The Scientific World Journal
ISSN / EISSN : 2356-6140 / 1537-744X
Published by: Hindawi Limited (10.1155)
Total articles ≅ 10,061
Latest articles in this journal
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6434309
The study aims to identify risks of agrochemicals that impact farmworkers, consumers, and ecology in Vietnamese mango cultivation to enhance safety and friendly production. The study finds out the total numbers of root fertilizers (N-P-K) of the noncooperative and cooperative farmers are similar, approximately 1,400 kg/ha/year higher than those in other countries. Excessive fertilizer usage is a potential threat to soil, water, and air pollution. In addition, the findings indicate that the ecology component is undergoing the most negative impact from excessive agrochemical use in mango farming. The vast majority of agrochemicals in mango cultivation are fungicide and paclobutrazol over 90% of the total number of agrochemicals used in both noncooperative and cooperative farmer groups among the three seasons. Total field EIQ of the cooperative grower category is less than that of the noncooperative grower category. These results show that mango cultivation should consider rejecting the banned active ingredients of glyphosate, paraquat, and carbendazim as well as reducing fungicide and paclobutrazol usage and encouraging cooperative participation to safeguard the environment and human health. Moreover, science information needs to be closely linked and fed back to policy development to boost the management of the awareness of the ecological risks for farmers associated with reducing agrochemical use in mango cultivation.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9342748
Background. Recently, an outbreak of a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a world health concern leading to severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Virus transmission occurs through person-to-person contact, respiratory droplets, and contaminated hands or surfaces. Accordingly, we aim at reviewing the literature on all information available about the persistence of coronaviruses, including human and animal coronaviruses, on inanimate surfaces and inactivation strategies with biocides employed for chemical and physical disinfection. Method. A comprehensive search was systematically conducted in main databases from 1998 to 2020 to identify various viral disinfectants associated with HCoV and methods for control and prevention of this newly emerged virus. Results. The analysis of 62 studies shows that human coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), canine coronavirus (CCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can be efficiently inactivated by physical and chemical disinfectants at different concentrations (70, 80, 85, and 95%) of 2-propanol (70 and 80%) in less than or equal to 60 s and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Additionally, glutaraldehyde (0.5–2%), formaldehyde (0.7–1%), and povidone-iodine (0.1–0.75%) could readily inactivate coronaviruses. Moreover, dry heat at 56°C, ultraviolet light dose of 0.2 to 140 J/cm2, and gamma irradiation could effectively inactivate coronavirus. The WHO recommends the use of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution or an ethanol-based disinfectant with an ethanol concentration between 62% and 71%. Conclusion. The results of the present study can help researchers, policymakers, health decision makers, and people perceive and take the correct measures to control and prevent further transmission of COVID-19. Prevention and decontamination will be the main ways to stop the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7146452
Background. Antenatal care visit is the service given to pregnant women to have a safe pregnancy and a healthy baby. The main objective of this study was to identify potential factors for the barriers in the number of antenatal care visits. Methods. Data for this study was taken from the 2016 Ethiopian demographic health survey. All childbearing women from rural parts of Ethiopia were considered in this study, and the count regression model was used to explore the major risk factors for the barriers in the number of antenatal care service visits. Results. Nearly 42% of pregnant mothers did not visit antenatal care services, and only 1% of the mothers attended antenatal care service visits eight times and above. From hurdle Poisson regression model results, women having previous pregnancy complication (AOR = 1.16; P ≤ 0.001 ); husbands with primary education (AOR = 1.02; P = 0.004 ), secondary education (AOR = 1.117; P ≤ 0.0001 ), and higher education (AOR = 1.191; P ≤ 0.001 ); middle wealth index (AOR = 1.08; P = 0.006 ); richer wealth index (AOR = 1.10; P ≤ 0.001 ); maternal age 35–49 (AOR = 0.690; P ≤ 0.001 ); being exposed to media access (AOR = 1.745; P = 0.019 ); having distance problem (AOR = 0.75; P = 0.013 ); planned pregnancy (AOR = 1.42; P = 0.002 ); and mothers with primary education (AOR = 1.85; P ≤ 0.001 ) and secondary (AOR = 2.387; P ≤ 0.001 ) were statistically associated with barriers in the number of ANC service visits. Conclusion. As indicated in the findings, there is underutilization of the antenatal care service visits regarding rural women in Ethiopia. Having a low education level, no media access, distance problem from the health facility, and not planned pregnancy decrease the rate of antenatal care service visits. To fill this discrepancy, the concerned bodies including government and nongovernmental organizations should work on the identified factors in the rural parts of the country to save children and mothers.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5381993
