clinker, and the boundary conditions corresponding to the structure of the processed product, as well as the type of heat technology device for accelerated hydration. Equations are proposed for calculating the amount of heat energy supplied to the processed product providing a given strength at a specified time. On the example of a manufactured industrial concrete product and for the conditions of an actually used device for accelerated hydration, a comparison has been made between two limiting modes of heat treatment: with isothermal exposure and in its absence. As a result of the performed calculations, the dependences of energy consumption, temperature fields and the degree of hydration in the product for both modes have been obtained and an energy-saving mode of heat treatment corresponding to the case under consideration has been developed. It is shown that the used numerical method allows to solve problems of this type and to achieve thermal energy savings.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-224-233
Road traffic accidents of vehicles with a rolling stock of railways lead to the most serious consequences. Many level crossings are places of long delays of vehicles both before and after the traffic. In this case and in many others, the intersections of highways with railways sharply limit the capacity of the highway. Level crossings require the utmost attention of the traffic organization, since they must include not only devices for the movement of cars, but also pedestrian and sidings. Despite the fact that the problem of road traffic accidents at level crossings is not new, research and analysis of statistics in this area continues around the world. The paper considers the level crossings on the Republican highways of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Research has been carried out on ways to improve traffic safety at such crossings. The situation at the level crossings of the roads of Republican significance, as well as possible restrictions and regulatory requirements, have been studied in the paper. The paper presents results of a detailed collection of data at the facilities, which will serve as the basis for the development of a detailed program for improving the regulatory and technical base of the road sector in Kazakhstan to improve the safety of road transport infrastructure, taking into account existing standards. Recommendations are given for the implementation and generalization of advanced international experience in organizing road traffic at railway crossings, which will contribute to the adaptation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the context of the development of transport and communications.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-234-242
The problem of damping the noise on the track, arising from the movement of the train, is solved sufficiently but it is simple, if the rail with spacers is laid inside the longitudinally located band sleeper-mechanism. The result is a layered rail thread, consisting of belts: a rail tape with elastic spacers on three sides, a tie-mechanism tape and a ballast layer. The unity of the layers is carried out due to their own mass. This is the static track without external load. Rail compression is an effective property of rail tracks. It is formed in the sleeper mechanism under the influence of vertical forces with displacements and their horizontal derivatives. When loading the track, the compression is carried out repeatedly with subsequent unloading.n this case, each previous changes in the conditions in work of the track are taken into account in the subsequent cycle of loading and unloading. A rail track with a rail compression is a kind of self-adapting linear system, which is necessary with frequent changes in load and operating conditions for silent performance of a functional purpose. The specificity of this path is that the movement of the wheel creates rail vibration and noise, which are immediately damped by compression with damping. The balance between the occurrence of noise and its suppression is achieved by the ratio of the lengths of half-sleeper shoulders as a lever. The condition for the appearance of a shift of the compression forces in the direction from vertical shoulder of the half-sleepers is the unequal settlements of the horizontal shoulder of the L-shaped half-sleepers and its eccentric loading. As a result of the research, the advantages of a rail track with rail compression have been revealed, which is a guarantor of the stability of the design parameters during long-term operation of the track. The cost of a rail track with rail reduction is halved as a result of steel savings, lower labor costs and operational needs.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-243-247
In recent years, intensive research on urban transport has been observed. The search is about finding such solutions that will enable, among others: increasing the importance of public transport, matching transport for the needs of people with reduced mobility, increasing capacity, reducing emissions, energy efficiency (technical and organizational dimension through the organization of transport on demand), increasing the vulnerability to recycling and remanufacturing. The paper presents the main concept and technical solutions of the innovative transport system – HMASSUT Prometheus (Hybrid Modular Autonomous System for Sustainable Urban Transport), which combines the concepts of personal rapid transport and an electric vehicle at the L4 autonomy level (according to the Society of Automotive Engineers classification). An assessment of the effectiveness of an innovative transport system using indicators used in road engineering is given in the paper. The concept of simulation and optimization of the transport network is presented together with the theory of cellular automata.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-248-258