Microbial infections remain a public health problem due to the upsurge of bacterial resistance. In this study, the antibacterial, antibiofilm, and efflux pump inhibitory activities of the stem bark of Acacia macrostachya, an indigenous African medicinal plant, were investigated. In traditional medicine, the plant is used in the treatment of microbial infections and inflammatory conditions. A crude methanol extract obtained by Soxhlet extraction was partitioned by column chromatography to obtain the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions. Antibacterial, efflux pump inhibition and antibiofilm formation activities were assessed by the high-throughput spot culture growth inhibition (HT-SPOTi), ethidium bromide accumulation, and the crystal violet retention assay, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the crude extract and major fractions ranged from 250 to ≥500 μg/mL. At a concentration of 3.9–250 μg/mL, all extracts demonstrated >80% inhibition of biofilm formation in S. aureus. In P. aeruginosa, the EtOAc fraction showed the highest antibiofilm activity (59–69%) while the pet-ether fraction was most active against E. coli biofilms (45–67%). Among the test samples, the crude extract, methanol, and ethyl acetate fractions showed remarkable efflux pump inhibition in S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. At ½ MIC, the methanol fraction demonstrated significant accumulation of EtBr in E. coli having superior efflux inhibition over the standard EPIs: chlorpromazine and verapamil. Tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, coumarins, and saponins were identified in preliminary phytochemical studies. Stigmasterol was identified in the EtOAc fraction. This study justifies the use of A. macrostachya in the treatment of infections in traditional medicine and highlights its potential as a source of bioactive compounds that could possibly interact with some resistance mechanisms in bacteria to combat antimicrobial resistance.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7498662
This study investigated feeding preference and habitat association of waterbucks in Nechisar National Park from November 2016 to August 2017 by total count and direct observation methods. From this survey, 20 plant species were observed to be the food items consumed by waterbucks. Waterbucks were mostly grazers than browser. The plant species consumed by waterbucks was highly significant between seasons (χ2 = 121.34, df = 1, p < 0.05 ). Out of 20 total plant species consumed, annual grass (11.5%), Leersia virginica (8.4%), and Cynodon dactylon (8.4%) were the most frequently consumed food items, but Tamarindus indica (2.9%), Balanites aegyptica (3.3%), and Acacia polycantha (2.36%) were the least consumed food items. There was significant difference between plant species consumed during both seasons (χ2 = 177.67, df = 19, p < 0.05 ). The Shannon–Wiener diversity index result revealed that there were different varieties of food items for waterbucks in dry season (H’ = 2.9) than in wet season (H’ = 2.6). Young leaves comprised the largest proportion of plant parts consumed by waterbucks compared to others. There was a highly significant difference in feeding plant parts in both seasons (χ2 = 88.5, df = 7, p < 0.05 ). Waterbucks spent more time on feeding in the morning and late afternoon during both seasons. The total number of waterbucks in each habitat varied due to food availability in different seasons. Different conservation measures should be taken against waterbuck reduction and create appropriate environment for waterbuck.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8711286
The administration of plant extracts to broilers may be a way to mitigate the effects of heat stress. The importance of AQP2 and HSP70 compounds in maintaining the homeostasis of the chicken body when it is subjected to heat stress is well established. This study aims to determine the effect of giving the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Salix tetrasperma Roxb. on the immunohistochemical expression of AQP2 and HSP70 in exposed and unexposed broiler kidney tissue. This study used 36 samples of 28-day-old chicken kidneys. Chickens were kept in individual cages, provided with feed and drinking water ad libitum. The design used was a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 6 replications: (a) chickens were reared in conditions exposed to heat (HS + 0); (b) chickens were reared in conditions exposed to heat and given Salix extract at a dose of 50 mg/L drinking water (HS + 50); (c) chickens were reared under heat-exposed conditions and given Salix extract at a dose of 100 mg/L drinking water (HS + 100); (d) chickens were reared in conditions without exposure to heat (n-HS + 0); (e) chickens were reared in conditions without exposure to heat and given Salix extract at a dose of 50 mg/L drinking water (nHS + 50); and (f) chickens were reared in conditions exposed without exposure to heat and given 100 mg/L drinking water (nHS + 100) of Salix extract. Salix extract was given for 24 hours and was renewed every 6 hours. The results showed that giving Salix extract 100 mg/L in drinking water to chickens exposed to heat (HS + 100) reduced the value of the H/L ratio. Giving Salix extract 50–100 mg/L in drinking water caused an upregulated AQP2 expression; on the other hand, it downregulated HSP-70 expression, in chicken kidney tubules both exposed to heat stress and nonexposed to heat stress. In conclusion, exposure to heat stress in broiler chickens and giving Salix extract can increase the formation of aquaporin 2 compounds and suppress the formation of HSP70.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5212348
Background. Plant-derived medicines are widespread and continue to increase in traditional and modern medicine, especially in developing countries. Physalis peruviana L. is among the most used plants in conventional medication worldwide. This review aimed to highlight the ethnotherapeutic uses and phytochemical status of identified compounds in P. peruviana. Methods. Data were collected from Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, SciFinder, Science Direct, Scopus, the Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, and any other helpful search engine using Physalis peruviana as the primary keyword. Results. Some countries, worldwide, use P. peruviana in their traditional medicine system to manage diverse ailments, mainly diseases and gastrointestinal tract disorders (25.33%). Leaf was the mostly used part (49.28%), prepared by decoction (31.58%) and overall administrated orally (53.57%) as the main route of admission. Around 502 phytoconstituents were identified in different plant parts, especially fruit (38.19%) ethanol/ethyl acetate extract. In most cases (36.17%), the solvent of the extract was not specified. Several phytochemical classes were found in the plant, especially terpenes (26.09%) and phenolic compounds (14.94%). Esters were also abundant (11.55%). In the terpenes category, carotenoids were the most abundant (11.15% followed by monoterpenes (8.76%) and diterpenes (3.18%). However, flavonoids (5.17%) followed by cinnamic acid derivatives (3.99%), monophenolic compounds (1.79%), and phenolic acids (1.33 M) are the most reported phenolic compounds. Hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) was the most cited (five times). Conclusion. P. peruviana plays an essential role in managing diseases in some countries and is rich in chemical compounds, which need to be isolated and investigated pharmacologically before clinical trials.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4323914
Introduction. High-translucence ceramics have been used increasingly. This study evaluated the biaxial flexural strength of different ceramics as a result of varying thicknesses. Materials and Methods. Circular discs with varied thickness of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 mm were prepared from high-translucence yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (HTY-PSZ); Bruxzir® Anterior (Bc), and zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) including Celtra® DUO (Cc) and VITA Suprinity® (Vc) (n = 15 discs/group). Biaxial flexural strength (σ) was evaluated utilizing piston-on-three-balls in a testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the microscopic structure. ANOVA and multiple comparisons were analyzed for significant differences (a = 0.05). Results. The mean ± sd value of σ (MPa) for thickness 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 mm was 672.66 ± 107.54, 655.93 ± 93.98, 589.01 ± 63.63, 624.89 ± 87.08, 618.82 ± 83.36, 672.64 ± 84.61, 659.81 ± 122.89, 632.79 ± 92.54, and 657.86 ± 73.17, for Bc; 477.64 ± 88.23, 496.39 ± 86.36, 461.56 ± 57.00, 450.26 ± 86.60, 468.28 ± 83.65, 472.45 ± 53.63, 453.05 ± 72.50, 462.67 ± 47.57, and 535.28 ± 84.33, for Cc; and 500.97 ± 76.36, 506.70 ± 87.76, 557.82 ± 62.78, 543.76 ± 87.29, 507.53 ± 86.09, 502.46 ± 64.75, 557.70 ± 80.91, 527.04 ± 80.78, and 499.88 ± 57.35, for Vc. A significant difference in flexural strength was indicated among groups ( p < 0.05 ). Bc was significantly stronger than Cc and Vc ( p < 0.05 ). Varying thickness did not have a significant influence on strength ( p > 0.05 ). SEM revealed a tight arrangement of crystals for Bc and needle-like crystals diffusing in glass for Vc and Cc. Conclusion. Flexural strength of ceramics varied among types, but each retained strength equitably with varying thickness. HTY-PSZ was stronger than ZLS, but each was equally strong for thickness in the range of 0.4–2.0 mm.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9914670
Objectives. To report the prevalence and distribution of nonsyndromic dental anomalies in children in eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods. This retrospective records review study involved radiographic examination of 6–18 years old pediatric patients who attended the Dental Hospital of the College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Four calibrated examiners recorded nonsyndromic dental anomalies from patients’ digital orthopantomograms (OPG). The anomalies recorded were related to tooth number, shape, and location. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and Fisher exact tests were used to report prevalence and differences by gender, nationality, and medical history at the 5% significance level. Results. Of 2226 reviewed patients’ records, 1897 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The study sample had equal distribution of males (52.6%) and females (47.4%) and comprised 81.2% Saudi children with a mean age of 8.8 ± 1.84 years. Most study subjects (97.8%) were in mixed dentition and 88.7% were healthy. The prevalence of dental anomalies was as follows: teeth rotations (24.5%), ectopically erupted teeth (6%), congenitally missing permanent teeth (5.4%), peg lateral (1.1%), supernumerary (0.5%), gemination (0.3%), and fusion (0.1%). No statistically significant differences were found in the distribution of dental anomalies by patients’ gender, medical history, and nationality ( p value ≥0.05). Conclusion. This study showed that teeth rotations were the most common dental anomalies followed by ectopic eruptions and congenitally missing teeth. The study findings may guide dental practitioners to better diagnose and manage children with dental anomalies in eastern Saudi Arabia.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2021, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8993734
Objectives. This study aimed at finding out whether anterior teeth angulation and inclination have a relationship with the maxillary teeth and dental arch dimensions. Methods. Fifty study models with normal occlusion were selected from the archive of the Department of Orthodontics at Baghdad Dental Faculty. Maxillary dental arch width and length at different points were determined in addition to measuring anterior teeth angulation, inclination, crown thickness, overjet, overbite, and Bolton’s ratios. The unpaired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test were used for data analysis. Results. No statistical gender differences were reported in all measurements except the dental arch widths and length where males had significantly higher mean values. Only the maxillary incisor’s inclination showed a direct weak significant correlation with the total arch length. Conclusions. The inclination of upper incisors had a minimal effect on increasing dental arch length.