A schematic and structural solution of regenerative-utilization heat use in centralized heat supply systems was previously proposed in order to increase the efficiency of operation of heating networks located in non-passable channels. The impossibility of creating a full-scale experimental setup covering the required range of factors and the area of their change, the complexity of a passive experiment on existing heating mains led to the need to develop a virtual model based on the ANSYS sofware package. A six-factor experiment has been carried out on this virtual model. Regression equations have been obtained to determine the pressure required to provide air purging of the channel, as well as heat exchange with pipelines of direct and return network water located in the channel, and heat exchange with soil around the channel. In addition, a regression relationship has been derived to find the integral heat flux from the listed washed surfaces to the air flow. The transition from dimensionless to natural factors has been made in the paper. The most significant factors are identified with the help of Pareto cards. The obtained dependencies have been verified in Part 1 of the paper. The adequacy of the obtained regression equations has been determined using standard statistical estimation methods based on the calculated values of the Fisher’s, Student’s and other criteria. The response surfaces are presented and analyzed using two dimensional sections for a number of factor values at fixed values of one and a change in two most characteristic, physically significant for a given response function. They have been validated on the basis of the analysis of regression dependencies. The obtained regression equations cover almost the entire range of possible diameters of heating mains, which makes it possible to use them in the development of energy-saving projects.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-189-194
The most common and reliable material without which modern construction is indispensable is concrete. The development of construction production is pushing for new solutions to improve the quality of concrete mix and concrete. The most demanded and significant indicators of a concrete mixture are the compressive strength and mobility of the concrete mixture. Every year, the volume of research on nanomaterials as modifying components of concrete is significantly increasing, and the results indicate the prospects for their use. Nanoparticles with a large specific surface are distinguished by chemical activity, can accelerate hydration and increase strength characteristics due to nucleation and subsequent formation of C–S–H and compaction of the material microstructure. Sol of nanosilica, which can be used instead of microsilica from industrial enterprises, and carbon nanomaterial have a wide reproduction base. This paper presents studies of these types of nanomaterials and the results of their application in cement concrete. Studies have shown that the effect is also observed with the introduction of an additive containing only one type of nanoparticles. The dependence of the obtained characteristics of cement concretes on the content of these nanomaterials has been established. It has been found that the best results were obtained with an additive in which the above-mentioned nanomaterials were used together. Compressive strength of heavy concrete samples, improved by the complex nanodispersed system, was 78.7 MPa, which exceeds the strength of the sample containing the CNT additive in a pair with a super-plasticizer by 37 %. The paper proposes the mechanism for action of the presented complex additive.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-207-215
The paper describes a technique for assessing the thermally stressed state of a concrete massif of a foundation slab made of a self-compacting concrete mixture. The proposed method consists in a preliminary calculation of temperature fields in hardening concrete. The objects of research have been self-compacting concrete mix and structural concrete in the structure mass. The choice of materials for the preparation of a concrete mixture is given and substantiated. The composition of self-compacting concrete has been used to assess the thermally stressed state. A binder with a reduced exotherm has been used in order to reduce the self-heating of concrete. Studies have been carried out to assess the specific heat release of the recommended cement depending on the initial water-cement ratio. The effect of a chemical additive on the rate and magnitude of the specific heat release of cement has been studied. The paper presents the main theoretical provisions and an algorithm for calculating the thermal stress state of a concrete massif. The finite difference method has been used to calculate the expected temperatures and their distribution in the structure mass, and the temperature stresses in the sections of the concrete mass have been calculated to assess the thermally stressed state. The performed calculations of the temperature fields have made it possible to estimate the maximum possible temperatures and temperature differences over the sections of the concrete massif depending on the initial temperature of the concrete mixture and the average daily temperature of the outside air. Analysis of the temperature distribution has revealed the most dangerous sections of the concrete mass. An assessment of the thermal stress state of the concrete mass has been made on the basis of the results pertaining to calculation of temperature fields. The calculation of temperature stresses in the most dangerous sections of the concrete massif has been performed. It is shown that the calculated value of the temperature stress can serve as a characteristic of the thermally stressed state of the concrete mass. The formation of temperature cracks in a concrete mass is possible when the calculated value of the temperature stress exceeds the actual tensile strength of concrete. Comparison of the calculated and actual values of temperatures in the sections of the foundation slab has made it possible to conclude that the calculations of the temperature fields and, as a consequence, possible temperature deformations are correct.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-268-274
The new types of elastic devices – staple-shape plate spring and leaf spring - have been developed at the Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture. The staple-shape plate spring is an elastic plate where the ends are deflected from its middle part in the same direction and are made in the form of consoles equipped with hinge attachments. The middle part of the plate as a parallel to the line of the load action is designed with variable length section. In each section, the axis, relative to which the moment of the section inertia is a maximum, is perpendicular to the spring bending plane, designed as the equal resistance beam. This article substantiates the feasibility of using a staple-shape plate spring to improve the elastic suspension of truck cabs. The recommendations for choosing the most promising mass production directions, as well as the engineering calculation methods of such springs, have been developed. Objects of the study are devices intended for machines and their components dynamic loads shock absorption, differing in having a bracket shape and being a subject to bending in the plane of the highest rigidity of their cross sections, as well as shock absorbers using these springs, in particular KamAZ cabs suspension. This research implementation allows significantly reducing the metal consumption and elastic devices manufacture complexity, as well as can be useful in the design and operation of elastic car suspensions.Keywords: elastic device, staple-shaped plate spring, leaf spring, elastic suspension
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-216-223
The design of road surfaces involves application of a sophisticated algorithm system based on mathematical calculations and engineering solutions, with the calculation of evaluation criteria. It is precisely the observance of the standardized requirements in terms of design criteria that makes it possible to consider the design of the pavement as reliable, and the road as safe and convenient for traffic during the specified service life. When calculating the strength, based on the predicted traffic intensity and the composition of the traffic flow, calculations are carried out according to the main criteria: admissible elastic deflection, shear in layers of non-reinforced materials and in asphalt concrete, as well as the ultimate tensile stresses in cast-in-situ materials with the specified reliability level. However, in the accepted concepts for calculating the strength and reliability of road pavements, only the force effect is directly taken into account. To take into account environmental factors, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive indicator of the resulting impact of all factors. The paper presents a complex of factors influencing on traffic safety, road deformations and irregularities the height of unevenness, in particular, an increase in the dynamic impact on the road and the amplitude of vibration of a car wheel on a road with an uneven surface (when detached from the road surface), the coincidence of the vibration frequency of the car with the natural frequencies of vibration of the road surface, and as a consequence, on the behavioral features of driving. The arguments have been substantiated that the predictive models do not take into account a number of factors that have a significant impact on the formation of irreversible deformation in the layers of materials of road structures.
Science & Technique, Volume 20; doi:10.21122/2227-1031-2021-20-3-259-267
In recent years, the economic factor has played an increasingly important role in the selection of technologies for manufacturing machine parts with specified values of normalized parameters of geometric accuracy and quality of working surfaces. As applied to surface plastic deformation processes, this is noticeably manifested in the search for effective friction control methods in the “tool – workpiece” pair, which ultimately determines the distribution pattern and the magnitude of stresses and strains in the workpiece and the tool. It is not possible to obtain a rigorous analytical solution to the problem of establishing a connection between surface conditions, friction, and the stress-strain state of the contacted bodies. In this regard, the construction of mathematical models comes to the fore, the solution of which is possible by numerical methods. The paper presents the results of a numerical study (computational experiment) of a finite-element model of workpiece deformation under various conditions of contact interaction and friction by one of the methods of surface plastic deformation – surface mandrel drilling. The friction coefficient has been chosen as the criterion for assessing the conditions of contact interaction and friction. It is shown that a change in the friction coefficient in the process of surface mandrel has no noticeable effect on the formation of a stress field in the deformable workpiece both in the axial, and in the radial and circumferential directions. At the same time, with an increase in the value of the friction coefficient in the “tool – workpiece” pair and with the associated increase in the force of mechanical resistance to deformation of the workpiece, their growth is observed. A computational experiment has confirmed the presence of non-contact deformations of the workpiece and tool during surface mandrel drilling, as well as as a decrease in the value of residual deformations in the workpiece with a decrease in the coefficient of friction. Balance assessment of contact surface displacements in the workpiece (the inner surface of the hole to be machined) and the tool (mandrel) has shown that the deformations of the tool in the elastic region can lead to a significant decrease in the real tightness of surface mandrel drilling.